Cauliflower, cultivar unknown
|Cultivar group||Botrytis cultivar group|
|Cultivar group members||Many; see text.|
|Nutritional value per Script error: No such module "convert".|
|Energy||Script error: No such module "convert".|
|Dietary fiber||2 g|
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. |
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea, in the family Brassicaceae. It is an annual plant that reproduces by seed. Typically, only the head (the white curd) is eaten. The cauliflower head is composed of a white inflorescence meristem. Cauliflower heads resemble those in broccoli, which differs in having flower buds. Brassica oleracea also includes broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, collard greens, and kale, though they are of different cultivar groups.
The oldest record of cauliflower dates back to the 6th century B.C.; Pliny wrote about it in the 2nd century. In the 12th century, three varieties were described in Spain as introductions from Syria, where it had doubtless been grown for more than a thousand years. It is found in the writings of the Arab botanists Ibn al-'Awwam and Ibn al-Baitar, in the 12th and 13th centuries when its origins were said to be Cyprus.
For such a highly modified plant, cauliflower has a long history. François Pierre La Varenne employed chouxfleurs in Le cuisinier françois. They were introduced to France from Genoa in the 16th century, and are featured in Olivier de Serres' Théâtre de l'agriculture (1600), as cauli-fiori "as the Italians call it, which are still rather rare in France; they hold an honorable place in the garden because of their delicacy", but they did not commonly appear on grand tables until the time of Louis XIV.
Classification and identification
There are four major groups of cauliflower.
- Diverse in appearance, and biennial and annual in type, this group includes white, Romanesco, various brown, green, purple, and yellow cultivars. This type is the ancestral form from which the others were derived.
- Northern European annuals
- Used in Europe and North America for summer and fall harvest, it was developed in Germany in the 18th century, and includes the old cultivars Erfurt and Snowball.
- Northwest European biennial
- Used in Europe for winter and early spring harvest, this was developed in France in the 19th century, and includes the old cultivars Angers and Roscoff.
- A tropical cauliflower used in China and India, it was developed in India during the 19th century from the now-abandoned Cornish type, and includes old varieties Early Benaras and Early Patna.
- White cauliflower is the most common color of cauliflower.
- Orange cauliflower (B. oleracea L. var. botrytis) contains 25% more vitamin A than white varieties. This trait came from a natural mutant found in a cauliflower field in Canada. Cultivars include 'Cheddar' and 'Orange Bouquet'.
- Green cauliflower, of the B. oleracea botrytis group, is sometimes called broccoflower. It is available in the normal curd shape and a with a fractal spiral curd called Romanesco broccoli. Both have been commercially available in the U.S. and Europe since the early 1990s. Green-curded varieties include 'Alverda', 'Green Goddess' and 'Vorda'. Romanesco varieties include 'Minaret' and 'Veronica'.
- The purple color in this cauliflower is caused by the presence of the antioxidant group anthocyanins, which can also be found in red cabbage and red wine. Varieties include 'Graffiti' and 'Purple Cape'.
- In Great Britain and southern Italy, a broccoli with tiny flower buds is sold as a vegetable under the name "purple cauliflower"; it is not the same as standard cauliflower with a purple curd.
- Orange cauliflower.png
Boiling reduces the levels of these compounds, with losses of 20–30% after five minutes, 40–50% after ten minutes, and 75% after thirty minutes. However, other preparation methods, such as steaming, microwaving, and stir frying, have no significant effect on the compounds.
Cauliflower can be roasted, boiled, fried, steamed, or eaten raw. When cooking, the outer leaves and thick stalks are removed, leaving only the florets. The leaves are also edible, but are most often discarded. The florets should be broken into similar-sized pieces so they are cooked evenly. After eight minutes of steaming, or five minutes of boiling, the florets should be soft, but not mushy (depending on size). Stirring while cooking can break the florets into smaller, uneven pieces.
Low carbohydrate dieters can use cauliflower as a reasonable substitute for potatoes or rice; while they can produce a similar texture, or mouth feel, they lack the starch of the originals. Like certain legumes (including chickpeas), it can be turned into a flour from which such foods as pizza or biscuits are made.
Cauliflower has been noticed by mathematicians for its distinct fractal dimension, predicted to be about 2.8.
One of the fractal properties of cauliflower is that every branch, or "module", is similar to the entire cauliflower. Another quality, also present in other plant species, is that the angle between "modules," as they become more distant from the center, is 360 degrees divided by the golden ratio. 
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- "History of Cauliflower". cauliflowerfestival.com. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
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- Dickson, M.H., Lee C.Y., Blamble A.E. (1988). "Orange-curd high carotene cauliflower inbreds, NY 156, NY 163, and NY 165". HortScience 23: 778–779.
- Chiu, L., Prior, R.L., Wu, X., Li, L. (July 16, 2005). "Toward Identification of the Candidate Gene Controlling Anthocyanin Accumulation in Purple Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis)". American Society of Plant Biologists Annual Meeting. p. 628.
- "Cauliflower Nutrient Data Table". USDA. 2003. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
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- Walker, John. (2005-03-22) Fractal Food. Fourmilab.ch. Retrieved on 2013-09-03.
- Description of the Julia sets of the cabbage fractal. Iwriteiam.nl. Retrieved on 2013-09-03.
- Kim, Sang-Hoon. "Fractal Structure of a White Cauliflower" (PDF). Journal of Korean physical society 46 (2): 474–477. arXiv:cond-mat/0409763.
- Fractal dimensions of a green broccoli and a white cauliflower (Kim)
- Romanesco cauliflower is a striking example of fractals. Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved on 2015-05-29.
- Sharma, S.R, Singh, P.K., Chable, V. Tripathi, S.K. (2004). "A review of hybrid cauliflower development". Journal of New Seeds 6 (2–3): 151. doi:10.1300/J153v06n02_08.
|40x40px||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cauliflower.|
- PROTAbase on Brassica oleracea (cauliflower and broccoli)
- Orange Cauliflower Development
- Cauliflower nutritional information