Open Access Articles- Top Results for Calabria
Biochemistry & Pharmacology: Open AccessNatural Products, Especially Fruits and Vegetables are an Excellent Source of Chemical Structures with a Wide Variety of Biological Activity, Includin
|Region of Italy|
View of Calabria from satellite|
View of Calabria from satellite
|• President||Mario Oliverio (Democratic)|
|• Total||15,080 km2 (5,820 sq mi)|
|• Density||130/km2 (340/sq mi)|
|Demonym||Calabrian(s) / Calabrese / Calabresi|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|GDP/ Nominal||€33.6 billion (2008)|
|GDP per capita||€16,400 (2008)|
Calabria (Italian pronunciation: [kaˈlaːbrja]; Calàbbria in Calabrian, Καλαβρία in Greek, Kalavrì in Arbëresh), known in antiquity as Bruttium or formerly as Italia, is a region in southern Italy, forming the "toe" of the Italian Peninsula. The capital city of Calabria is Catanzaro. The most populated city and the seat of the Calabrian Regional Council, however, is Reggio.
It is bordered to the north by the region of Basilicata, to the west by the Tyrrhenian Sea, and to the east by the Ionian Sea. The region covers Script error: No such module "convert". and has a population of just under 2 million. The demonym of Calabria in English is Calabrian.
- 1 Geography
- 2 Climate
- 3 Geology
- 4 History
- 5 Economy
- 6 Infrastructure and transport
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Government and politics
- 9 Administrative divisions
- 10 Cuisine
- 11 Transportation
- 12 Universities
- 13 Famous Calabrians
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 Further reading
- 17 External links
The region is a long and narrow peninsula which stretches from north to south for Script error: No such module "convert"., with a maximum width of Script error: No such module "convert".. Some 42% of Calabria's area, corresponding to 15,080 km2, is mountainous, 49% is hilly, while plains occupy only 9% of the region's territory. It is surrounded by the Ionian and Tyrrhenian seas. It is separated from Sicily by the Strait of Messina, where the narrowest point between Capo Peloro in Sicily and Punta Pezzo in Calabria is only Script error: No such module "convert"..
Three mountain ranges are present: Pollino, La Sila and Aspromonte. All three mountain ranges are unique with their own flora and fauna. The Pollino Mountains in the north of the region are rugged and form a natural barrier separating Calabria from the rest of Italy. Parts of the area are heavily wooded, while others are vast, wind-swept plateaus with little vegetation. These mountains are home to a rare Bosnian Pine variety, and are included in the Pollino National Park. La Sila is a vast mountainous plateau, about 1,200 metres above sea level, which stretches for nearly Script error: No such module "convert". along the central part of Calabria. The highest point is Botte Donato, which reaches 1,928 metres. The area boasts numerous lakes and dense coniferous forests. The Aspromonte massif forms the southernmost tip of the Italian peninsula bordered by the sea on three sides. This unique mountainous structure reaches its highest point at Montalto, at 1,995 metres, and is full of wide, man-made terraces that slope down towards the sea.
In general, most of the lower terrain in Calabria has been agricultural for centuries, and exhibits indigenous scrubland as well as introduced plants such as the prickly pear cactus. The lowest slopes are rich in vineyards and citrus fruit orchards. The Diamante citron is one of the citrus fruits. Moving upwards, olives and chestnut trees appear while in the higher regions there are often dense forests of oak, pine, beech and fir trees.
Along the coastlines, the climate is Mediterranean with average low temperatures of Script error: No such module "convert". in the winter months and average high temperatures of Script error: No such module "convert". in the summer months. Along the Apennines and in the inland areas, the climate is mountainous (continental) with cold, snowy winters and warm, dry summers with occasional thunderstorms.
When describing the geology of Calabria, it is commonly considered as part of the "Calabrian Arc", an arc-shaped geographic domain extending from the southern part of the Basilicata Region to the northeast of Sicily, and including the Peloritano Mountains (although some authors extend this domain from Naples in the North up to Palermo in the Southwest). The Calabrian area shows basement (crystalline and metamorphic rocks) of Paleozoic and younger ages, covered by (mostly Upper) Neogene sediments. Studies have revealed that these rocks comprise the upper Unit of a pile of thrust sheets which dominate the Apennines and the Sicilian Maghrebides.
The Neogene evolution of the Central Mediterranean system is dominated by the migration of the Calabrian Arc to the southeast, overriding the African Plate and its promontories (Argand, 1922; Boccaletti and Guazzone, 1972). The main tectonic elements of the Calabrian Arc are the Southern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt, the "Calabria-Peloritani", or simply Calabrian block and the Sicilian Maghrebides fold-and-thrust belt. The foreland area is formed by the Apulia Platform, which is part of the Adriatic Plate, and the Ragusa or Iblean Platform, which is an extension of the African Plate. These platforms are separated by the Ionian Basin. The Tyrrhenian oceanized basin is regarded as the back-arc basin. This subduction system therefore shows the southern plates of African affinity subducting below the northern plates of European affinity.
The geology of Calabria has been studied for more than a century. For details concerning the older literature, i.e. from before 1973, the reader is referred to the review of Ogniben (1973). Ippolito (1959) presented a complete bibliography of the literature on the Calabrian geology as published up until that moment. Books, reviews and important "mile¬stones" concerning the geology of the Calabrian Arc are the following: Cortese (1895), Limanowski (1913), Quitzow (1935), Caire et al. (1960), Caire (1961), Grandjacquet et al. (1961), Ogniben (1969, 1973 ), Caire (1970, 1975, 1978 ), Burton (1971), Amodio-Morelli et al. (1976), Dubois (1976), Grandjacquet and Mascle (1978), Moussat (1983), van Dijk (1992), and van Dijk et al. (2000). The earlier works were mainly dedicated to the evolution of the basement rocks of the area. The Neogene sedimentary successions were merely regarded as "post-orogenic" infill of "neo-tectonic" tensional features. In the course of time, however, a shift can be observed in the temporal significance of these terms, from post-Eocene to post-Early Miocene to post-middle Pleistocene.
The area is seismically and volcanically highly active. This is generally ascribed to the re-establishment of an equilibrium after the latest (mid-Pleistocene) deformation phase. Some authors believe that the subduction process is still ongoing, which is a matter of debate (van Dijk & Scheepers, 1995).
Calabria is one of the oldest regions of Italy with the first evidence of human presence dating as far back as 700,000 BC. Around 3,500 BC the first villages in Calabria sprung up. At about 1500 BC Italic Oscan-speaking tribes settled in the region. Two of these tribes were the Oenotrians (translates to the "vine-cultivators") and the Itali. Greek contact with the latter would result in Calabria taking the name of the tribe and was the first region to be called Italy (Italia). Greeks settled heavily along the coast during the 8th and 7th centuries BC and several of their settlements, including the first Italian city called Rhégion (Reggio di Calabria) and the next ones Sybaris, Kroton (Crotone), a settlement which spawned many ancient olympic victors and where the mathematician Pythagoras later resided, and Locri, which were among the leading cities of Magna Graecia during the 6th and 5th centuries BC. The Greeks would create "Intellectual Property" in Sybaris and also turn the city of Kroton into a center of philosophy, science and medicine with the help of Pythagoras and Alcmaeon. Sybaris would also benefit from "vinoducts" which were a series of pipes that would carry wine to the homes of its citizens. Locri would be renown for being the town where Zaleucus would create the first Western Greek law which was called the "Locrian Code".
The Greeks were conquered by the 3rd century BC by roving Oscan tribes from the north, including a branch of the Samnites called the Lucanians and an offshoot of the Lucanians called the Bruttii. The Bruttii conquered the Greek cities, established their sovereignty over present day Calabria and founded new cities, including their own capital, Cosenza (known as Consentia in the ancient times).
The Romans conquered the area in the 3rd century BC after the fierce Bruttian resistance, possibly the fiercest resistance the Romans had to face from another Italic people. At the beginning of the Roman Empire the region would form the Augustan Regio III Lucania et Bruttii of Roman Italy. After Alaric I (King of the Visigoths) sacked Rome in the year 410 he contracted malaria and died in Cosenza. Legend has it that he along with the treasure of Rome were buried under the bed of the Busento River.
During the 6th century a new group of Greeks had arrived in Calabria called the Byzantines. The Byzantines thrived in Calabria and towns such as Stilo and Rossano achieved great wealth and status. Today these two towns still retain much of their Byzantine heritage. Their best examples of Byzantine architecture are their churches with Stilo's La Cattolica and Rossano’s San Marco Evangelista. The Byzantines are credited with giving Calabria her name from the term “kalos-bruo” meaning “fertile earth.”
Around the year 800, Saracens began invading the shores of Calabria, attempting to wrest control of the area from the Byzantines. This group of Arabs had already been successful in Sicily and knew that Calabria was another key spot. The people of Calabria retreated into the mountains for safety. Although the Arabs never really got a stronghold on the whole of Calabria, they did control some villages while enhancing trade relations with the eastern world. In 918, Saracens captured Reggio (which was renamed Rivà) and sold the majority of its population in the slave markets of Sicily and North Africa. It is during this time of Arab invasions that many staples of today’s Calabrian cuisine came into fashion: citrus fruits and eggplants for example. Exotic spices such as cloves and nutmeg were also introduced.
In the 1060s the Normans, under the leadership of Robert Guiscard's brother Roger, established a presence in this borderland, and organized a government along Byzantine lines that was run by the local Greek magnates of Calabria. In 1098, Roger named the equivalent of an apostolic legate by Pope Urban II, and later formed what became the Kingdom of Sicily. The administrative divisions created in the late medieval times were maintained right through to unification: Calabria Citeriore (or Latin Calabria) in the northern half and Calabria Ulteriore (or Greek Calabria) in the southern half. By the end of the Middle Ages, large parts of Calabria continued to speak Greek as their mother tongue. During the 13th century a French chronicler who travelled through Calabria stated that “the peasants of Calabria spoke nothing but Greek”. By the 15th and 16th centuries, the Greek spoken in Calabria was rapidly replaced by Latin, the dominant language of the Italian Peninsula through a process of Italianization. Today, the last remnants of the Greek formerly spoken widely throughout Calabria can still be heard amongst the ethnically Greek Griko people of the Aspromonte mountains of southern Calabria.
Beginning with the subsequent Angevin rule, which ruled Calabria as part of the Kingdom of Naples, Calabria was ruled from Naples right up until unification with Italy. The kingdom came under many rulers: the Habsburg dynasties of both Spain and Austria; the Franco-Spanish Bourbon dynasty which created the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, Napoleon's brother Joseph Bonaparte, and then French Marshal Joachim Murat, who was executed in the small town of Pizzo. Calabria experienced a series of peasant revolts as part of the European Revolutions of 1848. This set the stage for the eventual unification with the rest of Italy in 1861, when the Kingdom of Naples was brought into the union by Giuseppe Garibaldi. The Aspromonte was the scene of a famous battle of the unification of Italy, in which Garibaldi was wounded.
Calabria is one of the least developed regions in Italy, although the high degree of tax evasion makes it difficult to verify these statistics. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Calabria is subdivided as follows: service industry (28.94%), financial activities and real estate (21.09%), trade, tourism, transportation and communication (19.39%), taxation (11.49%), manufacturing (8.77%), construction (6.19%) and agriculture (4.13%). Its economy is hampered by the fact that it is beset by corruption and organized crime which is mainly run by the 'Ndrangheta (the local Mafia syndicate).
Food and textile industries are the most developed and vibrant. Within the industrial sector, manufacturing contributes to a gross value added of 7.2%. In the manufacturing sector the main branches are foodstuff, beverage and tobacco with a contribution to the sector very close to the national average. Over the recent decades have emerged some petrochemical, engineering and chemical industries, within the areas of Crotone, Vibo Valentia and Reggio Calabria.
The 485 miles of its coast make Calabria a popular tourist destination during the summer. The low industrial development and the lack of large cities in much of its territory have allowed maintaining low levels of marine pollution. In fact, the region is considered by many a natural paradise, which attracts a number of tourists from all over Italy. Foreign tourism is still low compared to similar places, but it is growing each year. The most popular seaside destinations are: Tropea, Capo Vaticano, Pizzo, Scilla, Diamante, Amantea and Soverato.
In addition to the most popular coastal tourist destinations, the interior of Calabria is rich in history, traditions, art and culture that attract a discrete number of tourists. Cosenza is among the most important cultural cities of Calabria, with a rich historical and artistic patrimony. Fortresses, castles, churches, historic centers and cemeteries are common elements in the interior of Calabria.
Some mountain locations attract tourists even in winter. Sila and Aspromonte are two national parks that offer facilities for winter sports, especially in the towns of Camigliatello, Lorica and Gambarie.
A typical feature is agricultural richness in Calabria. The region boasts the second highest number of organic farmers only after Sicily. The olive tree, representing 29.6% of UAA and represents approximately 70% of tree crops. The region is the second-highest for olive oil production. The Bergamot orange is intensively cultivated, since the 18th century, exclusively in coastal area nearby to Reggio, where it found its optimal geological and weather conditions: essence oil from Calabrian Bergamot reach the best quality in the world.
Infrastructure and transport
The main Calabrian ports are in Reggio and in Gioia Tauro. The Reggio port is equipped with five loading docks of a length of 1,530 metres. The Gioia Tauro port has seven loading docks with an extension of 4,646 metres; it is the largest in Italy and the seventh largest container port in Europe, with a 2007 throughput of 3.7 million TEUs from more than 3,000 ships.
The region is served by three heavily used roads: two national highways along the coasts (SS18 Napoli-Reggio and SS106 Reggio-Taranto) and the A3 motorway, which links Naples and Reggio, passing by Salerno and Cosenza along the old inland route.
In Calabria there are three main airports: one is situated in Reggio, a few kilometres from city centre, built in 1939 is chronologically the first airport in Calabria; another is located in Lamezia Terme municipality area, currently being the first airport in Calabria concerning the number of passengers per year; the other near the town of Crotone.
|Source: ISTAT 2001|
The following is a list of Calabrian municipalities with a population of over 20,000:
- Reggio Calabria - 186,013 inhabitants
- Catanzaro - 93,265
- Lamezia Terme - 71,123
- Cosenza - 69,827
- Crotone - 61,529
- Corigliano Calabro - 40,533
- Rossano - 38,280
- Rende - 35,352
- Vibo Valentia - 33,857
- Castrovillari - 22,518
- Acri - 21,263
- Montalto Uffugo - 20,553
Y-Dna haplogroups were found at the following frequencies in Calabria : R1 (33.40%), E1b1b (15.80%), G (10.50%), I (1.75%). R1 and I haplogroups are typical in West European populations while J and E1b1b consist of lineages with differential distribution within Europe which include regions in the parts of France, and Austria.
Government and politics
Sister cities and countries
Calabria is divided into five provinces:
|Province of Cosenza||734,260|
|Province of Reggio Calabria||565,813|
|Province of Catanzaro||368,318|
|Province of Crotone||174,076|
|Province of Vibo Valentia||166,760|
Tourism in Calabria has increased over the years. The main tourist attractions are the coastline and the mountains. The coastline alternates between rugged cliffs and sandy beaches, and is sparsely interrupted by development when compared to other European seaside destinations. The sea around Calabria is clear, and there is a good level of tourist accommodation. The poet Gabriele D'Annunzio called the coast facing Sicily near Reggio Calabria "... the most beautiful kilometer in Italy" (il più bel chilometro d'Italia). The primary mountain tourist draws are Aspromonte and La Sila, with its national park and lakes. Some other prominent destinations include:
- Reggio Calabria is on the strait between the mainland and Sicily, the largest and oldest city in Calabria dating from the 8th century BC, renowned for its panoramic seaside with botanical gardens between the art nouveau buildings and the beautiful beaches, and its 3,000 years of history with its Aragonese Castle and the Museo Nazionale della Magna Grecia where the famous Riace bronzes (Bronzi di Riace) are located.
- Cosenza, birthplace of scientist and philosopher Bernardino Telesio and seat of the Cosentian Academy, renowned for its cultural institutions, the beautiful old quarter, a Hohenstaufen Castle, an open-air museum and an 11th-century Romanesque-Gothic Cathedral. On the 12th of October 2011, the Cathedral of Cosenza received UNESCO World Heritage status for being "Heritage Witness to a Culture of Peace". This is the first award given by UNESCO to the region of Calabria.
- Scilla, on the Tyrrhenian Sea, "pearl" of the "Violet Coast", has a delightful panorama and is the site of some of Homer's tales.
- Tropea, on the Tyrrhenian Sea coast, is home to a dramatic seaside beach, and the Santa Maria dell'Isola sanctuary. It is also renowned for its sweet red onions (mainly produced in Ricadi).
- Capo Vaticano, on the Tyrrhenian Sea, is a very famous wide bathing place near Tropea.
- Gerace, near Locri, is a beautiful medieval city with a Norman Castle and Norman Cathedral.
- Squillace, a seaside resort and important archaeological site. Nearby is the birthplace of Cassiodorus.
- Stilo, the birthplace of philosopher Tommaso Campanella, with its Norman Castle and beautiful Byzantine church, the Cattolica.
- Pizzo Calabro, on the Tyrrhenian Sea coast, known for its ice cream called "Tartufo". Interesting places in Pizzo are Piazza Repubblica and the Aragonese castle where Murat was shot.
- Paola, a town situated on the Tyrrhenian Sea coast, renowned for being the birthplace of St. Francis of Paola, patron saint of Calabria and Italian sailors, and for the old Franciscan sanctuary built during the last hundred years of the Middle Ages by the will of St. Francis.
- Sybaris, on the Ionian sea, a picturesque village situated near the excavation of ancient Sybaris, a Greek colony of the 8th century BC.
- Lamezia Terme, the main transportation hub of the region with its international airport which links it to many destinations in Europe plus Canada and Israel and the train station. Several are the historical sights of the city, like the Norman-Swabian castle, the Jewish historical quarter and the Casa del Libro Antico (House of the Ancient Book) where books from the 16th to the 19th centuries, as well as old globes and ancient maps reproduction are well preserved and available to be seen by the public.
- Catanzaro, an important silk center since the time of the Byzantines, is located at the centre of the narrowest point of Italy, from where the Ionian Sea and Tyrrhenian Sea are both visible, but not from Catanzaro. Of note are the well-known one-arch bridge (Viaduct Morandi-Bisantis, one of the tallest in Europe), the Cathedral (rebuilt after World War II bombing), the castle, the promenade on the Ionian sea, the park of biodiversity and the archaeological park.
- Soverato on the Ionian Sea, also known as the "Pearl" of the Ionian Sea. Especially renowned for its beaches, boardwalk and nightlife.
- Badolato near Soverato is a well preserved medieval hilltop village with 13 churches. It was selected as one of the 1000 marvels of Italy to mark the anniversary of the unification of Italy. It is increasingly popular with wealthy foreigners who have renovated the old houses.
- Nicotera on the Tyrrhenian Sea, is a beautiful little medieval town with an ancient Ruffo's castle.
- Ancient temples of the Roman gods on the sun-kissed hills of Catanzaro still stand as others are swept beneath the earth. Many excavations are going on along the east coast, digging up what seems to be an ancient burial ground.
- Samo, a village on the foot of the Aspromonte, is well known for its spring water and ruins of the old village destroyed in the 1908 Messina earthquake.
- Mammola, art center, tourist and gastronomic, boasts an ancient history. Well worth a visit, the old town, with its small houses attached to each other, the ancient churches and noble palaces. Of particular interest is the Museum Park Santa Barbara, a place of art and cultural events of many international artists and the Shrine of St. Nicodemo of the 10th century, in the highlands of Limina. Its renowned gastronomy with the "Stocco" typical of Mammola, cooked in various ways, other typical products are smoked ricotta and goat cheese, salami pepper and wild fennel, bread "pizza" (corn bread) and wheat bread baked in a wood oven.
- Praia a Mare on the Tyrrhenian Sea, is a well-known tourist city, thanks to the Isola di Dino and the seaside beach.
Although the official national language of Calabria has been Standard Italian since before unification in 1861, as a consequence of its deep and colourful history, Calabrian dialects have developed that have been spoken in the region for centuries. The Calabrian dialect is a direct derivative of the Latin language, and is closer to the words spoken in Latin than the standard Italian. Most linguists divide the various dialects into two different language groups. In the northern one-third of the region, the Calabrian dialects are considered part of the Neapolitan language (or Southern Italian) and are grouped as Northern Calabrian or Cosentino. In the southern two-thirds of the region, the Calabrian dialects are often grouped as Central and Southern Calabrian. In many respects, the Calabrian dialect is considered very similar to the Puglian/Salentine dialects spoken in Salento, the region situated on the "heel" of Italy. However, in isolated pockets, as well as some quarters of Reggio Calabria a variety of Occitan can also be found in certain communities and French has had an influence on many Calabrian words and phrases. In addition, since Calabria was once ruled by the Spanish, some Calabrian dialects exhibit Spanish derivatives.
The majority of Calabrians are Roman Catholic. There are also communities of Evangelicals on the western coast. The most famous saint in Calabria and also the patron saint of the region is St. Francis of Paola.
Even though it is currently a very small community, there has been a long history of the presence of Jews in Calabria. The Jews have had a presence in the region for at least 1600 years and possibly as much as 2300 years. Calabrian Jews have had notably influence on many areas of Jewish life and culture. Although virtually identitical to the Jews of Sicily, the Jews of Calabria are considered a distinct Jewish population due to historical and geographic considerations. There is a small community of Italian Anusim who have resumed the Jewish faith.
It is important to highlight the presence of Calabrians in Renaissance humanism and in the Renaissance. Indeed the Hellenistics in this period frequently came from Calabria maybe because of the Greek influence. The rediscovery of Ancient Greek was very difficult because this language had been almost forgotten. In this period the presence of Calabrian humanists or refugees from Constantinople was fundamental. The study of Ancient Greek, in this period, was mainly a work of two monks of the monastery of Seminara: Barlaam, bishop of Gerace, and his disciple, Leonzio Pilato. Leonzio Pilato, in particular, was a Calabrian born near Reggio Calabria. He was an important teacher of Ancient Greek and translator, and he helped Giovanni Boccaccio in the translations of Homer's works.
The cuisine is a typical southern Italian Mediterranean cuisine with a balance between meat-based dishes (pork, lamb, goat), vegetables (especially eggplant), and fish. Pasta (as in Central Italy and the rest of Southern Italy) is also very important in Calabria. In contrast to most other Italian regions, Calabrians have traditionally placed an emphasis on the preservation of their food, in part because of the climate and potential crop failures. As a result, there is a tradition of packing vegetables and meats in olive oil, making sausages and cold cuts (Sopressata, 'Nduja), and, along the coast, curing fish- especially swordfish, sardines (sardelle rosamarina) and cod (Baccalà). Local desserts are typically fried, honey-sweetened pastries (Cudduraci, scalille or scalidde) or baked biscotti-type treats (such as 'nzudda).
Some local specialties include Caciocavallo Cheese, Cipolla rossa di Tropea (red onion), Frìttuli and Curcùci (fried pork), Liquorice (liquirizia), Lagane e Cicciari (a pasta dish with chickpeas), Pecorino Crotonese (Cheese of Sheep), and Pignolata.
In ancient times Calabria was referred to as Enotria (from Ancient Greek Οἰνωτρία - Oenotria, "land of wine"). According to ancient Greek tradition, Οἴνωτρος (Oenotrus), the youngest of the sons of Lycaon, was the eponym of Oenotria. Some vineyards have origins dating back to the ancient Greek colonists. The best known DOC wines are Cirò (Province of Crotone) and Donnici (Province of Cosenza). 3% of the total annual production qualifies as DOC. Important grape varieties are the red Gaglioppo, and white Greco. Many producers are resurrecting local, ancient grape varieties which have been around for as long as 3000 years.
- Lamezia Terme International Airport (Airport IATA code: SUF)
- Reggio Calabria Airport (Airport IATA code: REG)
- Crotone Airport (Airport IATA code: CRV)
- Port of Gioia Tauro (Busiest container port in Italy & 7th in mainland Europe)
- Port of Reggio Calabria
- Port of Vibo Valentia
- Port of Villa San Giovanni
- Port of Corigliano Calabro
- Port of Crotone
Calabria has the two highest bridges in Italy
There are 3 public universities in the region of Calabria
- University of Calabria (Cosenza)
- Magna Graecia University (Catanzaro)
- Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria
There is also the private University for Foreigners "Dante Alighieri" in Reggio Calabria.
- Zaleucus (devised the western world's first code of law)
- Alcmaeon of Croton (ancient philosopher/medical theorist who pioneered anatomical dissection)
- Phayllos of Croton (ancient olympic athlete and war hero)
- Philippus of Croton (ancient olympic athlete and war hero)
- Arignote (pythagorean philosopher)
- Calliphon of Croton (pythagorean physician)
- Philistion of Locri (ancient physician and writer on medicine)
- Glaucus of Rhegium (ancient author on the history of music and poetry)
- Theagenes of Rhegium (ancient literary critic)
- Amyris of Sybaris (consulted the Delphic oracle)
- Democedes (ancient physician that Herodotus called "the most skillful physician of his time")
- Philolaus (pythagorean and presocratic philosopher)
- Stesichorus (ancient poet)
- Clinomachus (Megarian philosopher)
- Uluj Ali (16th-century Ottoman admiral)
- Roger II of Sicily (Duke of Apulia and Calabria and 1st King of Sicily)
- Bohemond I of Antioch (Prince of Taranto and Antioch)
- Henry Aristippus (Religious Scholar and writer in Norman Kingdom of Sicily)
- Polissena Ruffo (Princess and first wife to Francesco Sforza)
- Gregorio Carafa (Prince and Grand Master of the Order of Malta)
- Barlaam of Seminara (14th-century humanist Greek teacher to Petrarch and Boccaccio)
- Cassiodorus (founder of the Vivarium Monastery who put together the first western bible)
- John Italus (11th-century Byzantine philosopher)
- Gianni Amelio (Italian film director)
- Mimmo Calopresti (Italian film director, screenwriter, producer and actor)
- Umberto Boccioni (20th-century futurist, painter and sculptor)
- Ferruccio Baffa Trasci (17th-century bishop, theologian and philosopher)
- Giovanni Valentino Gentile (16th-century humanist and non-Trinitarian)
- Tommaso Campanella (16th-century Renaissance philosopher, theologian, astrologer and poet)
- Janus Parrhasius (16th-century humanist who founded the Cosentian Academy in 1511)
- Giovanni Leonardo di Bona (first international chess tournament winner)
- Gioachino Greco (17th-century champion chess player)
- Cicco Simonetta (Renaissance statesman who composed a treatise on cryptography)
- Francesco Cilea (19th-century opera composer)
- Alfonso Rendano (19th-century pianist and composer who invented the "third pedal")
- Leonardo Vinci (18th-century composer)
- Achille Falcone (16th-century composer)
- Alessandro Longo (19th-century composer and musicologist)
- Pietro Negroni (16th-century Renaissance artist)
- Marco Cardisco (16th-century Renaissance artist)
- Francesco Cozza (17th-century Baroque artist)
- Renato Dulbecco (Nobel Prize winning virologist)
- Joachim of Fiore (12th-century mystic and theologian)
- Pasquale Galluppi (19th-century philosopher)
- Pope Telesphorus (2nd-century pope & saint)
- Pope Anterus (3rd-century pope & saint)
- Pope Zosimus (5th-century pope & saint)
- Pope Zachary (8th-century pope & saint)
- Pope John VII (8th-century pope)
- John XVI (10th-century antipope)
- Alexis (ancient comic poet)
- Ibycus (ancient lyric poet)
- Acrion (pythagorean philosopher)
- Autoleon (ancient war hero)
- Aloysius Lilius (16th-century astronomer who created the Gregorian Calendar)
- Paolo Antonio Foscarini (16th-century scientist who wrote about the mobility of the earth)
- Giovanni Battista Zupi (16th-century astronomer who discovered that the planet Mercury orbited the sun)
- Milo of Croton (ancient olympic athlete)
- Astylos of Croton (ancient olympic athlete)
- Giuseppe Musolino (outlaw/folk hero)
- Nossis (ancient epigrammist and poet)
- Guglielmo Pepe (19th-century Italian general and patriot)
- Florestano Pepe (19th-century Italian patriot)
- Francesco Jacomoni (20th-century Italian diplomat and governor of Albania)
- Leonzio Pilato (14th-century humanist and Western Europe's first Professor of Greek)
- Clearchus of Rhegium (ancient sculptor)
- Proclus of Rhegium (ancient physician)
- Timaeus of Locri (pythagorean philosopher)
- Mattia Preti (17th-century Baroque artist)
- Gregorio Preti (17th-century Baroque artist and brother of Mattia Preti)
- Francesco Saverio Mergalo (18th-century painter)
- Niccolò Lapiccola (18th-century artist)
- Antonio Pujía (Italian-Argentine artist and sculptor)
- Gemelli Careri (17th-century Italian adventurer and traveler)
- Saint Nilo of Rossano (910-1005, founded the monastery of Grottaferrata)
- Saint Francis of Paola (1416–1507, patron saint of Calabria)
- Saint Bartholomew the Younger (970-1055, abbot of Grottaferrata)
- Saint Nicola Saggio (b. 1650 Longobardi - d. 1709 Rome)
- Saint Nicodemus of Mammola (900-990)
- Saint Fantinus (927-1000)
- Saint Humilis of Bisignano (b. 1582 - d. 1637)
- Saint Gaetano Catanoso (b. 1879 - d. 1963)
- Saint Himerius of Cremona (Italian Bishop - d. 560)
- Saint Arsenio of Armo (b. 810 Reggio Calabria - d. 904)
- Saint Elia Speleota (b. 863 Reggio Calabria - d. 960)
- Saint Cyprian of Calamizzi (b. 1110 Reggio Calabria - d. 1190)
- Saint Fantinus the Elder (b. Taureana di Palmi)
- Saint Daniel Fasanella (b. Belvedere Marittimo - d. 1227)
- Saint Luke the Grammarian (b. Melicucca)
- Saint Ciriaco Abate (b. Buonvicino - d. 1030)
- Saint Gregory of Cerchiara (b. 940 Cassano allo Ionio - d. 999)
- Saint Falco (b. 10th century Taverna - d. 11th century)
- Saint Bartholomew of Simeri (b. 1050 Simeri - d. 1130)
- Blessed Angelo of Acri (b. 1669 Acri - d. 1739)
- Blessed Elena Aiello (b. 1895 Montalto Uffugo – d. 1961 Rome)
- Blessed Peter Paul Navarro (b. 1560 Laino Borgo - d. 1622 Japan)
- Isabela de Rosis (religious sister and congregation founder)
- Luigi Ruffo-Scilla (Catholic Cardinal and Archbishop of Naples)
- Fabrizio Ruffo (Italian cardinal and politician who led the Sanfedismo movement)
- Antonio Serra (late 16th-century philosopher and economist)
- Nicola Squitti (Italian senator and diplomat)
- Baldassarre Squitti (teacher of law and politician)
- Angelo Maria Mazzia (19th-century artist and Knight in the Order of the Crown of Italy)
- Mimmo Rotella (20th-century poet and contemporary artist who invented the Decollage)
- Michele Pane (19th-20th-century symbolist poet and journalist)
- Giulio Variboba (18th-century poet and priest)
- Francesco Antonio Santori (19th-century writer, poet and playwright)
- Enrico Salfi (19th-century painter of biblical/Roman subjects)
- Domingo F. Periconi (20th-century artist)
- Giovanni Vincenzo Gravina (17th-century author, academic and jurist)
- Luigi Miceli (19th-century Italian patriot, politician and military figure)
- Girolamo de Rada (19th-century writer of Italo-Albanian literature)
- Giovanni Andrea Serrao (intellectual who supported the Parthenopaean Republic of 1799)
- Bernardino Telesio (16th-century philosopher and first of the modern scientists)
- Raffaele Piria (19th-century chemist who discovered the major component of Aspirin)
- Giuseppe Vincenzo Ciaccio (anatomist and histologist - see "Ciaccio's glands")
- Gaetano Scorza (mathematician who inspired the theory of "Scorza varieties")
- Rocco B. Commisso (founder of Mediacom Communications Corporation)
- Francesco Florimo (19th-century archivist, musicologist, music historian and composer)
- Antonio Rodotà (former Director General of the European Space Agency)
- Eugene De Rosa (20th-century Italian-American architect)
- Renato Turano (politician and CEO/President of Turano Baking Company)
- Giuseppe Faraca (won young rider classification in the 1981 Giro d'Italia)
- Emilio Bulgarelli (won gold team medal in water polo at the 1948 London Olympics)
- Giovanni Parisi (gold medal winning boxer at the 1988 Seoul Olympics)
- Oreste Moricca (gold medal winning fencer at the 1924 Paris Olympics)
- Rosalba Forciniti (won bronze medal in Judo at the 2012 London Olympics)
- Francesco Panetta (champion long-distance runner)
- Francesco Manuel Bongiorno (professional cyclist)
- Marion A. Trozzolo (inventor of the Teflon coated frying pan)
- Raffaele Forte (founder and main developer of BackBox Linux)
- Silvio Vigliaturo (glassfusion maestro)
- Antonio Diego Voci (figurative artist and sculptor)
- Charles Atlas (bodybuilder)
- Mino Reitano (singer-songwriter and actor)
- Rino Gaetano (singer-songwriter)
- Loredana Bertè (singer)
- Mia Martini (singer)
- Rocco Granata (singer-songwriter who wrote the hit song "Marina")
- Vincenzo Scaramuzza (international pianist and music teacher)
- El Presidente (Musician/Singer/Record Producer)
- Vincenzo Di Benedetto (classical philologist)
- Sergio Cammariere (jazz singer-songwriter)
- Maria Perrotta (classical pianist)
- Francesco Anile (opera tenor)
- Giuseppe Filianoti (lyric tenor)
- Gennaro Gattuso (footballer)
- Benito Carbone (football manager)
- Francesco Pianeta (heavyweight boxer)
- Rosario Rubbettino (founded publishing house Rubbettino Editore)
- Nicola Calipari (military intelligence officer)
- Gianni Versace (fashion designer and founder of Versace Group)
- Donatella Versace (Vice-President and Chief Designer of Versace Group)
- Santo Versace (President and Co-CEO of Versace Group)
- Guido Daniele (internationally renowned body painting artist)
- Tito Minniti (Italian Royal Air Force Hero of World War 2)
- Antonio Fuoco (racing driver)
- Gigi Peronace (football agent)
- Vincenzo Iaquinta (footballer)
- Goffredo Zehender (Racing Driver)
- Toni Scarmato (astronomer)
- Natuzza Evolo (Catholic mystic)
- Ada Dondini (actress)
- Ninetto Davoli (actor)
- Aroldo Tieri (actor)
- Erminio Blotta (sculptor)
- Antonio Porchia (poet)
- Giuseppe Coniglio (poet)
- Filippo De Nobili (writer and poet)
- Guglielmo Sirleto (16th-century cardinal and scholar)
- Giovanni Lorenzo d'Anania (16th-century geographer and theologian)
- Francesco Acri (19th-century philosopher and historian of philosophy)
- Domenico Caruso (writer, poet and scholar of Calabrian dialects)
- Giovanni Nicotera (19th-century Italian patriot and politician)
- Diego Carpitella (Professor of ethnomusicology)
- Giandomenico Martoretta (16th-century Baroque composer)
- Michelangelo Falvetti (17th-century Baroque composer)
- Vincenzo Valente (composer and writer)
- Corrado Alvaro (writer and journalist)
- Leonida Rèpaci (writer, poet, playwright and political activist)
- Leopoldo Trieste (actor, film director and script writer)
- Vincenzo Talarico (screenwriter and film actor)
- Nick Mancuso (actor of stage and screen)
- Tony Nardi (actor, playwright, director and producer)
- Antonio Cantafora (film and television actor)
- Rhys Coiro (film, television and stage actor)
- Antony Carbone (film and television actor)
- Vittoria Belvedere (Italian film and television actress)
- Raf Vallone (actor and international film star)
- Matilde Ciccia (actress and professional ice dancer)
- Gianna Maria Canale (model and actress)
- Elisabetta Gregoraci (model and television personality)
- Marcello Guido (deconstructivist architect)
- Linda Lanzillotta (Vice-President of Italian Senate)
- Enzo Mirigliani (patron of Miss Italy beauty contest)
- Gianni De Luca (comic book artist, illustrator, painter and etcher)
- Mauro Fiore (Academy Award Winning Cinematographer for the movie "Avatar")
- Tony Gaudio (Academy Award Winning Cinematographer for the movie "Anthony Adverse")
- Eugene Gaudio (cinematographer for 1916 version of "20,000 Leagues Under the Sea")
- Mario Esposito (artist/sculptor - whose painting "Il Volo" is shown at Lamezia Airport)
- Domenico Berardi (Youngest footballer to score 4 goals in a "Serie A" match since 1931)
- "Eurostat - Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. 2013-02-26. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- EUROPA - Press Releases - Regional GDP per inhabitant in 2008 GDP per inhabitant ranged from 28% of the EU27 average in Severozapaden in Bulgaria to 343% in Inner London
- NASA - Clouds and Sunlight. Nasa.gov (2009-12-30). Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
- van Dijk, J.P., Bello, M., Brancaleoni, G.P., Cantarella, G., Costa, V., Frixa, A., Golfetto, F., Merlini, S., Riva, M., Toricelli, S., Toscano, C., and Zerilli, A. (2000, a); A new structural model for the northern sector of the Calabrian Arc. Tectonophysics, 324, 267-320.
- Argand, E. (1922); La tectonique de l'Asie. Comptes Rendus 3rd Int. Geol. Congr., Liège (Be), 1922, 1, 171-372.
- Boccaletti, M., and Guazzone, G. (1972, b); Evoluzione paleogeografica e geodinamica del Mediterraneo: i bacini marginali. Mem. Soc. geol. It., 13, 162-169.
- Ogniben, Leo (1973); Schema geologico della Calabria in base ai dati odierni. Geol. Romana, 12, 243-585.
- Ippolito, Felice (1959); Bibliografia geologica d'Italia, Vol. 4, Calabria. C.N.R., Roma
- Cortese, E. (1895); Descrizione geologica della Calabria. Mem. Descrit. Carta Geol. It., 9, 310 pp., Roma.
- Limanowski, Miesislas (1913); Die grosse kalabrische Decke. Bull. Int. Acad. Sc. Cracovie, Cl. Sc. Math. Nat., S.A., (6A), 370-385.
- Quitzov, H.W. (1935); Der Deckenbau des Kalabrischen Massivs und seine Randgebiete. Abh. d. Ges. d. Wiss. zu Gottingen, Mat. Phys. Kl., 3e Folge, H. 13, 63-197.
- Caire, André, Glangeaud, L., and Grandjaquet, C. (1960); Les grand traits structureaux et l'évolution de territoire calabro-sicilien (Italie méridionale). Bull. Soc. Geol. Fr., ser. 7, v. 2, 915-938.
- Caire, André (1961); Remarques sur l'evolution tectonique de la Sicile. Bull. Soc. Geol. Fr., 7 (3), 545-558.
- Grandjacquet, C., Glangeaud, L., Dubois, R., and Caire, A. (1961); Hypothèse sur la structure profonde de la Calabre (Italie). Rev. Geogr. Phys. Geol. Dyn., 4 (3), 131-147.
- Ogniben, L. (1969, a); Schema introduttivo alla geologia del confine calabro-lucano. Mem. Soc. Geol. Ital., 8, 453-763.
- Caire, André (1970, a); Sicily in its Mediterranean setting. 145-170.
- Caire, André (1975, a); Italy in its Mediterranean setting. In: Squyres, C.H. (Ed). Geology of Italy, Earth Sci. Soc. Lib. Arab. Rep., 11-74, Tripoli.
- Caire, André (1978); The Central Mediterranean mountain chains in the Alpine orogenic environment.
- Burton, A.N. (1971); Carta Geologica della Calabria alla scala di 1:25.000, Relazione generale. Cassa per il Mezzogiorno, Servizio Bonifiche, Roma (It.), I.G.M. Firenze, 120 pp., 1971, 120 pp.
- Amodio-Morelli, L., Bonardi, G., Colonna,V., Dietrich, D., Giunta, G., Ippolito, F., Liguori, V., Lorenzoni, S., Paglionico, A., Perrone, V., Piccaretta, G., Russo, M., Scandone, P., Zanettin Lorenzoni, E., and Zuppetta, A. (1976); L'Arco calabro-peloritano nell'orogene appenninico-maghrebide. Mem. Soc. Geol. Ital., 17, 1-60.
- Dubois, Roland (1976); La suture calabro-apenninique Cretacee-Eocene et l'ouverture Tyrrhenienne neogene: etude petrographique et structurale de la Calabre centrale. These, Univ. de Paris, 1976, 567 pp.
- Grandjacquet, C., and Mascle, G. (1978); The structure of the Ionian sea, Sicily and Calabria-Lucania. In: Nairn, A.E.M., H. Kanes and F.G. Stehli (Eds). The ocean basins and margins, Plenum Press, 5, 257-329, New York.
- Moussat, E. (1983, Int. Rept.); Evolution de la mer Tyrrhenienne centrale et ses marges septentrionales en relation avec la néotectonique dans l'Arc calabrais. These 3e cycle, Univ. Pierre et M. Curie, Paris (Fr.), 122 pp.
- van Dijk, J.P. (1992, d); Late Neogene fore-arc basin evolution in the Calabrian Arc (Central Mediterranean). Tectonic sequence stratigraphy and dynamic geohistory. With special reference to the geology of Central Calabria. Geologica Ultrajectina, 92, 288 pp. ISBN 90-71577-46-5
- van Dijk, J.P., and Scheepers, P.J.J. (1995); Neogene rotations in the Calabrian Arc. Implications for a Pliocene-Recent geodynamic scenario for the Central Mediterranean. Earth Sci. Rev., 39, 207-246.
- The Italian Cities and the Arabs before 1095, Hilmar C. Krueger, A History of the Crusades: The First Hundred Years, Vol.I, ed. Kenneth Meyer Setton, Marshall W. Baldwin, (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1955), 50-51.
- Eisner, Robert (1993). Travelers to an Antique Land: The History and Literature of Travel to Greece. University of Michigan Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-472-08220-9.
The ancient Greek colonies from Naples south had been completely latinized, but from the fifth century AD onward Greeks had once again emigrated there when pressed out of their homeland by invasions. This Greek culture of South Italy was known in medieval England because of England’s ties to the Norman masters of Sicily. Large parts of Calabria, Lucania, Apulia, and Sicily were still Greek-speaking at the end of the Middle Ages. Even nineteenth-century travelers in Calabria reported finding Greek villages where they could make themselves understood with the modern language, and a few such enclaves are said to survive still.
- Vasil’ev, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich (1971). History of the Byzantine Empire. 2, Volume 2. Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 718. ISBN 978-0-299-80926-3.
half of the thirteenth century Roger Bacon wrote the Pope concerning Italy, “in which, in many places, the clergy and the people were purely Greek.” An old French chronicler stated of the same time that the peasants of Calabria spoke nothing but Greek.
- Weiss, Roberto (1977). Medieval and Humanist Greek. Antenore. pp. 14–16.
The zones of south Italy in which Greek was spoken during the later Middle Ages, were eventually to shrink more and more during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Some small areas were, however, able to remain Greek even after the Renaissance period. In Calabria, for instance, Greek may till be heard today at Bova, Condofuri, Roccaforte, Roghudi, and in a few isolated farms here and there. One hundred years ago, it was still spoken also at Cardeto, Montebello, and San Pantaleone; and the more we recede in time the larger are these areas. And what took place in Calabria happened also in Apulia, where many places which were still Greek-speaking as late as 1807 are now no longer so. The use of the Greek language in such areas during the later Middle Ages is shown by..
- REGIONE CALABRIA - Dipartimento 5 – Attività Produttive - Report - Analisi del sistema economico e produttivo regionale
- "Portraits of the Regions". DG REGIO of the European Commission. March 2004. Retrieved 8 September 2010.
- Storia di Reggio di Calabria da'tempi primitivi sino all'anno di Cristo 1797 - Domenico Spano Bolani - Google Libri. Books.google.it. 1857. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
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- Van Marle, Gavin (2008-01-31). "Europe Terminals stretched to limit". Lloyds List Daily Commercial News. pp. 8–9.
- ISTAT DATA
- (n=57), Capelli et al. 2007, Y chromosome genetic variation in the Italian peninsula is clinal and supports an admixture model for the Mesolithic–Neolithic encounter
- "Sister and Friendship Cities". Burwood Council. 17 August 2012. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- "Patto d’amicizia tra la Calabria ed il West Virginia" (PDF).
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- youritaly.com - COSENZA CITY
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- Pausanias, Description of Greece, Arcadia, 8.3.5, at Theoi Project
- The-Wine-Library Short Description of wine in Calabria
- List of world's busiest container ports
- "Sfalassa Bridge". HighestBridges.com. 2010-03-28. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- Arlacchi, Pino, and Jonathan Steinberg. Mafia, Peasants and Great Estates: Society in Traditional Calabria (2009)
- Dal Lago, Enrico, and Rick Halpern, eds. The American South and the Italian Mezzogiorno: Essays in Comparative History (2002) ISBN 0-333-73971-X
- Dunston, Lara, and Terry Carter. Travellers Calabria (Travellers - Thomas Cook) (2009), guidebook
- Moe, Nelson. The View from Vesuvius: Italian Culture and the Southern Question (2002)
- Schneider, Jane. Italy's 'Southern Question': Orientalism in One Country (1998)
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