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Research & Reviews: Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicological Studies
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चण्डीगढ़ / ਚੰਡੀਗੜ੍ਹ
Union Territory
The Open Hand monument in Chandigarh
The Open Hand monument in Chandigarh
Nickname(s): The City Beautiful

Coordinates: 30°45′N 76°47′E / 30.75°N 76.78°E / 30.75; 76.78Coordinates: 30°45′N 76°47′E / 30.75°N 76.78°E / 30.75; 76.78{{#coordinates:30.75|N|76.78|E|type:city(1054686)_region:|||| |primary |name=

Country Template:Country data India
Region Northern India
Completed 1960
Formation 1 Nov, 1966
Named for Hindu goddess Chandi
 • Type Central government
 • Administrator of UT Kaptan Singh Solanki
 • Mayor Poonam Sharma
 • Commissioner Vivek Pratap Singh
 • Union Territory 114 km2 (44 sq mi)
Area rank 33
Elevation 350 m (1,150 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Union Territory 1,054,686
 • Rank 29th
 • Density 9,300/km2 (24,000/sq mi)
 • Metro[1] 960,787
Demonym Chandigarhi, Chandigarhwala
 • Official[3] English[a]
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 160xxx
Telephone code +91-172-XXX XXXX
ISO 3166 code IN-CH
Vehicle registration CH-01 to CH-04
HDI 11px
HDI Category high
Literacy 81.9
The city of Chandigarh comprises all of the union territory's area

Chandigarh, also known as The City Beautiful, is a city and a union territory in the northern part of India that serves as the capital of the states of Punjab and Haryana. As a union territory, the city is ruled directly by the Union Government of India and is not part of either state.

The city of Chandigarh was the first planned city in India post-independence in 1947 and is known internationally for its architecture and urban design.[6] The master plan of the city was prepared by Le Corbusier, transformed from earlier plans created by the Polish architect Maciej Nowicki and the American planner Albert Mayer. Most of the government buildings and housing in the city, however, were designed by the Chandigarh Capital Project Team headed by Pierre Jeanneret, Jane Drew and Maxwell Fry.

The city experiences extreme climate and uneven distribution of rainfall. The roads in Chandigarh are surrounded by trees and it has the third highest forest cover in India at 8.51% followed by Lakshadweep and Goa.[7][8]

The city tops the list of Indian States and Union Territories by per capita income in the country.[9] The city was reported to be the cleanest in India in 2010, based on a national government study,[10] and the territory also headed the list of Indian states and territories according to Human Development Index.[11] The metropolitan of Chandigarh-Mohali-Panchkula collectively forms a Tri-city, with a combined population of over 2 million.[12] This is the first smoke-free city in India.[13]


The name Chandigarh is a portmanteau of Chandi and Garh. Chandi refers to goddess Chandi, the warrior form of goddess Parvati, and Garh means fort.[14] The name is derived from Chandi Mandir, an ancient temple devoted to the Hindu goddess Chandi, near the city in Panchkula District.[15]


Early history

The city has a pre-historic past. In the ancient past, this region had a wide lake surrounded by marshy habitat. Due to the presence of lake, the area has fossil remains with imprints of a large variety of aquatic plants and animals, and amphibian life, which was supported by that environment. As it was a part of the Punjab region, it had many rivers nearby it where the ancient and primitive settling of humans began. So, about 8000 years ago the area was also known to be a home to the Harappans.[16]

Modern history

File:Punjab 1909.jpg
The British Punjab province in 1909. During the Partition of India along the Radcliffe Line, Lahore went to Pakistan which was the capital of Punjab earlier. The necessity to have a new capital led to the development of Chandigarh.

After the partition of India in 1947, the former British province of Punjab was also split between east Punjab in India and west Punjab in Pakistan.[17] The Indian Punjab required a new capital city to replace Lahore, which became part of Pakistan during the partition.[18][19] So, the government carved out Chandigarh of nearly 50 Pwadhi speaking villages of the then state of East Punjab, India.[20]

Chandigarh hosts the largest of Le Corbusier's many Open Hand sculptures, standing 26 metres high. The Open Hand (La Main Ouverte) is a recurring motif in Le Corbusier's architecture, a sign for him of "peace and reconciliation. It is open to give and open to receive." It represents what Le Corbusier called the 'Second Machine Age'.[21] Two of the six monuments planned in the Capitol Complex which has the High Court, the Assembly and the Secretariat, remain incomplete. These include Geometric Hill and Martyrs Memorial; drawings were made, and they were begun in 1956, but they were never completed.[22]

On 1 November 1966, the newly-formed state of Haryana was carved out of the eastern portion of Punjab, in order to create Haryana as a majority Haryanvi-speaking people, while the western portion of Punjab retained a mostly Punjabi-speaking majority and remained as the current state of Punjab. Chandigarh was located on the border of both states and the states moved to incorporate the city into their respective territories. However, the city of Chandigarh was made into a union territory to serve as capital of both states.[23]

Geography and ecology

File:Chandigarh Sports.jpg
Chandigarh is located near the Sivalik Hills. Shown here is the Open Hand Monument with the Shivaliks visible in the background


Chandigarh is located near the foothills of the Sivalik range of the Himalayas in northwest India. It covers an area of approximately 114 km2.[19] It shares its borders with the states of Haryana and Punjab. The exact cartographic co-ordinates of Chandigarh are 30°44′N 76°47′E / 30.74°N 76.79°E / 30.74; 76.79{{#coordinates:30.74|N|76.79|E||||| | |name= }}.[24] It has an average elevation of 321 metres (1053 ft).

The city, lying in the northern plains, has vast fertile and flat land. It has portions of Bhabhar in the north east and Terai in rest of the area.[25]

The surrounding districts are Mohali, Patiala and Roopnagar in Punjab, Panchkula and Ambala in Haryana. The boundary of the state of Himachal Pradesh is also minutes away from its north border. It approximately lies in the center of the north zone of states of Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, eastern Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, western Uttar Pradesh and New Delhi in India.[26]


Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: World Weather Information Service

Chandigarh has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cwa) characterised by a seasonal rhythm: very hot summers, mild winters, unreliable rainfall and great variation in temperature (−1 °C to 46 °C). The average annual rainfall is 1110.7 mm. The city also receives occasional winter rains from the Western Disturbance originating over the Mediterranean Sea. The western distrubances usually brings rain predominantly from mid-December till end of April which can be heavier sometimes with strong winds and hails if the weather turns colder (during March–April months) which usually proves disastrous to the crops. Cold winds usually tend to come from the north near Shimla, capital of Himachal Pradesh and from the state of Jammu and Kashmir, both of which receive their share of snowfall during wintertime.

The city experiences the following seasons and the respective average temperatures:

  • Spring: The climate remains the most enjoyable part of the year during the spring season (from February-end to early-April). Temperatures vary between (max) 13 °C to 20 °C and (min) 5 °C to 12 °C.
  • Autumn: In autumn (from September-end to mid November.), the temperature may rise to a maximum of 30 °C. Temperatures usually remain between 10° to 22° in autumn. The minimum temperature is around 6 °C.
  • Summer: The temperature in summer (from Mid-April to June-end) may rise to 44 °C. The temperatures might sometime rise to 44 °C in mid-June. Temperatures generally vary between 40 to 42 °C.
  • Monsoon: During monsoon (from early-July to mid-September), Chandigarh receives moderate to heavy rainfall and sometimes heavy to very heavy rainfall (generally during the month of August or September). Usually, the rain bearing monsoon winds blow from south-west/south-east. Mostly, the city receives heavy rain from south (which is mainly a persistent rain) but it generally receives most of its rain during monsoon either from North-west or North-east. Maximum amount of rain received by the city of Chandigarh during monsoon season is 195.5 mm in a single day.
  • Winter: Winters (November-end to February-end) are mild but it can sometimes get quite chilly in Chandigarh. Average temperatures in the winter remain at (max) 5 °C to 14 °C and (min) -1 °C to 5 °C. Rain usually comes from the west during winters and it is usually a persistent rain for 2–3 days with sometimes hailstorms. The city witnessed bone-numbing chill as the maximum temperature on Monday, 7 January 2013 plunged to a 30-year low to settle at 6.1 degrees Celsius.
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This page is a soft redirect. Climate data for Chandigarh
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

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This page is a soft redirect.Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[27][28]


Most of Chandigarh is covered by dense banyan and eucalyptus plantations, while there are some chinar trees as well. Ashoka, cassia, mulberry and other trees flourish in the forested ecosystem. The city has forests surrounding that sustain many animal and plant species.[29] Deer, sambars, barking deer, parrots, woodpeckers and peacocks inhabit the protected forests. Sukhna Lake hosts a variety of ducks and geese, and attracts migratory birds from parts of Siberia and Japan in the winter season.

A parrot sanctuary in the city is home to a variety of bird species. It has popular gardens, e.g. Zakir Hussain Rose Garden, Rock Garden, Terraced Garden, Bougainvillea Garden, Shanti Kunj and many others.[30]


Others include Christians (0.7%), Jains (0.2%) & Buddhists (0.1%)
Religion in Chandigarh[31]
Religion Percent
The Population of Chandigarh over the years.


As of 2011 India census, Chandigarh had a population of 1,055,450[2] making for a density of about 9252 (7900 in 2001) persons per square kilometre.[32][33]

Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. The sex ratio is 818 females for every 1,000 males[2] –which is the third lowest in the country,[34][b] up from 773 in 2001. The child sex ratio is 880 pfemales per thousand males, up from 819 in 2001.[35] Chandigarh has an average literacy rate of 86.77%, higher than the national average; with male literacy of 90.81% and female literacy of 81.88%.[2] 10.8% of the population is under 6 years of age.[2]

There is a substantial decline in the population growth rate in Chandigarh with just 17.10% growth between 2001-2011. Since, 1951-1961 it has come down from 394.13% to 17.10%. This is probably because of rapid urbanization and development in the neighboring cities.[36] The urban population constitutes of as high as 97.25% of the total and the rural population makes up 2.75% as there are only few villages within Chandigarh on its Western and South-Eastern border and majority of people live in the heart of Chandigarh.[35]

According to the 2001 census, 79% people in Chandigarh are Hindus, 16% are Sikhs and minorities are Muslims, Christians, Buddhists and Jains.[37]


Chandigarh has been rated as the “Wealthiest Town” of India.[38] The RBI ranked Chandigarh as the twelfth largest deposit centre and tenth largest credit centre nationwide as of June 2012.

The government is a major employer in Chandigarh with three governments having their base here. A significant percentage of Chandigarh’s population therefore consists of people who are either working for one of these governments or have retired from government service. For this reason, Chandigarh is often called a "Pensioner's Paradise".[39] Ordnance Cable Factory of the Ordnance Factories Board has been set up by the Government of India. There are about 15 medium to large industries including two in the Public sector. In addition Chandigarh has over 2500 units registered under small-scale sector. The important industries are paper manufacturing, basic metals and alloys and machinery. Other industries are relating to food products, sanitary ware, auto parts, machine tools, pharmaceuticals and electrical appliances. Yet, with a per capita income of 8px 99,262, Chandigarh is the richest city in India.[40] Chandigarh's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $2.2 billion in current prices.

Chandigarh ranks first in India in the Human Development Index, quality of life and e-readiness.[38] The main occupation here is trade and business.[41][42] However, the Punjab and Haryana High Court, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), the availability of an IT Park and more than a hundred of government schools provide job opportunity to people.

Three major trade promotion organisations have their offices in Chandigarh. These are: Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry, (FICCI) the PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PHDCCI) and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) which has its regional headquarters at Sector 31, Chandigarh.[43][44]

Chandigarh IT Park (also known as Rajiv Gandhi Chandigarh Technology Park) is the city's attempt to break into the information technology world. Chandigarh's infrastructure, proximity to Delhi, Haryana, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh, and the IT talent pool attracts IT businesses looking for office space in the area. Major Indian firms and multinational corporations like Quark, Infosys, Dell, IBM, TechMahindra, have set up base in the city and its suburbs. According to a 2014 survey, Chandigarh is ranked 9th in the top 50 cities identified globally as "emerging outsourcing and IT services destinations" ahead of cities like Beijing.[45]


Pawan Kumar Bansal, who was elected three times in a row from Chandigarh constituency in General Elections.
Kirron Kher is the current Member of Parliament elected from Chandigarh.

Chandigarh, being a Union Territory is not entitled to a state-level election, thus State Assembly elections are not held here and it is directly controlled by the Central government. However, one seat is contested here for the General Elections held after every five years.

The following Members of Parliament are elected till date from Chandigarh constituency:

Election Member Party
style="background-color: Template:Bharatiya Jana Sangh/meta/color" | 1967 Chand Goyal BJS
1971 Amar Nath Vidyalankar Indian National Congress
1977 Krishna Kant Janata Party
1980 Jagannath Kaushal Indian National Congress
1984 Jagannath Kaushal Indian National Congress
1989 Harmohan Dhawan Janata Dal
1991 Pawan Kumar Bansal INC
1996 Satya Pal Jain Bharatiya Janata Party
1998 Satya Pal Jain Bharatiya Janata Party
1999 Pawan Kumar Bansal Indian National Congress
2004 Pawan Kumar Bansal Indian National Congress
2009 Pawan Kumar Bansal Indian National Congress
2014 Kirron Kher Bharatiya Janata Party

The city is controlled by a civic administration. In the Municipal Corporation, BJP candidate Davesh Moudgil defeated Congress' Sheela Phool Singh by 19-16 votes for the post of Deputy Mayor. One vote was declared invalid. There were 12 Councillors of Congress, 11 of BJP-SAD, two of Bahujan Samaj Party and one Independent in the 36-member Chandigarh Municipal Corporation according to December 2014.[46]

Places of interest

Chandigarh has various visitor attractions including theme gardens within the city. Some notable sites are:[47]

Sukhna Lake

File:Sukhna Lake Chandigarh.JPG
Sailing at Sukhna Lake

Sukhna Lake is associated in Sector 1, adjoining the Rock Garden near the foothills of the Shivalik.[48] Sukhna is an artificial lake. This 3 km rain-fed lake was created in 1958 by damming the Sukhna Choe, a seasonal stream coming down from the Shivalik Hills.[49] It has The Garden of Silence within it.[50]

The atmosphere here is serene. Sukhna Lake is the venue for many festive celebrations. The most popular is the Mango Festival held during the monsoons. It is believed that a Swiss architect Pierre Jeanneret's ashes were immersed in this lake according to his will as he developed a deep bond with the lake.[51][52][53]

The garden is most famous for its sculptures made from recycled ceramic, Rock Garden

Rock Garden

The Rock Garden is situated in the middle of the Capitol Complex and the Sukhna Lake in Sector 1.[54] It is also known as Nek Chand Rock Garden after its founder.[55] It has numerous sculptures made by using a variety of different discarded waste materials like frames, mudguards, forks, handle bars, metal wires, play marbles, porcelain, auto parts, broken bangles etc.[56]

It is believed that Nek Chand himself went up the Shivalik hills and got different stones and materials with which he started designing the garden.[57]

Rose Garden

Zakir Hussain Rose Garden, or simply Rose Garden, is named after the former President of India, Zakir Hussain. It is situated in Sector 16.[58] The garden is known to be the greatest of its types in Asia.[59]

The garden is said to be spread about thirty to forty acres containing nearly 825 varieties of roses in it and more than 32,500 varieties of other medicinal plants and trees.[60]

Government Museum & Art Gallery
Musical Fountain, Sector 17, Chandigarh
Le Corbusier Centre, Sector 19
The entrance to Valley of Animals, Sector 49 in Chandigarh.
Chandigarh Museum and Art Gallery

Leisure Valley

A continuum of various theme gardens, Leisure Valley is a linear park over 8 km long which starts from Sector 1 in the north and leaves Chandigarh at its southern most edge. It consists of many theme parks, botanical gardens and green belts.[61]

Other destinations

Other tourist destinations include The New Lake in Sector 42, Capitol Complex in Sector 1, City Centre in Sector 17, Open hand monument in Sector 1, Le Corbusier Centre in Sector 19, Government Museum and Art Gallery in Sector 10, International Doll Museum in Sector 23. There are many tourist gardens like the Garden of Fragrance in Sector 36, Butterfly Park in Sector 23, Valley of Animals in Sector 49, the Japanese Garden in Sector 31 and the Terraced Garden in Sector 33.[30]

Several other famous tourist destinations like Pinjore Gardens, Morni Hills, Nada Sahib, Kasauli lie in its vicinity.


Many projects have been proposed by the Chandigarh Administration. Some of them are:

  • Chandigarh Metro: It is likely to start by the year 2018[c] with estimated cost of around 10,900 crores including 50% funds from the governments of Punjab and Haryana and 25% from Chandigarh and Government of India. Funds from the Japan government will include approximately 56% of the cost.[63][64]
  • Film City: As a Member of parliament from Chandigarh and having connection with the film industry, Kirron Kher promised a film city for Chandigarh. After winning the seat, she said that she had difficulty in acquiring land in Chandigarh.[65] However, her proposal was accepted by the Chandigarh Administration and the film city is proposed to be set up in Sarangpur, Chandigarh.[66]


There are numerous education institutions in Chandigarh. These range from privately and publicly operated schools to colleges and the Panjab University. Other Institutions are Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Govt Medical college & Hospital, Punjab Engineering College Deemed University, Govt College for Men, Govt College for Women, DAV College, MCM DAV College for Women, Sri Guru Gobind Singh Khalsa College-26, Govt Homeopathic College, Ayurvedic College, Govt Polytechnical College, Govt Home Science College, Dr Ambedkar Institute of Hotel management etc. These institutions are a large draw for students from around the world.[67] According to Chandigarh administration's department of education, there are a total of 107 government schools in Chandigarh and convent schools like St. Anne's Convent School, Carmel Convent School and St. Joseph Senior Secondary School.[68]


The 8-lane national highway 21 road passing through Chandigarh.
A road in Chandigarh.


Chandigarh has the largest number of vehicles per capita in India.[69] Wide, well maintained roads and parking spaces all over the city ease local transport.[70]

The Chandigarh Transport Undertaking (CTU) operates public transport buses from its Inter State Bus Terminals (ISBT) in Sectors 17 and 43 of the city.[71] CTU also operates frequent bus services to the neighbouring states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and to Delhi. Chandigarh is well connected by road by NH 22 (Ambala - Kalka - Shimla - Khab, Kinnaur) and NH 21 (Chandigarh - Manali).[72]


Chandigarh railway station lies in the Northern Railway zone of the Indian Railway network and provide connectivity to all the regions of India and some major Indian cities. It provides connectivity to eastern states with link to cities like Kolkata,[73] Dibrugarh;[74] southern states with trains to Visakhapatnam,[75] Trivendrum,[76] Bangalore[77] and Kollam; western states with trains to Jaipur,[78] Ahmedabad[79] and Mumbai;[80] central states with trains to Bhopal[81] and Indore;[82] other northern states with trains to Lucknow,[83] Amritsar,[84] Ambala,[85] Panipat,[86] Kalka[87] and Shimla.[88]

The Chandigarh Metro Rail is a proposed metro rail to serve the city locally and connect it to other two cities of the Chandigarh Tricity. It is expected to start working by 2018 along with the extension of Kolkata Metro and proposed Indore Metro.


File:Chandigarh Airport - mural.jpg
Chandigarh airport from inside.

Chandigarh Airport is a Customs airport with international flights for unloading and loading imported and exported goods.[89] However, it doesn't has commercial international flights owing to the presence of an Air Force Base on the same runway which denied to extend watch hours beyond 8pm.[90]

Chandigarh has scheduled commercial flights to major cities of India including Delhi, Mumbai, Indore, Jaipur, Bangalore and Srinagar. Flights are available to Kullu-Manali also with Himalayan Bulls. A new international terminal is under construction. International flights are scheduled to ply from March 2015.[91]



Chandigarh has numerous newspaper publications, television and radio stations. The most famous languages for newspapers being English, Hindi and Punjabi. Popular English newspapers are Hindustan Times, The Times of India, The Indian Express and The Tribune. Hindi newspapers are also famous like Dainik Jagran, Amar Ujala, Dainik Bhaskar, Punjab Kesari and Hindi edition of The Tribune. Several Punjabi newspapers like Ajit and Punjabi editions of other newspapers. Magazines like Brunch, Champak are published with these newspapers.[92]


Numerous Indian and international television channels can be watched in Chandigarh through one of the Pay TV companies or the local cable television provider. There are many news channels basically set-up in Chandigarh like News 24, PTC Punjabi.[93][94]

Radio stations

There are many radio stations in Chandigarh broadcasting on the FM band including Big FM, Vividh Bharati etc.[95]



File:Chandigarh hockey stadium.JPG
The Hockey Stadium, Sector 42

Chandigarh is home to numerous inter state sporting teams and other sporting franchises like Kings XI Punjab of the Indian Premier League (IPL). The Sector 16 Stadium, owned by Haryana Cricket Association, has been a venue of several international matches. But it has lost prominence after the PCA Stadium was constructed in Mohali. It still provides a platform for cricketers in this region to practice and play inter-state matches.[96]

The Chandigarh Golf Club has 7,202 yard, 18 hole course known for its challenging narrow fairways, a long 613 yard long, dogleg 7th hole and floodlighting on the first nine holes.[97]

There are many other sports grounds and complex like the Lake Sports Complex; Sports Complexes in Sectors 7, 42, 46; Table Tennis Hall, Sector 23; Hockey Centre, Sector 18; Football Centre, Sector 17; Skating Rink, Sector 10 and so on. Many personalities from this region have excelled in sports.[98]


It has two gardens of international repute – the Rock Garden of Chandigarh in sector 1 and the Zakir Hussain Rose Garden in sector 16. The latter has the distinction of being the largest of its kind in Asia.

Chandigarh has a belt of parks running from Sector to Sector. It is known for its green belts in most of the sectors and other special tourist parks.[99] Sukhna Lake itself hosts a large number of gardens, including the Garden of Silence.


Available internet providers in Chandigarh are: Bharti Airtel, Connect Broadband, Tata photon & 3G wireless internet, BSNL broadband, Reliance DSL and Airtel 4G wifi among others. Same ISPs are serving in Mohali & Panchkula (other two cities of the Chandigarh Tricity).[100]

Notable people from Chandigarh

File:Milkha Singh.jpg
Milkha Singh, also known as the Flying Sikh, at Chandigarh Golf Club in 2012


See also

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  1. ^ Chandigarh being the capital of two states and union territory itself has different official languages, Punjabi being the official language of Punjab and Hindi of Haryana.[4][5] However, the Chandigarh departments mainly refer in English.
  2. ^ The lowest is Daman and Diu (618 females per thousand males) and second lowest is Dadra and Nagar Haveli (774 females per thousand males).[34]
  3. ^ The Member of Parliament from Chandigarh, however, opposes this and says this project is not feasible for Chandigarh.[62]


  1. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above". Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  3. ^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 47th report (July 2008 to June 2010)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. pp. 122–126. Retrieved 16 February 2012. 
  4. ^ "The Haryana Official Language Act, 1969". Laws of India. Retrieved 26 March 2015. 
  5. ^ "The Punjab Official Language Act, 1967". Laws of India. Retrieved 26 March 2015. 
  6. ^ "Business Portal of India : Investment Opportunities and Incentives : State Level Investment : Chandigarh". Retrieved 12 March 2015. 
  7. ^ "Top 10 Green Cities of India". Retrieved 12 March 2015. 
  8. ^ "Chandigarh has the third highest forest cover". Hindustan Times.
  9. ^ "Front Page News : Monday, July 26, 2010". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 17 September 2008. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  10. ^ "India's cleanest: Where does your city stand?: News". 13 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  11. ^ Meghalaya Human Development Report 2008 (p. 23)
  12. ^ "Tricity residents to get Emaar MGF’s Central Plaza soon". The Financial Express. 6 January 2014. 
  13. ^ "WHO - Experience of Chandigarh as a smoke-free city". Retrieved 12 March 2015. 
  14. ^ "CII". Retrieved 12 March 2015. 
  15. ^ "Chandigarh: Info on geography, history, government, districts, business, economy, travel, rivers, education, food, arts, culture, music, dance, festivals". Retrieved 12 March 2015. 
  16. ^ "Historical Background of Chandigarh" (PDF). Government of Chandigarh. 
  17. ^ "Chandigarh history". City Beautiful. Retrieved 21 March 2015. 
  18. ^ "Chandigarh History". Chandigarh Guide. Retrieved 12 March 2015. 
  19. ^ a b "About Chandigarh". Government of Chandigarh. Retrieved 12 March 2015. 
  20. ^ "Displaced for making Chandigarh, their marginalization is still on". The Times of India. 12 May 2014. 
  21. ^ Frommer's India (2010) Pippa de Bruyn, John Wiley & Sons, p613 ISBN 9780470556108
  22. ^ "Capitol Complex, as Le Corbusier wanted it, remains incomplete". Indian Express. 2010-06-19. Retrieved 2013-07-02. 
  23. ^ "1st November 1966 - Haryana Day". Haryana Online. Retrieved 2013-07-08. 
  24. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Chandigarh". Falling Rain Genomics. Retrieved 21 March 2015. 
  25. ^ "Chandigarh > Travel tips > Location". Retrieved 26 March 2015. 
  26. ^ "Chandigarh location in Northern India". Google Maps. Google. Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  27. ^ "Chandigarh Climatological Table Period: 1971–2000". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved March 25, 2015. 
  28. ^ "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Retrieved March 25, 2015. 
  29. ^ "Official Website of Chandigarh Administration". Retrieved 12 March 2015. 
  30. ^ a b "15 parks gardens in Chandigarh - nature wildlife in Chandigarh". Retrieved 12 March 2015. 
  31. ^ "Census of India – Socio-cultural aspects". Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. 
  32. ^ "Census of India Website : Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India". Retrieved 12 March 2015. 
  33. ^ "Census observations". Census of India. 
  34. ^ a b "Sex Ratio in India". Census 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2015. 
  35. ^ a b "Chandigarh Population Census data 2011". Census2011. Retrieved 21 March 2015. 
  36. ^ "Chandigarh demographics" (PDF). Retrieved 21 March 2015. 
  37. ^ "Official Website of Chandigarh Administration". Retrieved 21 March 2015. 
  38. ^ a b Chandigarh has been rated as the “Wealthiest Town” of India.
  39. ^ "IAS OUR DREAM - Chandigarh is often called a "Pensioner's... - Facebook". Retrieved 12 March 2015. 
  40. ^ "Chandigarh's the richest of 'em all". IBNLive. Retrieved 12 March 2015. 
  41. ^ Occupation in Chandigarh. The people of Chandigarh and their occupation.
  42. ^ Chandigarh people, culture and occupation. The culture and people of Chandigarh.
  43. ^ CII (NR) headquarters are at Chandigarh. (Confederation of Indian Industry) The headquarters of CII North Region are at Chandigarh.
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Further reading

  • Evenson, Norma. Chandigarh. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1966.
  • Sarbjit Bahga, Surinder Bahga (2014) Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret: The Indian Architecture, CreateSpace, ISBN 978-1495906251
  • Joshi, Kiran. Documenting Chandigarh: The Indian Architecture of Pierre Jeanneret, Edwin Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew. Ahmedabad: Mapin Publishing in association with Chandigarh College of Architecture, 1999. ISBN 1-890206-13-X
  • Kalia, Ravi. Chandigarh: The Making of an Indian City. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999.
  • Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew. Chandigarh and Planning Development in India, London: Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, No.4948, 1 April 1955, Vol. CIII, pages 315–333. I. The Plan, by E. Maxwell Fry, II. Housing, by Jane B. Drew.
  • Nangia, Ashish. Re-locating Modernism: Chandigarh, Le Corbusier and the Global Postcolonial. PhD Dissertation, University of Washington, 2008.
  • Perera, Nihal. "Contesting Visions: Hybridity, Liminality and Authorship of the Chandigarh Plan" Planning Perspectives 19 (2004): 175–199
  • Prakash, Vikramaditya. Chandigarh’s Le Corbusier: The Struggle for Modernity in Postcolonial India. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2002.
  • Sarin, Madhu. Urban Planning in the Third World: The Chandigarh Experience. London: Mansell Publishing, 1982.

External links

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