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Caprolactam (CPL) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2)5C(O)NH. This colourless solid is a lactam or a cyclic amide of caproic acid. Approximately 4.5 billion kilograms are produced annually. Caprolactam is the precursor to Nylon 6, a widely used synthetic polymer.
Synthesis and production
Caprolactam was first described in the late 1800s when it was prepared by the cyclization of ε-aminocaproic acid, the product of the hydrolysis of caprolactam. Given the commercial significance of Nylon-6, many methods have been developed for the production of caprolactam. Most of the caprolactam is synthesised from cyclohexanone (1), which is first converted to its oxime (2). Treatment of this oxime with acid induces the Beckmann rearrangement to give caprolactam (3):
The immediate product of the acid-induced rearrangement is the bisulfate salt of caprolactam. This salt is neutralized with ammonia to release the free lactam and cogenerate ammonium sulfate. In optimizing the industrial practices, much attention is directed toward minimizing the production of ammonium salts.
The other major industrial route involves formation of the oxime from cyclohexane using nitrosyl chloride. The advantage of this method is that cyclohexane is less expensive than cyclohexanone. In earlier times, caprolactam was prepared by treatment of caprolactone with ammonia.
Almost all caprolactam produced goes into the manufacture of Nylon-6. The conversion entails a ring-opening polymerization:
- n (CH2)5C(O)NH → [(CH2)5C(O)NH]n
In situ anionic polymerization is employed for cast nylon production where conversion from ε-caprolactam to Nylon-6 takes place inside a mold. In conjunction with endless fiber processing the term thermoplastic resin transfer molding (T-RTM) is often used.
Caprolactam is an irritant and is mildly toxic, with an LD50 of 1.1 g/kg (rat, oral). In 1991, it was included on the list of hazardous air pollutants by the U.S. Clean Air Act of 1990. It was subsequently removed from the list in 1996. In water, caprolactam hydrolyzes to aminocaproic acid, which is used medicinally.
Currently, there is no official permissible exposure limit set for workers handling caprolactam in the United States. The recommended exposure limit is set at 1 mg/m3 over an eight-hour work shift for caprolactam dusts and vapors. The short-term exposure limit is set at 3 mg/m3 for caprolactam dusts and vapors.
- "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0097". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- Josef Ritz; Hugo Fuchs; Heinz Kieczka; William C. Moran (2005), "Caprolactam", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi:10.1002/14356007.a05_031.pub2
- EPA - Modifications To The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants
- Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs, Volumes 1–102 (PDF), WHO, retrieved July 15, 2011
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, CDC, retrieved November 8, 2013