|Origin||Cologne, West Germany|
|Genres||Krautrock, experimental rock, psychedelic rock, avant-garde|
|Years active||1968–1979, 1986, 1991, 1999|
|Labels||Liberty, United Artists, Spoon, Mute|
|Associated acts||Traffic, Phew|
David C. Johnson
Rebop Kwaku Baah
Can was a German experimental rock band formed in Cologne, West Germany, in 1968. Later labeled as one of the first krautrock groups, they transcended mainstream influences and incorporated strong minimalist, electronic, and world music elements into their often psychedelic and funk-inflected music.
Can constructed their music largely through collective spontaneous composition—which the band differentiated from improvisation in the jazz sense—sampling themselves in the studio and editing down the results; bassist/chief engineer Holger Czukay referred to Can's live and studio performances as "instant compositions". They had occasional commercial success, with singles such as "Spoon" and "I Want More" reaching national singles charts. Through albums such as Monster Movie (1969), Tago Mago (1971), Ege Bamyasi (1972) and Future Days (1973), the band exerted a considerable influence on avant-garde, experimental, underground, ambient, new wave and electronic music.
- 1 History
- 2 Music
- 3 Band members
- 4 Discography
- 5 References
- 6 Bibliography
- 7 External links
Early years: 1968–1970
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
The roots of Can can be traced back to Irmin Schmidt and a trip that he made to New York City in 1966. While Schmidt initially spent his time with avant-garde musicians such as Steve Reich, La Monte Young and Terry Riley, he was also eventually exposed to the world of Andy Warhol, Hotel Chelsea and, perhaps most importantly, the Velvet Underground. In his own words, the trip "corrupted" him, sparking a fascination with the possibilities of rock music. Upon his return to Cologne later that year, an inspired Schmidt formed a group with American avant-garde composer and flautist David C. Johnson and music teacher Holger Czukay with the intention of exploring his newly broadened horizons.
|“||When I founded the group I was a classical composer and conductor and pianist making piano recitals, playing a lot of contemporary music but also Brahms, Chopin and Beethoven and everything. And when we got together I wanted to do something in which all contemporary music becomes one thing. Contemporary music in Europe especially, the new music was classical music was Boulez, Stockhausen and all that. I studied all that, I studied Stockhausen but nobody talked about rock music like Sly Stone, James Brown or the Velvet Underground as being contemporary music. Then there was jazz and all these elements were our contemporary music, it was new. It was, in a way, much newer than the new classical music which claimed to be 'the new music'.||”|
Up to that point, the inclinations of all three musicians had been exclusively avant-garde classical. In fact, both Schmidt and Czukay had directly studied under the influential composer Karlheinz Stockhausen. Schmidt chose to play organ and piano, while Czukay played bass and was able to record their music with a basic two-track tape machine. The group was soon fleshed out by guitarist Michael Karoli, a 19-year-old pupil of Czukay, and drummer Jaki Liebezeit, who had grown disenchanted with his work in free jazz groups. As the group developed a more rock-oriented sound, a disappointed Johnson left the group at the end of 1968.
The band used the names "Inner Space" and "The Can" before finally settling on "CAN". Liebezeit subsequently suggested the backronym "communism, anarchism, nihilism" for the band's name. In mid-1968, the band enlisted the creative, highly rhythmic, but unstable and often confrontational American vocalist Malcolm Mooney, a New York-based sculptor, with whom they recorded the material for an album, Prepared to Meet Thy Pnoom. Unable to find a recording company willing to release the album, the group continued their studio work until they had material for what became their first release, Monster Movie, released in 1969. This album contained new versions of two songs previously recorded for Prepared to Meet Thy Pnoom, "Father Cannot Yell" and "Outside My Door". Other material recorded around the same time was released in 1981 as Delay 1968. Mooney's bizarre ranting vocals emphasized the sheer strangeness and hypnotic quality of the music, which was influenced particularly by garage rock, psychedelic rock and funk. Repetition was stressed on bass and drums, particularly on the epic "Yoo Doo Right", which had been edited down from a six-hour improvisation to take up a mere single side of vinyl. Liebezeit's tight but multifarious drumming was crucial in carrying the music.
Mooney returned to America soon afterwards on the advice of a psychiatrist, having been told that getting away from the chaotic music of Can would be better for his mental health. The liner notes of Monster Movie claim that Mooney suffered a nervous breakdown ("caught in a Can groove"), shouting "upstairs, downstairs" repeatedly. He was replaced by the more understated Kenji "Damo" Suzuki, a young Japanese traveller found busking outside a Munich café by Czukay and Liebezeit. Though he only knew a handful of guitar chords and improvised the majority of his lyrics (as opposed to committing them to paper), Suzuki was asked to perform with the band that same night. The band's first record with Suzuki was Soundtracks, released in 1970, a compilation of music made for films that also contained two earlier tracks recorded with Mooney. Suzuki's lyrics were usually in English, though sometimes in Japanese (for example, in "Oh Yeah" and "Doko E").
Classic years: 1971–1973
The next few years saw Can release their most acclaimed works. While their earlier recordings tended to be at least loosely based on traditional song structures, on their mid-career albums the band reverted to an extremely fluid improvisational style. The double album Tago Mago (1971) is often seen as a groundbreaking, influential and deeply unconventional record, based on intensely rhythmic jazz-inspired drumming, improvised guitar and keyboard soloing (frequently intertwining each other), tape edits as composition, and Suzuki's idiosyncratic vocalisms. Czukay: "(Tago Mago) was an attempt in achieving a mystery musical world from light to darkness and return."
Tago Mago was followed in 1972 by Ege Bamyasi, a more accessible but still avant-garde record which featured the catchy "Vitamin C" and the Top 10 German hit "Spoon". Czukay: "We could achieve an excellent dry and ambient sound... [Ege Bamyasi] reflects the group being in a lighter mood."
It was followed by Future Days in 1973, which represents an early example of ambient music, as well as including the pop song "Moonshake". Czukay: "'Bel Air' [the 20 minute-long track which took up the whole of side two on the Future Days original vinyl LP] showed Can in a state of being an electric symphony group performing a peaceful though sometimes dramatic landscape painting."
Suzuki left soon after the recording of Future Days to marry his German girlfriend, and become a Jehovah's Witness. Vocals were taken over by Karoli and Schmidt; however, after the departure of Suzuki, fewer of their tracks featured vocals, as Can found themselves experimenting with the ambient music they had begun with Future Days.
Later years: 1974–1979
Soon Over Babaluma from 1974 continued in the ambient style of Future Days, yet it regained some of the abrasive edge of Tago Mago and Ege Bamyasi. In 1975, Can signed to Virgin Records in the UK and EMI/Harvest in Germany, appearing the same year on BBC's Old Grey Whistle Test where a memorable performance of Vernal Equinox involved Schmidt playing one keyboard section with a series of rapid karate chops. Shortly after the appearance Schmidt suffered a broken leg which led to cancellation of the band's UK tour.
The later albums Landed (1975) and Flow Motion (1976) saw Can moving towards a somewhat more conventional style as their recording technology improved. Accordingly, the disco single "I Want More" from Flow Motion became their only hit record outside Germany. Co-written by their live sound mixer Peter Gilmour, it reached No 26 in the UK charts in October 1976, which prompted an appearance on Top of the Pops, where Czukay performed with a double bass. In 1977 Can were joined by former Traffic bassist Rosko Gee and percussionist Rebop Kwaku Baah, both of whom provided vocals to Can's music, appearing on the albums Saw Delight (1977), Out of Reach (1978) and Can (1979). During this period Holger Czukay was pushed to the fringes of the group's activity; in fact he just made sounds using shortwave radios, Morse code keys, tape recorders and other sundry objects. He left Can in late 1977 and did not appear on the albums Out of Reach or Can, although he was involved with production work for the latter album. The band seemed to be in a hiatus shortly afterwards, but reunions have taken place on several occasions since.
After the split and reunion
Since the split, all the former members have been involved in musical projects, often as session musicians for other artists. In 1986 they briefly reformed, with original vocalist Mooney, to record Rite Time (released in 1989). There was a further reunion in 1991 by Karoli, Liebezeit, Mooney and Schmidt to record a track for the Wim Wenders film Until the End of the World and in August 1999 by Karoli, Liebezeit and Schmidt with Jono Podmore to record a cover of "The Third Man Theme" for Grönland record's compilation album Pop 2000. In 1999 the four core members of Can, Karoli, Liebezeit, Schmidt and Czukay, performed live at the same show, although playing separately with their current solo projects (Sofortkontakt, Club Off Chaos, Kumo and U-She respectively). Michael Karoli died of cancer on November 17, 2001. Can have since been the subject of numerous compilations, live albums and samples. In 2004, the band began a series of Super Audio CD remasters of its back catalog, which were finished in 2006.
Holger Czukay has recorded several ambient albums and collaborated with David Sylvian among others, while Jaki Liebezeit has played extensively with bassists Jah Wobble and Bill Laswell, and in a drum ensemble called Drums of Chaos, and in 2005 with Datenverarbeiter on the online album Givt. Michael Karoli recorded a reggae album with Polly Eltes before his passing, and Irmin Schmidt has begun working with the acclaimed drummer Martin Atkins, producing a remix for the industrial band The Damage Manual, and a cover of "Banging the Door" for a Public Image Ltd tribute album, both released on Atkins' label, Invisible Records. Karoli formed Sofortkontakt! for the Can reunion shows in 1999 with Mark Spybey, who had previously been associated with Dead Voices on Air, Zoviet France, Reformed Faction and Download. The band also featured Alexander Schoenert, Felix Guttierez of Jelly Planet, Thomas Hopf and Mandjao Fati. Karoli also performed on numerous occasions with Damo Suzuki's Network. Damo Suzuki returned to music in 1983, and since then he has been playing live improvisational shows around the world with local musicians and members of touring bands at various points, sometimes issuing live albums. Malcolm Mooney recorded an album as singer for the band Tenth Planet in 1998. Rosko Gee has been the bassist in the live band on Harald Schmidt's TV show in Germany since 1995. Rebop Kwaku Baah died in 1983 following a brain hemorrhage.
Can released compilation album "Limited Edition" in 1974 and expanded it to double album "Unlimited Edition" in 1976 from their unreleased studio recordings. "Delay 1968", released in 1981, was a compilation of unreleased 1968-1969 recordings. "Cannibalism 2", a compilation album of album and single material, included also one unreleased song, "Melting away", from 1960's.
In 1995 was released "The Peel Sessions", compilation of Can recordings in BBC. In 1999 was released Can Box with video of Can documentary and a concert recording from 1972 and a double live CD compiled by Michael Karoli and later released separately as "Can Live Music (Live 1971–1977)". Unreleased live music of Can have been also released on 40th Anniversary Edition of "Tago Mago" in 2004 and 17 LP collection box "Can" in 2014.
When the Can studio in Weilerswist was sold to the German Rock N Pop Museum, they bought everything, including the army mattresses that covered the walls for sound protection, and relocated it to Gronau. Whilst dismantling the studio, master tapes were found and stored in the Spoon archive. With barely legible labeling, no one was sure what was on these until Irmin Schmidt and long time collaborator Jono Podmore started to go through over 30 hours of music. What they found was years of archived material, not outtakes, but rather tracks which had been shelved for a variety of reasons – soundtracks to films that were never released and tracks that didn't make it onto the final versions of albums due to space. Irmin Schmidt explains "Obviously the tapes weren't really lost, but were left in the cupboards of the studio archives for so long everybody just forgot about them. Everybody except Hildegard [Schmidt, Irmin's wife], who watches over Can and its work like the dragon over the gold of the Nibelungen and doesn't allow forgetting."
The final cut of tracks, dating from 1968–1977, features studio material recorded at Schloss Nörvenich and Can Studio, Weilerswist with the Can line up of Holger Czukay on bass, Michael Karoli on guitars, Jaki Liebezeit on drums and Irmin Schmidt on keyboards, and on most tracks, vocals from Malcolm Mooney or Damo Suzuki.
Holger Czukay and Irmin Schmidt were both pupils of Karlheinz Stockhausen, and Can inherited a strong grounding in his musical theory; the latter was trained as a classical pianist, while Michael Karoli was a pupil of Holger Czukay and brought the influence of gypsy music through his esoteric studies. Drummer Jaki Liebezeit had strong jazz leanings. The band's sound was originally intended to be based on the sound of ethnic music, so when the band decided to pick up the garage rock sound, original member David Johnson left. This world music trend was later exemplified on albums such as Ege Bamyasi (the name meaning "Aegean okra" in Turkish), Future Days and Saw Delight, and by incorporating new band members with different nationalities. A series of tracks on Can albums, known as "Ethnological Forgery Series", abbreviated to "E.F.S", demonstrated the band's ability to successfully recreate ethnic-sounding music.
The band's early rock influences include The Beatles and The Velvet Underground as well as Jimi Hendrix, Sly Stone and Frank Zappa. The band have admitted that the beginning of Can's "Father Cannot Yell" was inspired by the Velvet Underground's "European Son". Malcolm Mooney's voice has been compared to that of James Brown (an acknowledged hero of the band members) and their early style, rooted in psychedelic music, drew comparisons with Pink Floyd. Along with their peers in the krautrock scene, they were under the influence of the wider progressive rock movement taking place in England and elsewhere during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Czukay's extensive editing has occasionally been compared to the late-'60s music of trumpeter Miles Davis (such as In a Silent Way and Bitches Brew): Can and Davis both would record long groove-intensive improvisations, then edit the best bits together for their albums. Czukay and Teo Macero (Davis's producer and editor) both had roots in the musique concrète of the 1940s and '50s. Irmin Schmidt stated in a discussion with Michael Karoli in 1996 concerning the various citations of influences upon their music: "You know, it's funny that in spite of all the supposed influences on us that have been written about, the one overriding influence has never been mentioned: Michael von Biel."
Damo Suzuki was a very different singer from Mooney, with a multilingual (he claimed to sing in "the language of the Stone Age") and often inscrutable vocal style. With Suzuki, the band made their most critically and commercially successful albums. The rhythm section's work on Tago Mago has been especially praised: one critic writes that much of the album is based on "long improvisations built around hypnotic rhythm patterns"; another writes that "Halleluhwah" finds them "pounding out a monster trance/funk beat". The band's post–Damo Suzuki period has been criticised[who?] for not being as groundbreaking and genre-defining as the earlier albums: although critics had praised Can's sound in the early 1970s as being ahead of its time, the band just used a two track recorder until the release of Landed in 1975.
Major artists working in the post-punk genre such as The Fall, Public Image Ltd, Siouxsie and the Banshees, Joy Division, Suicide and other acts like David Bowie, Talking Heads, Pavement, The Stone Roses, Lumerians, Happy Mondays, Talk Talk and Primal Scream have cited Can as an influence. Brian Eno made a short film in tribute to Can, while John Frusciante of the Red Hot Chili Peppers appeared at the Echo Awards ceremony, at which Can were awarded the most prestigious music award in Germany, to pay tribute to guitarist Michael Karoli.
John Lydon, formerly of the Sex Pistols, formed Public Image Limited patterned after Can's early 1970s five-member lineup . Lydon was mooted as a possible singer for the band, but initial conversations amounted to nothing, much to Can addict Jah Wobble's dismay (though he went on to many collaborations with the constituent members of Can himself). Lydon also mentioned Tago Mago as being his favourite record in his autobiography. In the early 2000s, Radiohead performed a cover of the song "Thief" from Delay 1968, and have claimed Can as an influence. Mark E. Smith of The Fall pays tribute to Damo Suzuki with the track "I Am Damo Suzuki" on the 1985 album This Nation's Saving Grace. The Jesus and Mary Chain used to cover "Mushroom" live in the mid-1980s. The Flaming Lips wrote their song "Take Meta Mars" off their album In a Priest Driven Ambulance after hearing "Mushroom" just once. The songs bear great resemblance.
At least five notable bands have named themselves in tribute to Can: The Mooney Suzuki for Malcolm Mooney and Damo Suzuki; the indie rock band Spoon after the hit "Spoon"; the electronic band Egebamyasi, formed by Scottish musician Mr Egg in 1984, after Can's album Ege Bamyasi; Hunters & Collectors after a song on the Landed album; and Moonshake, named for a track on Future Days, and formed by ex-Wolfhounds frontman David Callahan. The Scottish writer Alan Warner has written two novels in tribute to two different Can members (Morvern Callar to Holger Czukay and The Man Who Walks to Michael Karoli respectively). The Sacrilege remix album features remixes of Can tracks by artists who were influenced by Can, including Sonic Youth and U.N.K.L.E.. Their ethnomusicological tendencies pre-date the craze for world music in the 1980s. While not nearly as influential on electronic music as Kraftwerk, they were important early pioneers of ambient music, along with Tangerine Dream and the aforementioned band. Many groups working in the post-rock genre can look to Can as an influence as part of the larger krautrock scene, as can New Prog bands such as The Mars Volta. Kanye West has sampled "Sing Swan Song" on his song "Drunk & Hot Girls" from his 2007 album Graduation. The UK band Loop was deeply influenced by Can for their repetitive polyrhythmic style, covering Can's "Mother Sky" on their Fade Out album.
Their music has been used on the soundtracks of films including Alice in the Cities, Deep End, Deadlock, Dead Pigeon on Beethoven Street, Inherent Vice, Morvern Callar, Norwegian Wood, and Los Abrazos Rotos.
Improvisation, recording and live shows
Much of Can's music was based on free improvisation and then edited for the studio albums. For example, when preparing a soundtrack, only Irmin Schmidt would view the film and then give the rest of the band a general description of the scenes they would be scoring. This assisted in the improvised soundtrack being successful both inside and outside the film's context. Also, the epic track "Cutaway" from Unlimited Edition demonstrates how tape editing and extensive jamming could be used to create a sound collage that doesn't gel perfectly, and that the flashes of genius in the improvisation needed to be cut from long, unconsolidated recordings.
Can's live shows often melded spontaneous improvisation of this kind with songs appearing on their albums. The track "Colchester Finale", appearing on the Can Live album, incorporates portions of "Halleluhwah" into a composition lasting over half an hour. Early concerts found Mooney and Suzuki often able to shock audiences with their unusual vocal styles, as different as they were from one another; Suzuki's debut performance with Can in 1970 nearly frightened an audience to the point of rioting due to his odd style of vocalizing. The actor David Niven was amongst the crowd who remained to hear what Can and Damo would do next. Asked later by Czukay what he had thought of the music, Niven replied: "It was great, but I didn't know it was music." After the departure of Suzuki, the music grew in intensity without a vocal centre. The band maintained their ability to collectively improvise with or without central themes for hours at a time (their longest performance, in Berlin, lasted over six hours), resulting in a large archive of performances.
Can made attempts to find a new vocalist after the departure of Damo Suzuki, although no one quite fit the position. In 1975, folk singer Tim Hardin took the lead vocal spot and played guitar with Can for one song, at two gigs, performing his own "The Lady Came From Baltimore". Malaysian Thaiga Raj Raja Ratnam played four dates with the band between January and March 1976, all of which were recorded, and did considerable studio work with them. Another vocalist, Englishman Michael Cousins, toured with Can in March (France) and April (Germany) 1976. Audiences in France disapproved of his presence and literally spat at him while on stage. There are eight recordings of Cousins performing with the band.
- Michael Karoli – guitar, vocals, violin (1968–1979, 1986, 1991, 1999) (died 2001)
- Jaki Liebezeit – drums, percussion (1968–1979, 1986, 1991, 1999)
- Irmin Schmidt – keyboards, vocals (1968–1979, 1986, 1991, 1999)
- Holger Czukay – bass guitar, sound engineer, electronics (1968–1977, 1986)
- David C. Johnson – reeds, winds, electronics and tape manipulation (1968)
- Malcolm Mooney – vocals (1968–1970, 1986, 1991)
- Damo Suzuki – vocals (1970–1973)
- Rosko Gee – bass, vocals (1976–1979)
- Rebop Kwaku Baah – percussion, vocals (1977–1979) (died 1983)
- Manni Löhe – vocals, percussion and flute (1968)
- Duncan Fallowell – lyrics (1974)
- René Tinner – recording engineer (1973 onwards)
- Olaf Kübler of Amon Düül – tenor saxophone (1975)
- Tim Hardin – vocals & guitar (November 1975)
- Thaiga Raj Raja Ratnam – vocals (January–March 1976)
- Michael Cousins – vocals (March–April 1976)
- Peter Gilmour – lyrics, live sound mixing (later 1970s)
- Jono Podmore – bass (1999)
<timeline> ImageSize = width:1000 height:400 PlotArea = left:110 bottom:140 top:0 right:21
Alignbars = justify DateFormat = dd/mm/yyyy Period = from:01/01/1968 till:01/01/2000 TimeAxis = orientation:horizontal format:yyyy Legend = orientation:horizontal position:bottom ScaleMajor = increment:1 start:01/01/1968
id:Vocals value:red legend:Vocals id:Guitar value:brightgreen legend:Guitar,_vocals,_violin id:Keys value:lightpurple legend:Keyboards,_vocals id:Bass value:brightblue legend:Bass id:Drums value:orange legend:Drums,_Percussion id:Perc value:claret legend:Percussion id:Sound value:drabgreen legend:Sound_Manipulation id:Lines value:black legend:Studio_Albums
Legend = orientation:vertical position:bottom columns:3
at:15/08/1969 color:black layer:back at:15/09/1970 color:black layer:back at:15/02/1971 color:black layer:back at:15/11/1972 color:black layer:back at:15/08/1973 color:black layer:back at:15/11/1974 color:black layer:back at:15/09/1975 color:black layer:back at:15/10/1976 color:black layer:back at:15/03/1977 color:black layer:back at:15/07/1978 color:black layer:back at:15/07/1979 color:black layer:back at:15/10/1989 color:black layer:back
bar:Malc text:"Malcolm Mooney" bar:Damo text:"Damo Suzuki" bar:Mike text:"Michael Karoli" bar:Ir text:"Irmin Schmidt" bar:Dave text:"David C. Johnson" bar:Cz text:"Holger Czukay" bar:Gee text:"Rosko Gee" bar:Jaki text:"Jaki Liebezeit " bar:Bop text:"Rebop Kwaku Baah"
width:10 textcolor:black align:left anchor:from shift:(10,-4) bar:Malc from:01/08/1968 till:01/01/1970 color:Vocals bar:Malc from:01/12/1986 till:30/12/1986 color:Vocals bar:Malc from:01/09/1991 till:30/09/1991 color:Vocals bar:Mike from:start till:01/09/1979 color:Guitar bar:Mike from:01/12/1986 till:30/12/1986 color:Guitar bar:Mike from:01/09/1991 till:30/09/1991 color:Guitar bar:Mike from:01/08/1999 till:30/08/1999 color:Guitar bar:Ir from:start till:01/09/1979 color:Keys bar:Ir from:01/12/1986 till:30/12/1986 color:Keys bar:Ir from:01/09/1991 till:30/09/1991 color:Keys bar:Ir from:01/08/1999 till:30/08/1999 color:Keys bar:Jaki from:start till:01/09/1979 color:Drums bar:Jaki from:01/12/1986 till:30/12/1986 color:Drums bar:Jaki from:01/09/1991 till:30/09/1991 color:Drums bar:Jaki from:01/08/1999 till:30/08/1999 color:Drums bar:Cz from:start till:01/10/1976 color:Bass bar:Cz from:01/10/1976 till:01/12/1977 color:Sound bar:Cz from:01/12/1986 till:30/12/1986 color:Bass bar:Gee from:01/10/1976 till:01/09/1979 color:Bass bar:Bop from:01/03/1977 till:01/09/1979 color:Perc bar:Dave from:start till:01/12/1968 color:Sound bar:Damo from:01/04/1970 till:01/10/1973 color:Vocals
- Monster Movie (1969)
- Soundtracks (1970)
- Tago Mago (1971)
- Ege Bamyasi (1972)
- Future Days (1973)
- Soon Over Babaluma (1974)
- Landed (1975)
- Flow Motion (1976)
- Saw Delight (1977)
- Out of Reach (1978)
- Can (1979)
- Rite Time (1989)
- Payne, John (February 1997), Hiss 'n' Listen: Holger Czukay and the rhythms of a secret life, retrieved 11 August 2010
- Unterberger, Richie (1997), An Interview With Holger Czukay, Krautrock.com, retrieved 16 June 2010
- Canniblism 1, Spoon Records, 1986, retrieved 16 June 2010
- Can, Mute Liberation Technologies, retrieved 25 October 2007
- "Holger Czukay Can discography". Perfect Sound Forever / furious.com. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
- Rose, Steve (11 March 2011). "Can: the ultimate film soundtrack band? | Music". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- Ulrich Adelt, "Machines with a Heart: German Identity in the Music of Can and Kraftwerk", Popular Music and Society, 2012, DOI:10.1080/03007766.2011.567908.
- "Spoon Records". Spoon Records. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- Givt, Datenverarbeiter vs. Jaki Liebezeit, retrieved 16 June 2010
- "rock'n'popmuseum Gronau | Home". Rock-popmuseum.com. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
- Hollow, Chris (1 March 2004), Interview With Irmin Schmidt, Sand Pebbles, retrieved 16 June 2010
- Reynolds, Simon, The History of Krautrock, retrieved 9 October 2007
- Grant, Steven, CAN, Trouser Press, retrieved 16 June 2010
- [[[:Template:Allmusic]] Tago Mago > Review], AllMusic, retrieved 16 June 2010
- Ian S. Port (22 April 2011). "Lumerians Talk Video Projections, Recording in a Church, and "Space-Rock"". SF Weekly. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Collins, Dan (17 September 2009). "Happy Mondays: See, We're Ground Breaking!". L.A. Record. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
- Can – Biography, Intuitive Music, 16 August 2003, retrieved 16 June 2010
- Palacio de Congresos, Salamanca, 7 August 2002 Setlist, CITIZENINSANE.com, retrieved 17 October 2010
- The thief, ATEASEWEB.com, retrieved 16 June 2010
- Rainey, Nik, Can – You Dig It?, Lollipop Magazine, retrieved 16 June 2010
- Loop. NME. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
The UK shoegaze band The Faith Healers also cover "Mother Sky" on its 1991 recording Lido.
- Tom Porter (28 September 2008). "Noel Gallagher on The Shock of the Lightning: "It's Krautrock" | Oasis Noel Gallagher | Guitar News". MusicRadar. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- England, Phil (1994), Holger Czukay Interview, ESTWeb, retrieved 16 June 2010
- "Interview with Holger Czukay (February 1997)". Perfect Sound Forever / furious.com. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
- Pascal Bussy & Andy Hall. The Can Book. Tago Mago, 1986.
- Pascal Bussy & Andy Hall. The Can Book. Saf Publishing, 1989.
- Bussy, Pascal. Kraftwerk: Man, Machine and Music. SAF Publishing, 2005. ISBN 0-946719-70-5
- Rock: The Rough Guide (second edition), Penguin, 1999.
- Martin C. Strong's Great Rock Discography (fifth edition), MOJO Books, 2000.
- The New Musical Express Book of Rock, Star Books, 1975, ISBN 0-352-30074-4.
|40x40px||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Can (band).|
Lua error in Module:Authority_control at line 346: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).