|Native to||Bangladesh, India, Burma|
|Region||Chittagong Hill Tracts, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura|
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also in Burma
Chakma language (Changma Vaj or Changma Kodha) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Chackma and Daingnet people. Its better-known closest relatives are Bengali, Assamese, Chittagonian/Rohingya, Bishnupriya Manipuri, Tanchangya, and Sylheti. It is spoken by nearly 310,000 people in southeast Bangladesh near Chittagong City, and another 300,000 in India in Mizoram, Assam, and Tripura. It is written using the Chakma script, which is also called Ajhā pāṭh, sometimes romanized Ojhopath. Literacy in Chakma script is low.
It is neither officially recognized by the Bangladesh government nor by the Indian government, the only two countries where native Chakma people live.
Although there were no Chakma language radio or television stations as of 2011, the language has a presence in social media and on YouTube. The Hill Education Chakma Script website provides tutorials, videos, e-books, and Chakma language forums.
In 2012, the Government of Tripura announced it would "introduce Chakma language in Chakma script in primary schools of Tripura. Imparting of education up to elementary stage in mother tongue is a national policy. To begin with Chakma language subjects in its own scripts will be introduced in 58 primary schools in Chakma concentrated areas."
"In preparation for the January 2014 education season, the national curriculum and textbook board has already started printing books in six languages ... Chakma, Cogborok (Tripura community), Marma, Santal, Sadri (Orao community) and Achik."
The Chakma and Daingnet people now speak what may be considered divergent dialects of Bengali. However, this is due to language shift from a Tibeto-Burman language; that medieval language may have been related to Sak or Chairel.
- Chakma at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Chakma". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- "Languages: Online Activism To Save Chakma Language". Rising Voices. 2011-11-29. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- Hueiyen News Service / Newmai News Network (2012-08-31). "Chakma script to be introduced in Tripura". E-Pao! Headlines. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- Chowdhury, K. R. (2013-05-21). "Native tongue offers ethnic children a good start". khabarsouthasia.com. Retrieved 2013-06-02.
- Beckwith, Christopher I.; Seminar, I.A.T.S. (2002). Medieval Tibeto-Burman languages. . Brill. ISBN 9789004124240.
- Voegelin, Charles Frederick & Florence Marie Robinett Voegelin. 1977. Classification and Index of the World's Languages. New York: Elsevier. ISBN 0-444-00155-7
- Cāṅmā, Cirajyoti and Maṅgal Cāṅgmā. 1982. Cāṅmār āg pudhi (Chakma primer). Rāṅamāṭi:Cāṅmābhāṣā Prakāśanā Pariṣad.
- Khisa, Bhagadatta. 2001. Cāṅmā pattham pāt (Chakma primer.) Rāṅamāṭi: Tribal Cultural Institute(TCI).
- Singā. 2004. Phagadāṅ
- "Chakma alphabet, pronunciation and language". Omniglot. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- "About UNICODE Chakma Font (Script) supported in your any OS". Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- Ali Nawaz (2006). "Tribal Languages". In Sirajul Islam. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- "Tribal Languages - Bangladesh Wiki (বাংলাদেশ)". Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- "Honour for writers". The Telegraph - Calcutta (Kolkata). 2009-01-07. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
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