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Chabad

"Lubavich" and "Lubavitch" redirect here. For the Russian village associated with Chabad, see Lyubavichi, Rudnyansky District, Smolensk Oblast.
For other uses of "Chabad", see Chabad (disambiguation).
<tr><th class="navbox-title" style="padding:0.1em;border-top:1px solid #aaa;padding-top:0.1em;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;"> Places and landmarks</th></tr><tr><td class="plainlist" style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em;padding:0.15em 0 0.6em;"> </td>

</tr><tr><th class="navbox-title" style="padding:0.1em;border-top:1px solid #aaa;padding-top:0.1em;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;"> History</th></tr><tr><td class="plainlist" style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em;padding:0.15em 0 0.6em;">

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</tr><tr><th class="navbox-title" style="padding:0.1em;border-top:1px solid #aaa;padding-top:0.1em;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;"> Chabad philosophy</th></tr><tr><td class="plainlist" style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em;padding:0.15em 0 0.6em;">

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</tr><tr><th class="navbox-title" style="padding:0.1em;border-top:1px solid #aaa;padding-top:0.1em;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;"> Terminology</th></tr><tr><td class="plainlist" style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em;padding:0.15em 0 0.6em;">

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</tr><tr><th class="navbox-title" style="padding:0.1em;border-top:1px solid #aaa;padding-top:0.1em;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;"> Chabad offshoots</th></tr><tr><td class="plainlist" style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em;padding:0.15em 0 0.6em;">

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</tr><tr><th class="navbox-title" style="padding:0.1em;border-top:1px solid #aaa;padding-top:0.1em;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;"> Controversies</th></tr><tr><td class="plainlist" style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em;padding:0.15em 0 0.6em;">

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Chabad, also known as Lubavitch, Habad and Chabad-Lubavitch,[1] (Hebrew: חב"ד‎) is a Orthodox Jewish, Chasidic movement. Chabad is today one of the world's best known Chasidic movements and is well known for its outreach. Organizationally, it is the largest Jewish religious organization in the world.[2][3]

Founded in 1755 by Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi, the name "Chabad" (Hebrew: חב״ד) is a Hebrew acronym for Chochmah, Binah, Da'at (חכמה, בינה, דעת): "Wisdom, Understanding, and Knowledge", which represent the intellectual underpinnings of the movement.[4][5] The name "Lubavitch" is the Yiddish name for the originally Belorussian village Lyubavichi where the movement's leaders lived for over 100 years.

The Chabad movement represents an intellectual-mystical school of thought established and led by a dynasty of Hasidic rebbes. The movement was based in Lyubavichi (Lubavitch) for over a century, then briefly centered in the cities of Rostov-on-Don, Riga, and Warsaw. From 1940[6] until the present day, the movement's center has been in the Crown Heights neighborhood of Brooklyn.[7][8]

In 1951, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson became the seventh and last Rebbe of Chabad-Lubavitch, and transformed it from a small chasidic movement into the largest and most widespread Jewish movement in the world today. He established a network of more than 3,600 institutions that provide religious, social and humanitarian needs in over 1,000 cities, spanning 80 countries and 49 of the 50 American states.[9][10][11][12][13][14] Chabad institutions provide outreach to unaffiliated Jews and humanitarian aid, as well as religious, cultural and educational activities at Chabad-run community centers, synagogues, schools, camps, and soup kitchens.

The movement is thought to number between 40,000[15] and 200,000 adherents.[16][17][18][19] It has been reported that up to one million Jews attend Chabad services at least once a year.[15][20][21] In 2013, Chabad forecasted that their Chanukah activities would reach up to 8,000,000 Jews in 80 countries worldwide.[22]

History

The Chabad movement was established in the town of Liozna, Grand Duchy of Lithuania (present day Belarus), in 1775, by Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi.[6] Rabbi Shneur Zalman was a student of Rabbi Dovber ben Avraham, the "Maggid of Mezritch", the successor of Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov, the founder of Hasidism. The movement was centered in Russia for over a century. In the 1930s, Chabad relocated its center to Poland, and in the 1940s to the United States.

Today, Chabad is among the world's largest Hasidic groups, and it is the largest Jewish religious organization. The vast network of Chabad institutions have placed the movement at the forefront of Jewish communal life today.

While the movement has spawned a number of other groups, the Chabad-Lubavitch branch appears to be the only one still active, making it the movement's main surviving line.[23] In the early 1900s, Chabad-Lubavitch legally incorporated itself under Agudas Chasidei Chabad ("Association of Chabad Hasidim").

Leadership