Port of Calais|
Port of Calais
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This page is a soft redirect. Climate data for Calais, France
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This page is a soft redirect.Source: French-Property.com 
The commune of Calais is divided into 13 quartiers :
Changes in the number of inhabitants is known throughout the population censuses conducted since 1793 in Calais. Note the massive growth in population from 13,529 in 1881 to 58,969 in 1886, a growth of 335.9%; this is because the city of Saint Pierre merged with Calais in 1885. According to the census INSEE of 2008, Calais has 74,817 people (a decrease of 3% from 1999). The town's population ranked 60th nationally, down from 53rd in 1999.
|Source: Base Cassini de l'EHESS jusqu'en 1962, base Insee à partir de 1968.|
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fontsize:S pos:(50,10) text:Sources – base Cassini de l'EHESS et Insee.
The city's proximity to England has made it a major port for centuries. It is the principal ferry crossing point between England and France, with the vast majority of Channel crossings being made between Dover and Calais. Companies operating from Calais include SeaFrance (currently in liquidation), DFDS Seaways, and P&O Ferries. The French end of the Channel Tunnel is situated in the vicinity of Calais, in Coquelles some Script error: No such module "convert". to the west of the town. Calais possesses direct rail links to Paris, Script error: No such module "convert". to the south. More than 10 million people visit Calais annually.
From medieval times, English companies thrived in Calais. Calais was a particularly important centre in the production and trade of wool and cloth, which outweighed the costs of maintaining the town as part of England. In 1830 some 113 manufacturers were based in Calais and the St Pierre suburbs, the majority of which were English. There are still two major lace factories in Calais with around 700 looms and 3000 employees. The town exports in the early 20th century were lace, chemicals, paper, wines, especially champagne, spirits, hay, straw, wool, potatoes, woven goods, fruit, glass-ware, lace and metal-ware. Principal imports in the early 20th century included cotton and silk goods, coal, iron and steel, petroleum, timber, raw wool, cotton yarn and cork. During the five years 1901–1905 the average annual value of exports was £8,388,000 (£6,363,000 in the years 1896–1900), of imports £4,145,000 (£3,759,000 in 1896–1900).
As a fishing port, Calais has several notable fishing markets including Les Délices de la Mer and Huîtrière Calaisenne on the Boulevard La Fayette, the latter of which is noted for its oysters, lobster and crabs from Brittany. The Emile Fournier et Fils market on the Rue Mouron sells mainly smoked fish including salmon, trout, herring and halibut.
Mayors of Calais
The mayors of Calais since 1878 have been as follows:
- Jean François Mussel (1878–1879)
- Marie Pierre Darnel (1879–1882)
- Antoine Louis Debette (1882–1882)
- Omer Julien Dewavrin (1882–1885)
- Charles Ravisse (1885–1885)
- Paul Gustave Van Grutten (1885–1888)
- Georges Wintrebert (1888–1889)
- Émile Paclot (1889–1892)
- Omer Julien Dewavrin (1892–1896)
- Émile Salembier (1896–1898)
- Alfred Delcluze (1898–1900)
- Pierre Noyon (1900–1901)
- Edmond Basset (1901–1908)
- Émile Salembier (1908–1912)
- Charles Morieux (1912–1919)
- Joseph Duquenoy-Martel (1919–1923)
- Hans Apeness (1923–1925)
- Léon Vincent (17 May 1925 – 7 September 1933)
- Victor Mussel (7 September 1933 – 31 October 1933)
- Léon Vincent (31 October 1933 – 11 March 1934)
- Jules Lefebvre (11 March 1934 – 19 May 1935)
- Lucien Vadez (19 May 1935 – 2 September 1939)
- André Gerschel (1939–1940)
- Edgar Verschoore (1940–1944)
- Georges François (1944)
- Jacques Vendroux (1944 – 30 October 1945)
- Hubert Défachelles (30 October 1945 – 19 October 1947)
- Gaston Berthe (19 October 1947 – February 1950)
- Henri Joseph Mullard (February 1950)
- Gaston Berthe (February 1950 – 28 March 1952)
- André Parmentier (28 March 1952 – 15 March 1959)
- Jacques Vendroux (15 March 1959 – 15 March 1969)
- Charles Beaugrand (15 March 1969 – 14 March 1971)
- Jean-Jacques Barthe (14 March 1971 – 18 March 2001)
- Jacky Hénin (18 March 2001 – 16 March 2008)
- Natacha Bouchart (16 March 2008–
Place d'Armes is one of the largest squares in the city of Calais, adjoins the watchtower, and during medieval times was once the heart of the city. During the English occupation (1347–1558), it became known as Market Square (place du Marché). Only at the end of English occupation did it take the name of Place d'Armes. After the reconquest of Calais in 1558 by Francis, Duke of Guise, Francis II gave Calais the right to hold a fair twice a year on the square, which still exists today, as well as a bustling Wednesday and Saturday market.
Hôtel de Ville
The town centre, which has seen significant regeneration over the past decade, is dominated by its distinctive town hall (Hôtel de Ville) at Place du Soldat Inconnu. It was built in the Flemish Renaissance style between 1911 and 1925 to commemorate the unification of the cities of Calais and Saint Pierre in 1885. A previous town hall had been erected in 1818. One of the most elegant landmarks in the city, its ornate 74 metre (246 ft) high clock tower and belfry can be seen from out to sea and chimes throughout the day and has been protected by UNESCO since 2005 as part of a series of belfries across the region. The building parts have also been listed as a series of historic monuments by government decree of 26 June 2003, including its roofs and belfry, main hall, glass roof, the staircase, corridor serving the first floor, the rooms on the first floor (including decoration): the wedding room, the VIP lounge, the lounge of the council and the cabinet room. The hall has stained glass windows and numerous paintings and exquisite decor. It houses police offices.
Église Notre-Dame is a cathedral which was originally built in the late 13th century and its tower was added in the late 14th or early 15th century. Like the town hall it is one of the city's most prominent landmarks. It was arguably the only church in the English perpendicular style in France. Much of the current 1400 capacity church dates to 1631–1635. It contains elements of Flemish, Gothic, Anglo-Norman and Tudor architecture. In 1691, an 1800 cubic metre cistern was added to the church under orders by Vauban. The church is dedicated to the Virgin, and built in the form of a cross, consisting of a nave and four aisles— The old grand altar dated to 1628 and was built from Carrara marble wrecked on the coast, during its transit from Genoa to Antwerp. It contained eighteen figures, the two standing on either side of the altar-piece—representing St. Louis and Charlemagne. The organ—of a deep and mellow tone, and highly ornamented by figures in relief—was built at Canterbury sometime around 1700. The pulpit and reading-desk, richly sculptured in oak, is another well-executed piece of ecclesiastical workmanship from St. Omers. The altar-piece, the Assumption, was often attributed to Anthony van Dyck, though in reality it is by Van Sulden; whilst the painting over the side altar, believed to be by Peter Paul Rubens. A high and strongly built wall, partaking more of the fortress than a cathedral in its aspect, flanks the building, and protects it from the street where formerly ran the old river, in its course through Calais to the sea.
The square, massive Norman tower has three-arched belfry windows on each face, surmounted by corner turrets, and a conically-shaped tower of octagonal proportions, topped again by a short steeple. The tower was a main viewing point for the Anglo-French Survey (1784–1790) which linked the Paris Observatory with the Royal Greenwich Observatory using trigonometry. Cross-channel sightings were made of signal lights at Dover Castle and Fairlight, East Sussex.
The church was assigned as a historic monument by decree of 10 September 1913, only to have its stained glass smashed during a Zeppelin bombardment on 15 January 1915, falling through the roof. General de Gaulle married Yvonne Vendroux on 6 April 1921 at the cathedral. The building experienced extensive damage during World War II, and was partially rebuilt, although much of the old altar and furnishings were not replaced.
The Tour du Guet (Watch Tower), situated in Calais Nord on the Places d'Armes, is one of the few surviving pre-war buildings. Dating from 1229, when Philip I, Count of Boulogne, built the fortifications of Calais, it is one of the oldest monuments of Calais, although the oldest remaining traces date to 1302. It has a height of 35–39 metres (sources differ). An earthquake in 1580 split the tower in two, and at one time it threatened to collapse completely. The tower was repaired in 1606, and then had the purpose of serving as a hall to accommodate the merchants of Calais. It was damaged in 1658 when a young stable boy set fire to it, while it was temporarily being used as royal stables during a visit of King Louis XIV. It was not repaired for some 30 years. In 1770, a bell identical to the original bell of 1348 was cast. Due to its height, from the late 17th century it became an important watchout post for the city for centuries until 1905; the last keeper of the tower was forced to leave in 1926. Abraham Chappe, (a brother of Ignace Chappe) installed a telegraph office in the tower in 1816 and operated for 32 years. It was this office which announced the death of Napoleon I to the French public in 1821. It also had the dual function as lighthouse with a rotating beacon fuelled by oil from 1818. The lantern was finally replaced by a new lighthouse on 15 October 1848. During the First World War, it served as a military observation post and narrowly missed destruction during World War II. This tower has been classified as a historic monument since 6 November 1931.
The Calais Lighthouse (Le phare de Calais) was built in 1848, replacing the old watch tower as the lighthouse of the port. The 55 metre high tower was electrified in 1883 and automated in 1992. The staircase has 271 steps leading up to the lantern. By day it is easily distinguishable from other coastal lighthouses by its white color and black lantern. The lighthouse was classified as a historical monument on 22 November 2010.
The Citadel, located on the Avenue Roger Salengro, was built between 1560 and 1571 on the site of a former medieval castle which was built in 1229 by Philippe de Hureprel. Its purpose of its construction was to fend off would-be invaders, but it wasn't long until the city was successfully invaded by Archduke Albert of Austria on 24 April 1596. Both Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu at one time considered expanding the citadel and Calais into a great walled city for military harbour purposes but the proposals came to nothing.
Fort Risban, located on the coast on the Avenue Raymond Poincaré at the port entrance, was besieged by the English in November 1346 and was used by them until 1558 when Calais was restored to France. In 1596, the fort was captured by the Spanish Netherlands until May 1598 when it was returned to the French following the Treaty of Vervins. It was rebuilt in 1640. Vauban, who visited the fort some time in the 1680s, described it as "a home for owls, and place to hold the Sabbath" rather than a fortification. During World War II it served as an air raid shelter. It contains the Lancaster Tower, a name often given to the fort itself.
Fort Nieulay, located along the Avenue Pierre Coubertin originally dated to the 12th or 13th century. During the English invasion in 1346, sluices gates were added as water defences and a fort was built up around it in 1525 on the principle that the people of the fort could defend the town by flooding it. In April and May 1677, Louis XIV and Vauban visited Calais and ordered a complete rebuilding of Fort Nieulay. It was completed in 1679, with the purpose to protect the bridge of Nieulay crossing the Hames River. By 1815 the fort had fallen into a ruined state and it wasn't until 1903 that it was sold and improved by its farmer tenants. The fort was briefly the site of a low-key scuffle with Germans in May 1940.
Museums, theatres and cultural centres
Calais contains several museums. These include the Musée des Beaux-Arts et de la Dentelle de Calais, Cité internationale de la Dentelle et de la Mode de Calais and the Musée de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale (World War II museum). Cité internationale de la Dentelle et de la Mode de Calais is a lace and fashion museum located in an old Boulart factory on the canalside and contains workshops, a library and a restaurant and regularly puts on fashion shows. The World War II museum is located at Parc St Pierre opposite the town hall and south of the train station. The building is a former Nazi bunker and wartime military headquarters, built in 1941 by the Todt Organisation. The 194-metre-long structure contains twenty rooms with relics and photographs related to World War II, and one room dedicated to World War I.
Theatres and cultural centres include Le théâtre municipal, Le Centre Culturel Gérard Philipe, Le Conservatoire à rayonnement départemental (CRD), L'auditorium Didier Lockwood, L'École d'Art de Calais, Le Channel, Le Cinéma Alhambra and La Médiathèque municipale. Le théâtre municipal or Calais Theatre is located on the Boulevard Lafayette and was built in 1903 on a plot of land which was used as a cemetery between 1811 and 1871. The theatre opened in 1905. On the first floor of the façade are statues which represent the performing arts subjects of Poetry, Comedy, Dance and Music.
Monuments and memorials
Directly in front of the town hall is a bronze cast of Les Bourgeois de Calais ("The Burghers of Calais"), a sculpture by Auguste Rodin to commemorate six men who were to have been executed by Edward III in 1347. The cast was erected in 1895, funded by a public grant of 10,000 francs. Rodin (who based his design on a fourteenth-century account by Jean Froissart) intended to evoke the viewer's sympathy by emphasizing the pained expressions of the faces of the six men about to be executed.
The Monument des Sauveteurs ("Rescuers' Monument") was installed in 1899 on Boulevard des Alliés, and transferred to the Quartier of Courgain in 1960. It is a bronze sculpture, attributed to Edward Lormier.
The Monument Le Pluviôse is a Script error: No such module "convert". bronze monument built in 1912 by Émile Oscar Guillaume on the centre of the roundabout near the beach of Calais, commemorating the accidental sinking of the submarine Pluviôse in May 1910, off the beach by the steamer Pas de Calais. Armand Fallières, president of the Republic, and his government came to Calais for a state funeral for its 27 victims. One of these victims, Delpierre Auguste, (1889–1910), drowned at age 21 before the beach at Calais; a dock in the city is named for him. The monument was dedicated on June 22, 1913.
Monument "Jacquard" was erected on the square in 1910, opposite the entrance to the Calais theatre. It commemorates Joseph Marie Jacquard, popular in Calais because of his contribution to the development of lace through his invention of the Jacquard loom.
Parc Richelieu, a garden behind the war memorial, was built in 1862 on the old city ramparts and redesigned in 1956. It contains a statue designed by Yves de Coëtlogon in 1962, remembering both world wars with an allegorical figure, representing Peace, which clutches an olive branch to her breast.
Hotels and nightclubs
Hôtel Meurice de Calais is a hotel, established in 1771 as Le Chariot Royal by the French postmaster, Charles-Augustin Meurice, who would later establish the five-star Hôtel Meurice, one of Paris' most famous luxury hotels. It was one of the earliest hotels on the continent of Europe to specifically cater for the British elite. The hotel was rebuilt in 1954–55. It has 41 en-suite rooms.
The main centre of night activity in Calais is at the Casino Le Touquet’s on the Rue Royale and at the 555 Club. Every month, Casino Le Touquet hosts a dinner and dance cabaret. The casino features slot machines, blackjack, roulette, and poker facilities.
There are several schools in Calais. These include Groupe Scolaire Coubertin, Eglise Saint-Pierre, Universite du Littoral, Centre Universitaire, Lycée HQE Léonard de Vinci on Rue du Pasteur Martin Luther-King, École d'Art de Calais on Rue des Soupirants, and the Centre Scolaire Saint-Pierre on Rue du Four à Chaux which provides education in the primary grades, high school, and vocational school. There are at least seven colleges in the city, such as Collège Martin Luther King on Rue Martin Luther King, Collège Nationalisé Lucien Vadez on Avenue Yervant Toumaniantz, Collège Les Dentelliers on Rue Gaillard, College Jean Mace on Rue Maréchaux, Collège République on Place République, Collège Vauban on Rue Orléansville, and Collège Privé Mixte Jeanne d'Arc on Rue Champailler.
Calais is represented in association football by the Calais RUFC, who compete in the Championnat National. The club was founded 1902 as Racing Club de Calais and in 1974 was renamed as Calais Racing Union Football Club. Calais RUFC have a good reputation in French cup competitions and went as far as the final in the 1999/2000 season, losing out finally to Nantes. Since 2008 they have played at the Stade de l'Épopée, a stadium which holds about 12,000 spectators. The rugby club in Calais is Amicale Rugby Calaisien. Basketball is popular in Calais with the teams Calais Basket (male) and COB Calais (female) as is volleyball with the Lis Calais (male) and Stella Calais (female) teams. There is also the SOC club which caters in a range of sports including athletics, handball and football and Yacht Club de Calais, a yachting club. Calais also has Les Seagulls, an American football team.
The Port of Calais was the first cable ship port in Europe and is the fourth largest port in France and the largest for passenger traffic. The port accounts for more than a third of economic activity of the town of Calais. Cargo traffic has tripled over the past two decades. In 2007 more than 41.5 million tonnes of traffic passed through Calais with some 11.52 million passengers, 1.4 million trucks and trailers, 2.249 million cars and 4,700 crossings a year. On average, ships sail from the port every 30 minutes. A new 400 million euro project is underway at the port to create a breakwater protecting a pool of 700 meters long, thus allowing virtually all types of ships to stop at Calais.
As well as the large port, the town is served by three railway stations: Gare de Calais-Fréthun, Gare de Calais-Ville, and Gare des Fontinettes, the former being the first stop on mainland Europe of the Eurostar line. Gare de Calais-Ville is the nearest station to the port with trains to Gare de Boulogne-Ville and either Gare de Lille Flandres or Gare de Lille Europe.
Local bus services are provided by STCE. Free car parking facilities are available in front of the Calais ferry terminal and the maximum stay is of three days. Calais is served by an airport and an airfield. Calais – Dunkerque Airport is located at Marck, Script error: No such module "convert". east north east of Calais. Saint-Inglevert Airfield is located at Saint-Inglevert, Script error: No such module "convert". south west of Calais.
- Eustache de Saint Pierre (~1287–1351).
- Georges Mareschal (1658–1736), the first surgeon to King Louis XIV.
- Olivier Levasseur, dit La Buse (1672–1730), pirate.
- Jean Nicolas Grou (1731–1803), Jesuit author and theologian.
- Francia (1772–1839), painter.
- Tom Souville (1777–1839), privateer called "Cap'n Tom" by the English.
- Gaspard Théodore Mollien (1796–1872), explorer and diplomat.
- Louis Noël (1807–1875) sculptor
- Ford Madox Brown (1821–1893), British painter close to the Pre-Raphaelite movement.
- Henri Ernest Baillon (1827–1895), physician and botanist.
- Georges Andrique (1874–1964), painter.
- Yvonne Vendroux (1900–1979), wife of General Charles de Gaulle.
- Gérard Debreu (1921–2004), Nobel Prize winner in the Economic sciences.
- Ida Gotkovsky (1933–), composer and pianist.
- Didier Lockwood (1956–), jazz violinist.
- Romain Barras (1980–), decathlete, European Champion in July 2010.
- Nicolas Hénard (1964–), sailor of the Tornado series, double gold medal winner at the Olympics.
- Delphine Ledoux (1985–), rhythmic gymnasts, finished 13th at the individual all around qualification at the London 2012 Olympic Games
- William Browne (1410–1489), Merchant of the Staple and Lord Mayor of Calais
- George Brummell (1778–1840), English dandy, known as "Beau Brummell", lived in exile in Calais from 1817 to 1830.
- Alfred Georges Regner, (1902–1987), painter and engraver.
- Pierre Bachelet, (1944–2005), singer and composer, grew up in Calais.
- Lady Hamilton, née Emma Lyons (1765–1815), died at Calais. She was the mistress of Admiral Horatio Nelson.
Twin towns – Sister cities
Calais is twinned with:
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