Open Access Articles- Top Results for Chennai

International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering
Reduction of End To End Delay Using Priority Queues in Wireless Sensor Network
International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering
Analysis of Secure In-Network Aggregation for Anomaly Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks
International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology
Project Performance Evaluation By Earned Value Method
International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology
Satisfaction & Brand Loyalty towards Bath Soaps: A Study of Consumers in Chennai
International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology
A Study on Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Selected Ground Water Samples of Chennai City, Tamil Nadu


For the species of wild dog, see Dhole
"Madras" redirects here. For other uses, see Madras (disambiguation).

Clockwise from top: Madras Central, Marina Beach, Kapaleeswarar Temple, Santhome Basilica, Bharata Natyam recital.
Nickname(s): Detroit of India, Gateway to South India, Singara Chennai, City of Magnificent Distances, Shore of Marina
Location of Chennai in Tamil Nadu

Coordinates: 13°5′N 80°16′E / 13.083°N 80.267°E / 13.083; 80.267Coordinates: 13°5′N 80°16′E / 13.083°N 80.267°E / 13.083; 80.267{{#coordinates:13|5|N|80|16|E|type:city(4646732)_region:IN-TN|| |primary |name=

Country Template:Country data IND India
State Tamil Nadu
District Chennai, Kanchipuram and Tiruvallur[A]
Former name Madras
Native Languages Tamil
Established 1639
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Body Chennai Corporation
 • Mayor Saidai Duraisamy[1]
 • Deputy Mayor P Benjamin
 • Corporation Commissioner D Karthikeyan
 • Police Commissioner S George[2]
 • Metropolis 426 km2 (164.8 sq mi)
 • Metro 1,189 km2 (426 sq mi)
Elevation 6 m (20 ft)
Population (2011)[4]
 • Metropolis 4,646,732
 • Rank 6th
 • Density 11,000/km2 (28,000/sq mi)
 • Metro[5] 8,696,010
 • Metro rank 4th
Demonym Chennaiyin, Chennaite, Madrasi
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Pincode(s) 600001 to 600130
Area code(s) +91-44
Vehicle registration TN-01 to TN-14, TN-18, TN-22, TN-85
Official language Tamil
Spoken languages Tamil, English
Website Chennai Corporation
  1. ^ The Chennai metropolitan area also includes portions of Kanchipuram and Tiruvallur districts adjoining the Chennai District.

Chennai /ˈɛn/ (also known as Madras Listeni/məˈdrs/) is the capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal, it is the biggest industrial and commercial centre in South India,[6] and a major cultural, economic and educational centre. Chennai is known as the "Detroit of India" for its automobile industry.[7] It is the sixth-largest city and fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the country and 31st-largest urban area in the world. The city is the secondary financial hub in the country, after Mumbai.

The city is host to the third-largest expatriate population in India after Mumbai and Delhi, with 35,000 in 2009 and steadily climbing to 82,790, in 2011.[8][9] Chennai is the only city in South Asia and India to figure in the "52 places to go around the world" by The New York Times.[10][11][12] Tourism guide publisher Lonely Planet has named Chennai as one of the top ten cities in the world to visit in 2015.[13] Chennai is ranked as a beta-level city in the Global Cities Index and was ranked the best city in India by India Today in the 2014 annual Indian city survey.[14][15] Chennai has also been named in the 'hottest' cities to live in for 2015 by BBC among global cities with a mixture of both modern and traditional values.[16] National Geographic ranked Chennai as world's 2nd best food city and Chennai was the only Indian city to feature in the list.[17] Chennai was also named the the 9th best cosmopolitan city in the world by Lonely Planet.[18] As a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Chennai confronts substantial pollution and other logistical and socio-economic problems. With a gross domestic product (GDP) of $69 billion, Chennai is ranked fifth in India by overall GDP contribution.


The origin of the word Chennai is disputed.[19]

There are two different theories for the origin of the name Chennai:

The first theory is that it was derived from the name of a ruler Damal Chennappa Nayagar, a Nayakar of Vandavasi who served as a general under Sriranga Deva Raya of the Aravidu Dynasty[20] father of Damal Venkatadri Naicker, from whom the English acquired the town in 1639. The first official use of the name Chennai is said to be in a sale deed, dated 8 August 1639, to Francis Day of the East India Company.[21] The second theory states that it was named after the Chenna Kesava Perumal Temple; the word Chenni in Tamil means face, with the temple regarded as the face of the city.[22]

The name Madras originated even before the British presence was established in India.[23] Multiple explanations attempt to account for the city's colonial name, Madras:

  • allegedly derived from Madraspattinam, a fishing-village north of Fort St George.[24] However, it is uncertain whether the name "Madraspattinam" was in use before the arrival of European influence.[25]
  • the military mapmakers believed Madras was originally Mundir-raj, or abbreviatedly, Mundiraj.[26]
  • other arguments suggest that the Portuguese, who arrived in the area in the 16th century, named the village Madre de Deus, meaning Mother of God.
  • another possibility sees the village's name coming from the prominent Madeiros family of Portuguese origin, which consecrated the Madre de Deus Church in the Santhome locality of Chennai in 1575.
  • another theory concludes that the name Madras was given to Chennapattanam after it was taken from a similarly named Christian priest.[27]
  • other parties express the opinion that Madras might have taken its name from a fisherman by the name of Madrasan
  • from religious Muslim schools, referred to as Madrasahs
  • from the word Madhu-ras, which means "honey" in Sanskrit.[28]

In 1996 the state government officially changed the name to Chennai. At that time many Indian cities underwent a change of name.[28][29] However, the name Madras continues in occasional use for the city,[30] as well as for places named after the city, such as the University of Madras and The Indian Institute of Technology, Madras.


File:Clive House.jpg
Clive House at Fort St. George, Madras said to be the first British settlement in India during 1609
File:Surrender of The City of Madras 1746.jpg
Surrender of the City of Madras in 1746 to de La Bourdonnais, by Jacques François Joseph Swebach
File:Church stmt.jpg
St.Thomas Mount, Chennai
File:Fort St. George, Chennai.jpg
An 18th-century portrait depicting Fort St. George, the first major British settlement in India and the foundation stone of Chennai

The region around Chennai has served as an important administrative, military, and economic centre for many centuries. During 1st century CE, a poet and weaver named Thiruvalluvar lived in the town of Mylapore (a neighbourhood of present Chennai).[31] From the 1st-12th century the region of present Tamil Nadu and parts of South India was ruled by the Cholas.[32]

Stone age implements have been found near Pallavaram in Chennai. According to the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), Pallavaram was a megalithic cultural establishment, and pre-historic communities resided in the settlement.[33] The Pallavas of Kanchi built the areas of Mahabalipuram and Pallavaram during the reign of Mahendravarman I. They also defeated several kingdoms including the Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas who ruled over the area before their arrival. Sculpted caves and paintings have been identified from that period.[34] Ancient coins dating to around 500 BC have also been unearthed from the city and its surrounding areas. A portion of these findings belonged to the Vijayanagara Empire, which ruled the region during the medieval period.[35]

The Portuguese first arrived in 1522 and built a port called São Tomé after the Christian apostle, St. Thomas, who is believed to have preached in the area between 52 and 70 CE. In 1612, the Dutch established themselves near Pulicat, north of Chennai.[36] On 22 August 1639, which is referred to as Madras Day, the British East India Company under Francis Day bought a small strip of land stretching 3 miles on the Coromandel Coast. They got a license to build a fort and a castle in the contracted region. The ruler Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, the Nayaka of Vandavasi, granted the British permission to build a factory and warehouse for their trading enterprises. The region was then primarily a fishing village known as "Madraspatnam".[35] A year later, the British built Fort St. George, the first major British settlement in India,[37] which became the nucleus of the growing colonial city and urban Chennai, grew around this Fort.[38] Post independence the fort housed the Tamil Nadu Assembly until the new Secretariat building was opened in 2010.[39] But shortly afterwards it was again moved back to Fort St. George, due to a change in the Government.

In 1746, Fort St. George and Madras were captured by the French under General La Bourdonnais, the Governor of Mauritius, who plundered the town and its outlying villages.[36] The British regained control in 1749 through the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle and strengthened the town's fortress wall to withstand further attacks from the French and Hyder Ali, the Sultan of Mysore.[40] They resisted a French siege attempt in 1759 under the leadership of Eyre Coote.[41] In 1769 the city was threatened by Mysore and the British were defeated by Hyder Ali, after which the Treaty of Madras ended the war.[42] By the late 18th century, the British had conquered most of the region around Tamil Nadu and the northern modern–day states of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, establishing the Madras Presidency with Madras as the capital.

Gradually, the city grew into a major naval base and became the central administrative centre for the British in South India.[43] With the advent of railways in India in the 19th century, the thriving urban centre was connected to other important cities such as Bombay and Calcutta, promoting increased communication and trade with the hinterland.[44] Sir Arthur Lawley was Governor of Madras from 1906 to 1911 and promoted modern agriculture, industry, railways, education, the arts and more democratic governance. The Governor lived in Government House, Fort St George, and had a country home at Guindy, with access to a golf course, hockey pitches, riding stables and the Guindy Horse Racing Track.[45][46] In the First World War as Red Cross Commissioner in Mesopotamia, he looked after the welfare of Indian soldiers.[47] Madras was the only Indian city to be attacked by the Central Powers during World War I,[48] when an oil depot was shelled by the German light cruiser SMS Emden on 22 September 1914, as it raided shipping lanes in the Indian Ocean, causing disruption to shipping.[49]

After India gained its independence in 1947, the city became the capital of Madras State, which was renamed as Tamil Nadu in 1969. The violent agitations of 1965 against the compulsory imposition of Hindi in the state marked a major shift in the political dynamics of the city and eventually it had a big impact on the whole state.[50] On 26 December 2004, an Indian Ocean tsunami lashed the shores of Chennai, killing 206 people in Chennai and permanently altering the coastline.[51][52]



Main article: Geography of Chennai

Chennai, sometimes referred to as the "Gateway to South India,"[53][54] is located on the south–eastern coast of India in the north–eastern part of Tamil Nadu on a flat coastal plain known as the Eastern Coastal Plains. Its average elevation is around Script error: No such module "convert".,[55] and its highest point is Script error: No such module "convert"..[56] Two major rivers flow through Chennai, the Cooum River (or Koovam) through the centre and the Adyar River to the south. Cooum is one of the most polluted rivers in the South of India and serves as potential health hazard to the people living in and around the river. A third river, the Kortalaiyar, travels through the northern fringes of the city before draining into the Bay of Bengal, at Ennore. The estuary of this river is heavily polluted with effluents released by the industries in the region.[57] Adyar and Cooum rivers are heavily polluted with effluents and waste from domestic and commercial sources. The state government periodically removes silt and pollutants from the Adyar river, which is less polluted than the Cooum. A protected estuary on the Adyar forms a natural habitat for several species of birds and animals.[58] The Buckingham Canal, Script error: No such module "convert". inland, runs parallel to the coast, linking the two rivers. The Otteri Nullah, an east–west stream, runs through north Chennai and meets the Buckingham Canal at Basin Bridge. Several lakes of varying size are located on the western fringes of the city. Some areas of the city have the problem of excess iron content in groundwater.[59]

Chennai's soil is mostly clay, shale and sandstone.[60] Clay underlies most of the city, chiefly Manali, Kolathur, Maduravoyal, K. K. Nagar, Semmencherry, Alapakkam, Vyasarpadi and Anna Nagar. Sandy areas are found along the river banks and coasts, and include areas such as Tiruvottiyur, George Town, Madhavaram, New Washermanpet, Chepauk, Mylapore, Porur, Adyar, Besant Nagar and Uthandi. In these areas, rainwater runoff percolates quickly through the soil. Areas having hard rock surface include Guindy, Nanganallur, Pallikaranai, Alandur, Jaladampet, Velachery, Adambakkam and a part of Saidapet and Perungudi.[61][62] The ground water table in Chennai is at 4-5m below ground in most of the areas,[62] which was considerably improved and maintained through the mandatory rain water harvesting system.[63]


Chennai is classified as being in Seismic Zone III, indicating a moderate risk of damage from earthquakes.[64] Owing to the geotectonic zone the city falls in, the city is considered a potential geothermal energy site. The crust has granite rocks indicating volcanic activities in the past. It is expected that a temperatures of around 200 to 300 °C will be available if the ground were drilled 4 to 5 km deep. The region has the oldest rocks in the country dating back to nearly a billion years.[65]

Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [66]


Chennai has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen: Aw). The city lies on the thermal equator[67][68] and is also on the coast, which prevents extreme variation in seasonal temperature. The hottest part of the year is late May to early June, known regionally as Agni Nakshatram ("fire star") or as Kathiri Veyyil,[69] with maximum temperatures around Script error: No such module "convert".. The coolest part of the year is January, with minimum temperatures around Script error: No such module "convert".. The lowest recorded temperature was Script error: No such module "convert". on 11 December 1895 and 29 January 1905. The highest recorded temperature was Script error: No such module "convert". on 30 May 2003. The average annual rainfall is about Script error: No such module "convert"..[70]

The city gets most of its seasonal rainfall from the north–east monsoon winds, from mid–October to mid–December. Cyclones in the Bay of Bengal sometimes hit the city. The highest annual rainfall recorded is Script error: No such module "convert". in 2005.[71] Prevailing winds in Chennai are usually southwesterly between April and October[72] and north-easterly during the rest of the year. Historically, Chennai has relied on annual monsoon rains to replenish water reservoirs, as no major rivers flow through the area. Chennai has a water table at 2 metres for 60 percent of the year.[73]

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.- Script error: No such module "WeatherBox".
colspan="14" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Climate data for Chennai, India (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Script error: No such module "WeatherBox". Script error: No such module "WeatherBox". Script error: No such module "WeatherBox". Script error: No such module "WeatherBox". Script error: No such module "WeatherBox". Script error: No such module "WeatherBox". Script error: No such module "WeatherBox".

colspan="14" style="text-align:center;font-size:85%" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Source #1: India Meteorological Department (temperatures and precipitation)[74][75]

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.- #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.colspan="14" style="text-align:center; font-size:85%"#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Source #2: NOAA (sunshine duration and humidity 1971–1990)[76]


Chennai city is governed by the Chennai Corporation (formerly "Corporation of Madras"), which was established in 1688. It is the oldest surviving municipal corporation in India and the second oldest surviving corporation in the world.[77][78] In 2011, the jurisdiction of the Chennai Corporation was expanded from Script error: No such module "convert". to an area of Script error: No such module "convert".,[79] dividing into three regions—North, South and Central, which covers 200 wards.[80][81] The corporation is headed by an Indian Administrative Service officer. The Mayor and councillors of the city are elected through a popular vote by the residents.[82] While the city limit was expanded to 426 km2 in 2011, the revised population is yet to be officially announced.

The Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority (CMDA) is the nodal agency responsible for planning and development of Chennai Metropolitan Area, which is spread over an area of Script error: No such module "convert".,[83] covering the Chennai district and parts of Tiruvallur and Kanchipuram districts. The larger suburbs are governed by town municipalities, and the smaller are governed by town councils called panchayats. Under the gamut of the CMDA are 5 parliamentary and 28 assembly constituencies.[84][85] The CMDA has drafted an additional Master Plan that aims to develop satellite townships around the city. The city's contiguous satellite towns include Mahabalipuram in the south, Chengalpattu and Maraimalai Nagar in the southwest, and Sriperumpudur, Arakkonam, Kanchipuram and Tiruvallur to the west.[86]

Chennai, as the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu, houses the state executive and legislative headquarters primarily in the Secretariat Buildings in the Fort St George campus. The Madras High Court, is the highest judicial authority in the state, whose jurisdiction extends across Tamil Nadu and Puducherry.[87] Chennai has three parliamentary constituencies—Chennai North, Chennai Central and Chennai South—and elects 14 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) to the state legislature.[88]

Law and order

The Greater Chennai Police is the main law enforcement agency in the city, with a jurisdiction of over 745 sq km catering to over 85 lakh people. It consists of 121 Police stations and is headed by a commissioner of police. The Greater Chennai Police is a division of the Tamil Nadu Police, and the administrative control lies with the Tamil Nadu Home Ministry.[89] Chennai City Traffic Police (CCTP) is responsible for the traffic management in the city. The Metropolitan suburbs are policed by the Chennai Metropolitan Police, and the outer district areas of CMDA are policed by the Kanchipuram and Thiruvallur police departments.

As of 2011 (prior to the expansion of Chennai Corporation area), Chennai city has a sanctioned strength of 14,000 police personnel. With a population density of 26,903 persons per square kilometre, the city had 1 policeman for every 413 people. The Chennai suburban police had about 4,093 police personnel and a ratio of 1:1,222.[90] In 2010, the crime rate in the city was 169.2 per 100,000 people, as against an average of 341.9 in the 35 major cities of India.[91] In 2011, North Chennai zone had 30 police stations and 3 police out posts, Central Chennai zone had 28 police stations and 3 police out posts, and South Chennai zone had 30 police stations.[92]

In 2009, Chennai Central Prison, one of the oldest prisons in India, built over 11 acres of land, was demolished; the prisoners were moved to Puzhal Central Prison.[93]


Being the capital of the Madras Province that covered a vast area of the Deccan region, Chennai remained the centre of politics in the southern region of India during the British colonial era. After Independence, it remained the centre of political activities of the state of Tamil Nadu. Chennai is the birthplace of the idea of the Indian National Congress, commonly known as the Congress Party. Founded by Indian and British members of the Theosophical Society movement, most notably A.O. Hume,[94] the idea was originally conceived in a private meeting of 17 men after a Theosophical Convention held in the city in December 1884.[95] During the first 50 years of the Indian National Congress, the city played host to its conferences seven times in 1887, 1894, 1898, 1903, 1908, 1914 and 1927, becoming one of the strong bases for the Indian independence movement. After independence, the city hosted the Congress in 1955 in its suburb of Avadi.

Chennai is also the birthplace of several regional political movements since the British era. South Indian Welfare Association, one of the earliest regional parties, was founded in 1916, which later came to be known as the Justice Party, which was the main opposition party to the Indian National Congress in the state.[96][97] In 1944, the party was renamed Dravidar Kazhagam (DK) by E. V. Ramasami (popularly known as 'Periyar'). The party was a non-political party that demanded the establishment of an independent state called Dravida Nadu.[98] However, due to the differences between its two leaders Periyar and C. N. Annadurai, the party was split. Annadurai left the party to form the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). The DMK decided to enter into politics in 1956.

Since the 19th century, when Western scholars proposed that Dravidian languages, which dominated the southern region of India, formed a different linguistic group to that of the Indo-Aryan languages that are predominant in the north of the subcontinent, the aspects of Tamil nationalism gained prominence. This resulted in the Anti-Hindi agitations in the city and across the state. However, the post-Independence re-organisation of Indian states according to linguistic and ethnic basis has moderated Tamil nationalism, especially the demand for separation from the Indian Union. The Anti-Hindi agitations in mid-1960s made the DMK more popular and more powerful political force in the state. The agitations of the 1960s played a crucial role in the defeat of the Tamil Nadu Congress party in the 1967 elections and the continuing dominance of Dravidian parties in Tamil Nadu politics.[99]

Utility services

File:Redhills Lake.jpg
Puzal Lake, Redhills

The city's water supply and sewage treatment are managed by the Chennai MetroWater Supply and Sewage Board. Water is drawn from Red Hills Lake and Chembarambakkam Lake, the primary water reservoirs of the city,[100] and treated at water treatment plants located at Kilpauk, Puzhal, Chembarambakkam[101] and supplied to the city through 27 water distribution stations.[102] The city receives 530 mld of water from Krishna River through Telugu Ganga project, 180 mld of water from the Veeranam lake project[101] and 100 mld of water from the Minjur desalination plant, the country's largest sea water desalination plant.[103][104][105] However, Chennai is predicted to face a huge deficit of 713 million litres per day (MLD) in 2026 as the demand is projected at 2,248 MLD and supply estimated at only 1,535 MLD.[106] The city's sewer system was designed in 1910, with some modifications in 1958.[107] There are 714 public toilets in the city managed by the city corporation,[108] and 2,000 more has been planned by the corporation.[109] The corporation also owns 52 community halls across the city.[110]

The Corporation of Chennai provides civic services to the city. Garbage collection in some of the wards is contracted to Ramky Enviro Engineers Limited, a private company,[111] while the Corporation looks after the removal and processing of solid waste in the others,[112] with a superintendent engineer managing the channels. As of 2011, 8 transfer stations exist within the city for treating the waste.[113] Garbage is dumped in two dump-yards in the city—One in Kodungaiyur and another in Perungudi, with a major portion of the latter covering the Pallikaranai marshland.[114] In market areas, the conservancy work is done during the night.[115] Electricity is distributed by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board.[116] Fire services are handled by the Tamil Nadu Fire and Rescue Service.[117] The city, along with the suburbs, has 33 operating fire stations.[118]


File:Parrys Corner, Chennai, India.jpg
Parry's Corner, one of the oldest business areas of Chennai, lined up with Art Deco buildings.

With the history of many neighbourhoods of the city such as Mylapore and Triplicane antedating that of the city, the architecture of Chennai ranges in a wide chronology. The oldest buildings in the city dates from the 7th and 8th centuries CE, which include the Kapaleeshwarar Temple in Mylapore and the Parthasarathy Temple in Triplicane, built in the Dravidian architecture. This architecture includes various styles, such as those of the Pallavas, the Cholas, and the Vijayanagara empires. The associated Agraharam architecture, which consists of traditional row houses surrounding a temple, can still be seen in these areas.[119][120] The heritage temples at Mamallapuram at the outskirts of the city are some of the examples of the Pallava architecture. Chennai ranks second to Kolkata of Indian heritage buildings.[121]

With the advent of the Mugals and the British, the city saw a rise in a blend of Hindu, Islamic and Gothic revival styles, resulting in the distinct Indo-Saracenic style.[122] The architecture for several early institutions such as banking and commerce, railways, press and education, chiefly through the colonial rule, followed the earlier directions of the Neo-Classical and the Indo-Saracenic.[123] The Chepauk Palace in the city, designed by Paul Benfield, is said to be the first Indo-Saracenic building in India.[124] Since then, many of the colonial-era buildings in the city were designed in this style of architecture, which is most apparent around the Fort St. George built in 1640. Most of these were designed by English architects Robert Fellowes Chisholm and Henry Irwin. The best examples of this style include the Madras High Court (built in 1892), Southern Railway headquarters, Ripon Building, Government Museum, Senate House of the University of Madras, Amir Mahal, Bharat Insurance Building, Victoria Public Hall and the College of Engineering.[125]

File:Triumph of Labour.JPG
Triumph of Labour
File:Southern Railway HQ.jpg
Southern Railway Headquarters, one of the fine examples of Indo-Saracenic architecture in the city

The Triumph of Labour, also known as the Labour statue, is a statue at the Marina Beach, Chennai, India. Erected at the northern end of the beach at the Anna Square opposite University of Madras, it is an important landmark of Chennai.The statue shows four men toiling to move a rock, depicting the hard work of the labouring class.It was sculpted by Debi Prasad Roy Chowdhry.[126]

The construction of the National Art Gallery in Madras was completed in 1909. The new building, with a stunning facade, was built of pink sandstone brought from Sathyavedu, and formed part of the Madras Museum campus. It was opened, on 23 January 1909, by the Governor of Fort St. George, Sir Arthur Lawley, and called the Victoria Memorial Hall after the Queen-Empress Victoria.[127][128][129] The residential architecture in the city was based on the bungalow or the continuous row house prototypes.[123] Gothic revival style buildings include the Chennai Central and Chennai Egmore railway stations. The Santhome Church, which was originally built by the Portuguese in 1523 and is believed to house the remains of the apostle St. Thomas, was rebuilt in 1893 in neo-Gothic style.[130]

By the early 20th century, the art deco too made its entry upon the city's urban landscape. From 1930s onwards, many buildings in George Town were built in this style, including the United India building (presently housing LIC) and the Burma Shell building (presently the Chennai House), both built in the 1930s, and the Dare House, built in 1940. Other examples include the Bombay Mutual building (presently housing LIC) and the South Indian Chamber of Commerce building.[123] After Independence, the city witnessed a rise in the Modernism style of architecture.[123] The completion of the LIC Building in 1959, the tallest building in the country at that time,[131] marked the transition from lime-and-brick construction to concrete columns in the region.[132] The presence of the weather radar at the Chennai Port, however, prohibited the construction of buildings taller than 60 m around a radius of 10 km.[133] In addition, the floor-area ratio (FAR) in the central business district is also 1.5, much less than that of smaller cities of the country.[134] This resulted in the city expanding horizontally, unlike other metropolitan cities where vertical growth is prominent. On the contrary, the peripheral regions, especially on the southern and south-western sides, are experiencing vertical growth with the construction of buildings up to 50 floors.


Template:IndiaCensusPop A resident of Chennai is called a Chennaite.[135][136][137] According to the provisional population results of 2011, the city had a population of 4,681,087, with a density of 26,903 per km² and the urban agglomeration had a population of 8,653,521.[5] The city registered a growth rate of 7.77% during the period 2001–2011.[138] In 2001, the population density in the city was 24,682 per km² (63,926 per mi²), while the population density of the metropolitan area was 5,922 per km² (15,337 per mi²), making it one of the most densely populated cities in the world.[139] The Chennai metropolitan area is the fourth most populated agglomeration in India. The sex ratio is 951 females for every 1,000 males,[140] slightly higher than the national average of 944.[141] The average literacy rate rose from 85.33% in 2001 to 90.33% in 2011,[142] much higher than the national average of 79.5%. However, the city has the fourth highest population of slum dwellers among major cities in India, with about 820,000 people (18.6% of the city's population) living in slum conditions.[143] According to 2011 census, the Chennai district has 11 lakh households, with 51% of them living in rented houses.[144]

Religions in Chennai
Religion Percentage

The majority of the population in Chennai are Tamils. Tamil is the primary language spoken in Chennai. English is spoken largely by white-collar workers,[145] often mixed into Tamil.[146] In 2001, out of the 2,937,000 migrants (33.8% of its population) in the city, 61.5% were from other parts of the state, 33.8% were from rest of India and 3.7% were from outside the country.[139]

Chennai, along with Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata, is one of the few Indian cities that are home to a diverse population of ethno-religious communities.[147] Minorities include Marwaris, Telugus, Parsis,[148][149] Sindhis,[150][151] Oriyas,[152] Goans,[153] Kannadigas,[154] Anglo-Indians,[155] Bengalis,[156] Punjabi,[157] and Malayalees. According to the 2011 census, Hindus constitute about 90.3% of the city's population, and Muslims (3.1%), Christians (6.6%) and Jains (1.1%) are other major religious groups.[158]


In a 2013 survey titled ‘Emerging trends in real estate in Asia Pacific 2014’, Chennai emerged in the top 25 real estate destinations list in the Asia Pacific region. The city ranked 22nd in the list.[159] There are about 1,240 slums in Chennai home to about 9 lakh people.[160]

Per 2011 census, there are 1.1 million households in the city and the residential housing stock available is 1,150,000 – a surplus of about 50,000 houses. About 43,700 of them are kept vacant. In the suburbs of Chennai located in Tiruvallur and Kancheepuram districts, the figures of vacant houses 56,000 and 71,000, respectively. Of the existing housing stock in the city, about 200,000 houses are not in good condition, necessitating either to rebuild or build new units. About 26,000 households live in houses without any room and another 427,000 families (with an average size of five members) live in small dwelling units with only one room. An earlier estimate shows that there is a need to generate about 420,000 units for low-income groups by 2016.[161]

As of 2012, an estimated population of 11,116 (0.16 percent) were homeless. Per Supreme Court guidelines, the city needs 65 shelters for the homeless. However, it has only 15, of which 8 are functioning and two are under renovation.[162]

Arts and culture

Main article: Culture of Chennai

Museums and art galleries

File:Chennai National Art Gallery.jpg
National Art Gallery (Chennai)

Chennai is home to many museums, galleries, and other institutions, many of which are free of admission charges and are major tourist attractions as well as playing a research role.[163] The city is also an host to one of the oldest Museum and Art Gallery in the country- Government Museum, Chennai and The National Art Gallery (Chennai),[164] established in the early 18th century.[165] The city also hosts two art festivals annually. The "Fort Museum" inside the premises of Fort St. George is an important Museum having a noteworthy collection of objects of the British era in its collection. The museum is managed by the Archaeological Survey of India and enjoys the pride of having in its possession, the first tricolour (Indian National Flag)hoisted after the Indian independence.[166]

Music and performing arts

Chennai is a major centre for music, art and culture in India.[167] The city is known for its classical dance shows. In 1930, for the first time in India, Madras University introduced a course of music, as part of the Bachelor of Arts curriculum.[168] The Madras Music Season, initiated by Madras Music Academy in 1927, is celebrated every year during the month of December.[169] It features performances of traditional Carnatic music by many artists in and around the city.[170]

An arts festival called the Chennai Sangamam, which showcases not only various arts of Tamil Nadu but also from the neighbouring states, like kalari (from Kerala), which is a major attraction, is held in January every year. The Speciality of Chennai Sangamam is that the various programs are held near or at the various famous landmarks in the city so that everyone in the city has access to the programs and there is no fee charged for entry for any of the programs.[171]

The city has a diverse theatre scene and is one of the important centres for Bharata Natyam, a classical dance form that originated in Tamil Nadu and is the oldest dance of India.[172] An important cultural centre for Bharata Natyam is Kalakshetra, on the beach in the south of the city.[173] In 2012, a group of five Bharatha Natyam dancers from Chennai performed at the India Campaign during the 2012 Summer Olympics.[174] Chennai is also home to some choirs, who during the Christmas season stage various carol performances across the city in Tamil and English.[175][176]


Madras is divided into four broad regions: North, Central, South and West. North Madras is primarily an industrial area. South Madras and West Madras, previously mostly residential, are fast becoming commercial, home to a growing number of information technology firms, financial companies and call centres. The city is expanding quickly along the Old Mahabalipuram Road and the Grand Southern Trunk Road (GST Road) in the south and towards Ambattur, Koyambedu and Sriperumbdur in the west.[177]


Chennai is the base for the Tamil film industry, known as Kollywood. Many film personalities have gone on to become politicians. M.G. Ramachandran and J. Jayalalitha are prime examples of actors turned administrators. M.Karunanidhi is another politician who has close links with the cinema industry. All mentioned above have contributed to the spread of Tamil cinema and language in India. [178] Chennai hosts major film studios, including AVM studios, so on. AVM studio is the oldest surviving studio in India.[179] As of 2012, there are 120 cinema screens in Chennai.[180] Chennai's theatres stage many Tamil plays; political satire, slapstick comedy, history, mythology and drama are among the popular genres.[181][182][183] English plays are popular in the city.[184]

Tourism and hospitality

Main article: Tourism in Chennai

With temples, beaches and centres of historical and cultural significance, including the UNESCO Heritage Site of Mahabalipuram, Chennai remains the most visited city in India. Chennai has been the most visited Indian city since 2008, in terms of foreign tourists arrival.[185] In 2011, Chennai was ranked 41st in global top 100 city destination ranking, with 3,174,500 tourists, a 14 percent increase from 2010, up from 650,000 in 2007. In 2009, Chennai attracted the highest number of foreign tourists in the country. The city serves as the gateway to the southern part of India with tourists landing in the city and starting their trip to the rest of the region. Top foreign nationals visiting the city includes those from Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and Singapore, followed by the United Kingdom, France and the United States. In 2010, the figure of foreign tourist arrival increased by 40 percent in the first half of the year.[186] About 830,620 domestic tourists arrived in Chennai in March 2011. Currently, the city has 21 luxury hotels in the five-star and five-star deluxe categories,[187] with over 4,500 rooms in the inventory.


Zoo, beaches, and wildlife parks form the primary recreation areas of the city. The Arignar Anna Zoological Park, one of the largest zoological parks in the world, attracts nearly 20 lakh visitors per year.[188] The city boasts two popular beaches, the Marina and Elliot's. Guindy National Park, a protected area of Tamil Nadu, has a children's park and a snake park, which gained statutory recognition as a medium zoo from the Central Zoo Authority of India in 1995.

File:Marina Beach as seen from Light house..JPG
Marina Beach as seen from Light house.

Chennai houses several theme parks, namely MGM Dizzee World and Queens Land.[189][190] The safety of several amusement parks has been questioned after several fatal accidents occurred.[191]

Other important recreation centres include Madras Boat Club, which is over 140 years old, and Gymkhana Club, which is famous for its 18-hole golf courses. Built in 1867, Madras Boat Club is the second oldest surviving Indian rowing club.[192]

Chennai is home to several malls, due to its status as an IT hub.[193][194][195] Chennai houses quite a few big malls namely Express Avenue (EA), Citi Centre, Spencer Plaza, Ampa Skywalk. Phoenix Market City which was opened in January 2013 at Velachery is one of India's Biggest shopping Malls.[196] Forum Vijaya Mall developed by the Prestige group has also started functioning since 1 May at Vadapalani. Chennai houses a lot of cinema screens in the form of multiplexes. Few of the famous multiplexes are Sathyam Cinemas, Escape, Devi, Abirami complex and Mayajaal. Tamil, English, Hindi, Telugu & Malayalam movies are released regularly and have a large number of fan following. With the increase in malls, the multiplexes have also doubled recently. Chennai encourages its Theatre artist's equally. The city is under a thick of activity across the year with a number of plays staged in Tamil and English, as well as with Koothu Patrai, a form of street play in unison with songs and dance.[citation needed]

Chennai is the most important gold market in India, contributing to 45 percent of the 800-tonne annual national gold offtake.[197] The World Gold Council estimates that India is the largest consumer of gold, buying one-fifth of the total annual global supply. In India, Chennai contributes 40 percent to the gold market. The city remains the Mecca for gold, the biggest market in India for sheer volumes. The city is also the base to the World Gold Council's India operations. Chennai's retail industry is concentrated chiefly in T. Nagar, which accounts for about 70 to 80 percent of the gold sold in Chennai.[197] According to the 2012 report by property consultant Cushman & Wakefield, Main Streets Across the World, Khader Nawaz Khan Road at Nungambakkam ranked 10th position in the list of 'Top 10 Global Highest Retail Rental Growth Markets 2012', with 36.7 percent jump in rents.[198]

Beaches and parks

Main article: Parks in Chennai

The old corporation limit of Chennai has a total coast length of about 19 km, which has more than doubled with the expanded corporation limits. Marina Beach runs for Script error: No such module "convert"., spanning along the shoreline of the city between the deltas of Cooum and Adyar, and is the second longest urban beach in the world.[199] Elliot's Beach lies south of the Adyar delta.

Chennai is one of the few cities in the world that accommodates a national park, the Guindy National Park, within its limits.[200] The city has an estimated 4.5 percent of its area under green cover.[201] This enables Chennai residents to go birding in Chennai. The seven zones of the old corporation limits has about 260 parks, many of which suffer poor maintenance.[202] The city has a per capita park space of 0.41 sq m, which is the least among all metros in India.[202] The eight zones in the newly added areas of the city have about 265 locations that have been identified for development of new parks.[203] The largest among the parks is the 358-acre Tholkappia Poonga, developed to restore the fragile ecosystem of the Adyar estuary.[204] The horticulture department-owned Semmozhi Poonga is an 20-acre botanical garden located in the downtown.[205]


Main article: Economy of Chennai
File:Cognizant at Pallikaranai.jpg
Cognizant at Pallikaranai
File:India Land Tech Park,Ambattur.JPG
India Land Tech Park,Ambattur

Chennai Metropolitan Area contributes to a GDP of $219 billion.[citation needed] Chennai's economy has a broad industrial base in the automobile, computer, technology, hardware manufacturing and healthcare sectors. As of 2012, the city is India's second largest exporter of information technology (IT) and business process outsourcing (BPO) services.[206][207] A major part of India's automobile industry is based in and around the city thus earning it the nickname "Detroit of India".[7][53][208][209] It is known as the Cultural Capital of South India [210] and is the most visited city in India by international tourists according to Euromonitor.[211] The city also serves as the location of the Madras Stock Exchange and the secondary financial hub in India following Mumbai.

Industrialisation in the city dates back to the 16th century, when textile mills manufactured goods which were exported to British during its war with France. According to Forbes magazine, Chennai is one of the fastest growing cities in the world and is rated in the "Forbes-Top 10 Fastest Growing Cities in the World".[212] It is ranked 4th in hosting the maximum number of Fortune 500 companies of India, next only to Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata. It also is home to 24 Indian companies having a net worth of more than US$1 billion. As of 2012, the city has about 34,260 identified companies in its 15 zones, of which 5,196 companies have a paid-up the capital of over 50 lakh.[213]

Chennai has a diversified economic base anchored by the automobile, software services, hardware manufacturing, health care and financial services industries.[206] According to the Confederation of Indian Industry, Chennai is estimated to grow to a US$100–billion economy, 2.5 times its present size, by the year 2025.[214] As of 2012, with 1 lakh crore investment in the pipeline over 5 years, the city is poised for major industrial investment.[215] Chennai is classified as a global city by GaWC, with a ranking of Beta[216] based on the extent of global reach and financial influence.[217]

Workshops of the Madras Automobiles Ltd., c.a. 1904

The city is base to around 30 percent of India's automobile industry and 40 percent of auto components industry.[218] A large number of automotive companies including Hyundai, Renault, Robert Bosch, Nissan Motors, Ashok Leyland, Daimler AG, Caterpillar Inc., Komatsu Limited, Ford, BMW and Mitsubishi have manufacturing plants in Chennai.[219] The Heavy Vehicles Factory at Avadi produces military vehicles, including India's main battle tank: Arjun MBT.[220] The Integral Coach Factory manufactures railway coaches and other rolling stock for Indian Railways.[221] The Ambattur–Padi industrial zone houses many textile manufacturers, and a special economic zone (SEZ) for apparel and footwear manufacturing has been set up in the southern suburbs of the city.[222] Chennai contributes more than 50 percent of India's leather exports.[223]

Many software and software services companies have development centres in Chennai, which contributed 14 percent of India's total software exports of 14,42,140 lakh during 2006–07, making it the second largest Indian city software exporter following Bangalore.[206] The Tidel Park in Chennai was billed as Asia's largest IT park when it was built.[224][225] Major software companies have their offices set up here, with some of them making Chennai their largest base.[207]

Prominent financial institutions, including the World Bank, Standard Chartered Bank, ABN AMRO, Bank of America, The Royal Bank of Scotland, Goldman Sachs, Barclays, HSBC, ING Group, Allianz, Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation, The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank, Asian Development Bank, Credit Suisse, BNP Paribas Fortis, Irevna, Deutsche Bank and Citibank have back office and development centre operations in the city.[226] Chennai is home to the national level commercial banks Indian Bank[227] and Indian Overseas Bank[228][229] and many state level co–operative banks, finance and insurance companies. Telecom and Electronics manufacturers based in and around Chennai include Nokia, Nokia Siemens, Motorola, Dell, Force10, Wipro, Zebronics, Foxconn and Siemens among others. Chennai is currently the largest electronics hardware exporter in India, accounting for 45% of the total exports in 2010–11.[230] Telecom giants Ericsson and Alcatel-Lucent, pharmaceuticals giant Pfizer and chemicals giant Dow Chemicals have research and development facilities in Chennai. The TICEL bio–tech park at Taramani[231] and Golden Jubilee bio–tech park at Siruseri[232] houses biotechnology companies and laboratories. Chennai has a stock exchange called the Madras Stock Exchange.[233][234]

A study conducted by the National Housing Bank on the residential price index of Indian cities showed that Chennai experienced the highest growth after the 2008–2012 global financial crisis.[235] According to a study by in 2011,[236] Chennai real estate saw an average price appreciation of 7 per cent with Tambaram, Chrompet and Thoraipakkam leading the way. Medical tourism is another important part of Chennai's economy with 45 percent of total medical tourists to India making to Chennai.[237] The Tamil film industry[238] and the Tamil television industry are also significant parts of Chennai's economy. The city also has a permanent exhibition complex in Nandambakkam called the Chennai Trade Centre.[239] With 385 ultra-rich living in the city, Chennai is positioned in the sixth place among Indian cities that are home to the country's super-rich.[240] An estimated 1,00,000 people in the city have assets over 5 crore. The city is the third largest market in India for luxury cars.[241]


Chennai is one of the four cities in India through which the country is connected with the rest of the world through undersea fibre-optic cables, the other three being Mumbai, Kochi, and Tuticorin. The city is the landing point of major submarine telecommunication cable networks such as SMW4 (connecting India with Western Europe, Middle East and Southeast Asia), i2i (connecting India with Singapore), TIC (connecting India with Singapore), and BRICS (connecting India with Brasil, Russia, China and South Africa). The 3,175-km-long, 8-fiber-paired i2i has the world's largest design capacity of 8.4 terabits per second.[242][243][244][245]

As of 2007, nine mobile phone service companies operate nine GSM networks and two CDMA networks in the city. There are four land line companies.[246][247] Commercial and domestic broadband Internet services are provided by all the four service providers and a majority of the mobile network service providers. Chennai was the first Indian city to have the Wi-Fi facility in a widespread manner.[248] As of 2010, there were 98 lakh mobile phone users in Chennai.[249] In 2010, Chennai had the fourth highest number of active Internet users in India, with 22 lakh users.[250]


Major power plants in the city include North Chennai Thermal Power Station, GMR Vasavi Diesel Power Plant, Ennore Thermal Power Station, Basin Bridge Gas Turbine Power Station, Madras Atomic Power Station, Vallur Thermal Power Project, and North Chennai Power Company Limited.

According to the Tamil Nadu Generation and Distribution Corporation Limited (Tangedco), as of 2013, the city consumes about 20 percent of the electricity in the state of Tamil Nadu. The peak evening demand of the city is 1,500 MW which is about 50 percent of the state's peak evening demand of 3,000 megawatt. This includes 37 percent consumption by the industrial sector, 30 percent by the domestic sector, 18 percent by the agricultural sector, and 11.5 percent by the commercial sector. The peak power consumption is for four months between May and August, with the city consuming the highest during June because it is when the summer peaks. On 20 June 2013, the city consumed the highest of 52,785 MU.[251]

As of 2014, the city consumes around 3.83 crore units of power a day or 1,400 crore units annually. Hourly consumption of power in the city is about 2,000 to 3,000 MW.[252] Availability of power in the city has become a concern in recent years due to increasing demand and slow paced addition of power plants, due to which scheduled power cuts have become increasingly common. However, this situation is expected to be rectified soon by the end of 2013.[253][254] As of 2012, the total electricity consumption by the street lamps in the city is 19 MW a day, costing about 20,000,000 per month to run.[255] The 426 sq km of the city has over 220,000 streetlights, including 88,000 in the newly expanded areas.[256]


The RBI ranked Chennai as fourth largest deposit centre and third largest credit centre nationwide as of June 2012. Prior to the advent of modern commercial banks, the banking services in the city were offered to the public by Nattukottai Chettiars or Nagarathars, chiefly in and around the neighbourhood of George Town, who offered loans as well as accepted money deposits from the public, in addition to offering liberal loans to the agricultural labourers. Even today, many of the banking offices are housed in heritage structures belonging to the Colonial era that are chiefly clustered around North Beach Road or Rajaji Salai in George Town.[257]

Chennai is home to the first European-style banking system in India with the establishment of the 'Madras Bank' on 21 June 1683, almost a century before the establishment of the first commercial banks, such as the Bank of Hindustan and the General Bank of India, which were established in 1770 and 1786, respectively. However, the bank proved a failure.[258] Upon the recommendation of the British Finance Committee on the formation of a government bank, the Madras Bank, then known as the 'Government Bank', started functioning again from 1806. In 1843, the bank merged with the Carnatic Bank (1788), the British Bank of Madras (1795) and the Asiatic Bank (1804) and became the Bank of Madras, which was one of the three Presidency banks of India, the other two being the Bank of Bengal and the Bank of Bombay. In 1921, the three Presidency banks merged to form the Imperial Bank of India, which later became the State Bank of India in 1955.[259]

Chennai is the headquarters of the Indian Bank, the Indian Overseas Bank (IOB), and the erstwhile Bharat Overseas Bank, which merged with the Indian Overseas Bank in 2007.[260] The city is home to the south zonal office of the Reserve Bank of India, the country's central bank, along with its zonal training centre and Reserve Bank Staff College, one of the two colleges of the bank.[261] The city also houses the permanent back office of the World Bank, which is one of the largest buildings owned by the bank outside its headquarters in Washington, DC.[262] The Chennai office handles corporate financial, accounting, administrative and IT services of the bank, in addition to several value-added operations of the bank that were earlier handled only in its Washington, DC office, including the bank's analytical work in bond valuation which is estimated to be US$100 billion.[263]

Several foreign banks have established their branches in the city. The first Sri Lankan Bank in India was established when the Bank of Ceylon opened its branch in Madras on 31 October 1995.[264]

Health care

Main article: Healthcare in Chennai
File:GH Chennai.JPG
Government General Hospital

Chennai has world-class medical facilities, including both government-run and private hospitals. The government-aided hospitals include General Hospital, Adyar Cancer Institute, TB Sanatorium, and National Institute of Siddha. The National Institute of Siddha is one of the seven apex national-level educational institutions that promote excellence in Indian system of medicine and Ayurveda.[265] Some of the popular private-run hospitals in Chennai are Apollo Hospitals, SRMC, SRM, Chettinad Health City, MIOT Hospitals, Lifeline Hospitals and Vasan Healthcare. The prime NABH-accredited hospitals includes Chennai Apollo Speciality Hospital, Sri Ramachandra Hospital, Dr Mehta Hospitals, Frontier Lifeline Hospital, Global Hospitals & Health City, Sankara Nethralaya, and Vijaya Medical & Educational Trust.[266] Chennai attracts about 45 percent of health tourists from abroad and 30 percent to 40 percent of domestic health tourists. The city has been termed India's health capital.[186][267][268]

The city has more than 12,500 beds in its hospitals,[269] including about 5,000 in multi-specialty hospitals in the private sector and over 6,000 beds in the public sector.[270] This works to 2.1 beds per 1,000 population against the national average of less than 1 bed per 1,000 population and the World Health Organisation's norms of 3 beds per 1,000 persons, higher than any other city in the country. By mid-2012, with the addition of at least 3,000 beds in four leading hospitals in the city, the bed strength of the private-sector hospitals is expected to increase by nearly 25 percent. However, only half of these 12,500 beds is used by the city's population with the rest being shared by patients from other states of the country and foreigners.[269]

Waste management

The city generates 4,500 tonnes of garbage every day of which 429 tonnes are plastic waste.[271] The city has three dumpyards, one each at Perungudi, Kodungaiyur, and Pallikaranai. The corporation has planned to close these yards and create four new dumpyards at Malaipattu, Minjur, Vallur and Kuthambakkam villages, ranging in size from 20 acres to 100 acres.[272][273] The civic body also spends 400 crore a year on solid waste management.[274]


Main article: Transport in Chennai


Chennai serves as a major gateway to southern India. Chennai International Airport, comprising the Anna international terminal and the Kamaraj domestic terminal with a total passenger movements of 1.29 crore[275] and aircraft movements of 124,712 in 2013–2014,[276] Chennai is the fourth busiest airport in India after Delhi, Mumbai and Bengaluru.[43] Chennai handles 316 flights a day, again making it at fourth spot among Indian Airports. The city is connected to major hubs across Asia, Europe, and North America through more than 30 national and international carriers.[277]

The existing airport is undergoing further modernisation and expansion with an addition of 1069.99 acres, while a new greenfield airport is to be constructed at an estimated cost of 2,000 crore in Sriperumbudur on Script error: No such module "convert". of land.[278] The new airport is said to be likely to handle cargo spillover traffic from the existing one.[279]


Chennai hosts the headquarters of the Southern Railway. The city has two main railway terminals. Chennai Central station, the city's largest, provides access to other major cities as well as many other smaller towns across India,[280] whereas Chennai Egmore provides access to destinations primarily within Tamil Nadu; however, it also handles a few inter–state trains.[281] The Chennai suburban railway network, one of the oldest in the country, facilitates transportation within the city. It consists of four broad gauge sectors terminating at two locations in the city, namely Chennai Central and Chennai Beach. While three sectors are operated on-grade, the fourth sector is majorly an elevated corridor, which links Chennai Beach to Velachery and is interlinked with the remaining rail network. Construction is underway for an underground and elevated Rapid Transit System locally known as Chennai Metro Rail. The metro line is in the final stages of testing and it could open to the public some time in 2015.[282][283]


Chennai is one of the cities in India that is connected by the Golden Quadrilateral system of National Highways.[284] It is connected to other Indian cities by four major National Highways (NH) that originate in the city. They are NH 4 to Mumbai (via Bengaluru, Pune), NH 5 to Kolkata (linked via NH 6) (via Visakhapatnam, Bhubaneswar), NH 45 to Theni (via Villupuram, Tiruchirapalli, Dindigul) and NH 205 to Madanapalle (via Tirupati). Chennai is connected to other parts of the state and the Union Territory of Puducherry by state highways.[285]

The government has constructed grade separators and flyovers at major intersections, and built Inner Ring Road and Outer Ring Road.[286][287] The Gemini flyover, built in 1973 crosses over the arterial road, and eases the traffic movements towards Anna Salai and towards the Kathipara Flyover.[286][287] As of 2011, according to the Transport Department, there were 25.8 lakh two–wheelers and 5.6 lakh four–wheelers in the city, and the Metropolitan Transport Corporation (MTC) bus fleet were 3,421, which was 0.1% of the total vehicular population of the city.[288]

When opened, the Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus (CMBT) was the largest bus station in Asia.[289] It is the main intercity bus station of Chennai,[290] administered by 7 government-owned transport corporations, which operate intercity and interstate bus services. There are many private bus companies that provide similar transport services. The MTC provides an exclusive intracity bus service, consisting of 3,421 buses on 724 routes, which provides transportation to 55.2 lakh passengers daily.[286][291] The Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation operates Volvo air-conditioned services from Chennai to nearby cities like Pondicherry, Vellore, Trichy and Hosur.[292]

The other means of road transport in the city include Vans, regionally known as Maxi Cabs, auto rickshaws, on-call metered taxis and tourist taxis.[293]

Chennai outer ring road is 62.3 km long connecting NH 45 (GST Road) at Perungalathur, NH 4 (GWT Road) at Nazarathpet, NH 205 (CTH Road) at Nemilicherry(Thiruninravur), NH 5 (GNT Road) at Nallur and TPP road at Minjur under the process by Chennai Metropolitan Area.


The city is served by two major ports, Chennai Port, one of the largest artificial ports in India, and Ennore Port. The Chennai port is the largest in Bay of Bengal, with an annual cargo tonnage of 6.146 crore (2010–2011), and second largest containerise hub in India, with an annual container volume of 15.23 lakh TEUs (2010–2011). The port handles transportation of automobiles, motorcycles and general industrial cargo.[43] The Ennore Port with an annual cargo tonnage of 1.101 crore (2010–2011) handles cargo such as coal, ore and other bulk and rock mineral products.[294]

The Royapuram fishing harbour is used by fishing boats and trawlers. A mega shipyard project called the Kattupalli Shipyard cum Captive Port Complex is being built by L&T Shipbuilding at Kattupalli village near Ennore and is expected to be operational in 2012.[295]


Main article: Media in Chennai

Newspaper publishing started in Chennai with the launch of a weekly, The Madras Courier, in 1785.[296] It was followed by the weeklies The Madras Gazzette and The Government Gazzette in 1795. The Spectator, founded in 1836, was the first English newspaper in Chennai to be owned by an Indian and became the city's first daily newspaper in 1853.[297] The first Tamil newspaper, Swadesamitran, was launched in 1899.[296]

The major English dailies published in Chennai are The Hindu, The New Indian Express, The Deccan Chronicle and The Times of India. The evening dailies are, The Trinity Mirror and The News Today. As of 2004, The Hindu was the city's most read English newspaper, with a daily circulation of 267,349.[298] The major business dailies published from the city are The Economic Times, The Hindu Business Line, Business Standard, Mint and The Financial Express. The major Tamil dailies include the Dina Thanthi, Dinakaran, Dina Mani, Dina Malar, The Hindu Tamil,[299] Tamil Murasu, Makkal Kural and Malai Malar. Malayala Manorama and Mathrubhumi are the major Malayalam dailies while major Telugu dailies include Eenadu, Vaartha, Andhra Jyothi and Sakshi.[300] The one and only Hindi Newspaper published from Chennai is the Rajasthan Patrika.[301] Magazines published from Chennai include Ananda Vikatan, Kumudam, Kalki, Kungumam, Puthiya Thalaimurai,Thuglak, Frontline and Sportstar.

Doordarshan runs two terrestrial television channels and two satellite television channels from its Chennai centre, which was set up in 1974. Private Tamil satellite television networks such as Sun TV, Raj TV, Zee Tamil, Star Vijay, Jaya TV, Makkal TV, Vasanth TV, Kalaignar TV, Captain TV and PuthiyaThalaimurai TV broadcast out of Chennai. The Sun Network one of India's largest broadcasting companies is based in the city. While the cable TV service is entirely controlled by the state government,[302] direct–to–home (DTH) is available via DD Direct Plus, Dish TV, Tata Sky, Videocon DTH, Sun direct DTH, Reliance Big TV and Digital TV[303][304] Chennai is the first city in India to have implemented the Conditional Access System for cable television.[305] Radio broadcasting started from the radio station at the Rippon Buildings complex, founded in 1930 and was then shifted to All India Radio in 1938.[296] The city has 4 AM and 11 FM radio stations, operated by Anna University, All India Radio and private broadcasters.[306]


Main article: Education in Chennai
File:IITM Library.JPG
Central Library of IIT Madras.
College of Engineering, Guindy, the oldest engineering school of India.[307]

Chennai ranks second for Indian metropolitan city centre literacy with a 90.33 percent literacy rate.[308] Chennai has a mix of public and private (some of which also receive financial support from the government) schools.

The public school system is managed by the Chennai Corporation with an enrolment of 142,387 students in over 330 schools.[309] Tamil and English are the primary media of instruction, though several schools also use Telugu as a primary medium of instruction in their schools.Also schools with Urdu as medium of instruction are available.[309] Public schools run by the Chennai Corporation are all affiliated with the Tamil Nadu State Board, while private schools may be affiliated with either of the Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education or the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE).[310] A few schools are affiliated with the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations,[311] the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) board or the Montessori system. Education in Chennai starts with two years of Kindergarten from age three onward and then follows the Indian 10+2+3 plan, ten years of school, two years of higher secondary education, and three years of undergraduate education.[312][313]

English is the medium of instruction in the majority of institutions for higher education.[309] As of 2015, the Chennai Metropolitan Area is home to six Institute of National Importance, ten public universities and fifteen deemed universities.[314][315][316] The University of Madras, founded in 1857, is the one of first modern university in South Asia.[317] Colleges for science, arts and commerce degrees are typically affiliated with the University of Madras.[318] Notable among them are the Loyola College, Presidency College, Madras Christian College, Women's Christian College and Stella Maris College.[319] The Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IIT Madras), the Anna University are two well known centres for engineering education in the city.[320]

The centrally funded institutions are Indian Institute of Information Technology Design & Manufacturing Kancheepuram (IIIT-DM),[321] National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT),[322] National Institute of Technical Teachers Training and Research (NITTTR),[323] National Institute of Siddha,[324] Kalakshetra Foundation[325] and the Madras Institute of Development Studies (MIDS).[326] The Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR),[327] Dakshina Bharat Hindi Prachar Sabha,[328] Indian Maritime University,[329] Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology (CIPET)[330] and the Officers Training Academy are also headquartered in Chennai.[331]

Chennai houses many premier research institutes like Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR),[332] Institute of Mathematical Sciences (IMSc),[333] Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), Structural Engineering Research Centre (SERC),[334] National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT),[335] Chennai Mathematical Institute (CMI)[336] and Madras School of Economics (MSE).[337] The National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis (NIRT) and National Institute of Epidemiology (NIE) are the two ICMR institutes in Chennai.[338] The campuses of the Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI), Central Scientific Instruments Organisation (CSIO), Central Electro Chemical Research Institute (CECRI), National Metallurgical Laboratory (NML), National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) and Indian Statistical Institute (ISI) are also located in Chennai.[339][340] Some other research institutes located in Chennai are the Adyar Cancer Institute,[341] Central Institute of Brackish Water Aquaculture (CIBA),[342] National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE),[343] Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment (CVRDE),[344] and the MS Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF).[345]

Chennai has a plethora of libraries, including British Council Library, American Library, Connemara Public Library, and Anna Centenary Library. The Connemara Public Library is one of four National Depository Centres in India that receive a copy of all newspapers and books published in the country.[346][347] The Anna Centenary Library is the largest library in Asia.[348][349] Chennai Book Fair, an annual book fair organised in Chennai by the Booksellers and Publishers Association of South India (BAPASI), is the largest exhibition for Tamil book publishers to display their books. The fair is typically held for about 10 days between the last week of December and the third week of January.[350]


Main article: Sport in Chennai
File:Ma ChidambaramStadium panaroma.jpg
M. A. Chidambaram Stadium, one of the premier cricket venues in India

Cricket is the most popular sport in Chennai.[351] It was introduced in 1864 with the foundation of the Madras Cricket Club.[352] The M.A. Chidambaram Stadium established in 1916 is among the oldest cricket stadium in India.[353] The stadium was also one of the venues of the 1987,1996 and 2011 ICC Cricket World Cups. Chemplast Cricket Ground located at the IIT Madras campus is another important venue for cricket matches. Prominent cricketers from the city include former cricket captains S. Venkataraghavan and Kris Srikkanth.[354][355] A cricket fast bowling academy called the MRF Pace Foundation, whose coaches include T. A. Sekhar and Glenn Mcgrath, is based in Chennai.[356][357] Being home to the Indian Premier League (IPL) cricket team Chennai Super Kings, the city hosted the finals of the IPL's 2011 and 2012 series.[358][359]

Chennai was the venue of the 1995 South Asian Games.[360] Chennai is home to a World Series Hockey (WSH) team, the Chennai Cheetahs. The Mayor Radhakrishnan Stadium is associated with hockey and was venue for the international hockey tournament the 2005 Men's Champions Trophy and the 2007 Men's Asia Cup. The Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium is associated for hosting Football and athletic competitions, it also houses a multi–purpose indoor complex for competition in volleyball, basketball and table tennis. Water sports are played in the Velachery Aquatic Complex. Tennis sport is popularising among the city youths, Since 1997 Chennai has been host to the only ATP World Tour event held in India, the Chennai Open.[361] Vijay Amritraj, Mahesh Bhupathi Ramesh Krishnan and Somdev Devvarman are tennis players from Chennai.[362]

Madras Boat Club (founded in 1846) and the Royal Madras Yacht Club (founded by Sir Francis Spring in 1911) promote the sailing sports in Chennai, and organise national and international sailing events.[352] Automobile racing in India has been closely connected with Chennai since its beginnings shortly after independence. Motor racing events are held on a special purpose track in Irungattukottai, Sriperumbudur,[363] which has also been the venue for several international competitions.[364] Formula One drivers Narain Karthikeyan and Karun Chandhok were born in Chennai.[365][366]

Horse racing is held at the Guindy Race Course, while rowing competitions are hosted at the Madras Boat Club. The city has two 18–hole golf courses, the Cosmopolitan Club and the Gymkhana Club, both established in the late nineteenth century. The city has a rugby union team called the Chennai Cheetahs.[367]

Viswanathan Anand, the previous world chess champion, grew up in Chennai.[368] Other sportspersons of repute from Chennai include table tennis players Sharath Kamal and two–time world carrom champion, Maria Irudayam.[369][370] Chennai was the host of the World Chess Championship 2013 match between Viswanathan Anand and Magnus Carlsen.[371][372] Chennaiyin FC is the newly formed team in Indian Super League a Association Football tournament replaced the Bangalore ISL Team and its Home ground is Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium.

City based teams

Club Sport League Home Stadium Span
25px Chennai Super Kings Cricket Indian Premier League M.A. Chidambaram Stadium 2008 –
25px Chennaiyin FC Football Indian Super League Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium 2013 –
25px Chennai Veerans Field hockey Premier Hockey League Mayor Radhakrishnan Stadium 2005 – 2008
25px Chennai Cheetahs Field hockey World Series Hockey Mayor Radhakrishnan Stadium 2011 –
Chennai Spikers Volleyball Indian Volley League Jawaharlal Nehru Indoor Stadium 2011 –

International relations

Foreign missions

The consular presence in the city dates back to 1794, when William Abbott was appointed US consular agent for South India.[373][374][375] As of 2012, there were 43 foreign representations in Chennai, including consulates general, deputy high commissions and honorary consulates.[376] The American Consulate in Chennai is one of the top adjudication posts in the world and the number one in processing employment-based visas. It was ranked among the top globally in issuing 'L' and 'H' category visas for workers and professionals and was ranked eighth globally in terms of all category of visas being issued.[377]

The Foreigners Regional Registration Office (FRRO), which is the office of the field officers in charge of immigration and registration activities in the city, is located at Shastri Bhavan at Haddows Road.[378]

Sister cities

Chennai has sister city relationships with the following cities of the world.

City Country State/Region Since Reference
25px Volgograd 23x15px Russia 25px Volgograd Oblast 1966 [379]
25px Denver 23x15px United States 25px Colorado 1984 [380]
25px San Antonio 23x15px United States 25px Texas 2008 [381]
25px Kuala Lumpur 23x15px Malaysia 25px Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur 2010 [382]
25px Chongqing(重庆) 23x15px China 23x15px Municipality of Chongqing 2015 [383]

See also

Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Portal/images/i' not found.


  • ^ In December 2009, the Tamil Nadu government announced plans to merge 9 municipalities, 8 town panchayats, and 25 village panchayats into the city of Chennai, which would increase its area to 426 square kilometres and population (according to the 2001 census) to 56 lakh. The plans are that the boundary of the expanded corporation will be drawn in 2011, after the term of the elected councillors ends.[384] An ordinance was promulgated on 21 December 2010, amending the Madras City Municipal Corporation Act, giving effect to the total number of wards as 200. The corporation council is represented by 155 members.[385]
  • ^ The State government will decide on the expansion of the Chennai Metropolitan Area (CMA) before the end of this fiscal, R Vaithilingam, Minister for Housing and Urban Development, told the Assembly on 25 August 2011. In view of the fast–paced development taking place in areas beyond the present metropolitan area jurisdiction, like Sriperumbudur, Kelambakkam, Tiruvallur and Maraimalai Nagar, it had become necessary to review the Chennai Metropolitan Planning Area that was notified in 1973–74, he said.[386]


  1. ^ "Who's Who". About Corporation of Chennai. Corporation of Chennai. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  2. ^ "Commissioner of Police". The Hindu. 20 September 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  3. ^ "Chennai: PhaseII" (PDF). Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  4. ^ "Cities with population of 1 Lakh and Above" (PDF). Retrieved 30 January 2014. 
  5. ^ a b "Major Agglomerations" (PDF). The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved 30 January 2014. 
  6. ^ "About CoC". Corporation of Chennai. Retrieved 29 September 2013. 
  7. ^ a b "Why Chennai turned into 'Detroit Of India'". Financial Express. 13 March 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014. 
  8. ^ "Growing expat community favour cluster accommodation [sic]". The Economic Times. 15 January 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2012. 
  9. ^ "India – exploring an Asian giant". The Guardian. February 2013. 
  10. ^ "52 Places to Go"
  11. ^ ANI (2014-01-12). "Chennai in NYT’s ‘52 places to go in 2014’ list". Retrieved 2014-04-06. 
  12. ^ Thimmayya, Daniel (2014-01-16). "Chennai Gets 'Cooler' with Global Pull". Retrieved 2014-04-06. 
  13. ^
  14. ^ "India Today Best City Awards 2014: Chennai bags top honour". India Today. 
  15. ^ "Alpha, Beta and Gamma cities - Spotted by Locals". Classification of Cities. Retrieved 4 April 2015. 
  16. ^ Lindsey Galloway. "BBC - Travel - The best places to live this year". 
  17. ^ "Best Food Cities". 
  18. ^ "Chennai named 9th best cosmopolitan city in the world". The Hindu. 
  19. ^ Book History of the City of Madras (2005),C S Srinivasachari, ISBN 9781175671776
  20. ^ C S Srinivasachari (1939). History of the City of Madras. pp. 63–69. 
  21. ^ "District Profile – Chennai". District Administration, Chennai. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  22. ^ T. A., Srinivasan (28 February 2002). "Face behind the name". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  23. ^ "Origin of the Name Madras". Corporation of Madras. 
  24. ^ The Geography of India: Sacred and Historic Places. Britannica Educational Publishing. 2011. ISBN 978-1-61530-202-4. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  25. ^ Kurian, Nimi (31 August 2007). "Young World: And the city grew". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  26. ^ F. H., Scott (1853). Routes in the peninsula of India. Pharoah and Co., Athenaeum Press. p. iv. 
  27. ^ Sudhangan (16 August 2008). "Down memory lane: Triplicane revisited". Sify. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  28. ^ a b Tharoor, Shashi (6 September 2002). "In India's name game, cities are the big losers". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  29. ^ Special Correspondent (23 September 2005). "Walkout in State Assembly". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  30. ^ Kalpana (2003) Madras: The Architectural Heritage
    Muthiah (2004), Madras Rediscovered
    Ali (2005), Madras on Rainy Days
    Ashok & Balasubramanian (2005) Chennai latté: a Madras brew
    Chandrasekhar, Government Museum (2006) The wild ferns of Madras city and its immediate neighbourhood
    Maracayyā (2008), Madras: Tracing the Growth of the City since 1639
    Barlow (2009) The Story of Madras
    Muthiah (2011) A Madras Miscellany: A Decade of People, Places & Potpourri
  31. ^ Awakening Indians to India (Hard Bound). Central Chinmaya Mission Trust. 2008. p. 215. ISBN 978-81-7597-433-3. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  32. ^ Pat Chapman (2007). India: Food & Cooking: The Ultimate Book on Indian Cuisine. Replika Press Pvt. Ltd. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-84537-619-2. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  33. ^ "Road workers stumble upon ancient grinding stone in Pallavaram". The Times of India. 19 September 2010. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  34. ^ Alain Daniélou and Kenneth Hurry (2003). later andhrapradesh region is divided as seperate state from madras state in 1953 as a telugu speaking state id=Kwnv3I6qIosC&pg=PA173#v=onepage&q&f=false A brief history of India. Alain Daniélou. p. 173. ISBN 978-1-59477-794-3. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  35. ^ a b R., Vaidyanadhan (31 August 2009). "Chennai Coins-the Vijayanagara Connection". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  36. ^ a b "Chennai History". Corporation of Chennai. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  37. ^ Roberts J. M (1997). A short history of the world. Helicon publishing Ltd. p. 277. ISBN 978-0-19-511504-8. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  38. ^ Wagret, Paul (1977). Nagel's encyclopedia-guide. "India, Nepal". Geneva: Nagel Publishers. p. 556. ISBN 978-2-8263-0023-6. OCLC 4202160. 
  39. ^ City Bureau (22 March 2010). "All eyes on new Assembly-Secretariat Complex". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. [dead link]
  40. ^ Spencer C. Tucker (2010). A global chronology of conflict. ABC—CLIO. p. 756. ISBN 978-1-85109-667-1. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  41. ^ S., Muthiah (21 November 2010). "Madras Miscellany - When Pondy was wasted". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. [dead link]
  42. ^ Radhey Shyam Chaurasia (2002). History of Modern India:1707 A.D. to 2000 A.D. Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. p. 94. ISBN 978-81-269-0085-5. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  43. ^ a b c Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2007). World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia. ISBN 978-0-7614-7645-0. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  44. ^ Bret Wallach (2005). Understanding the cultural landscape. The Guilford Press. p. 195. ISBN 978-1-59385-119-4. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  45. ^ Sir Arthur Lawley, Eloquent Knight Errant, Chapter 6. Catastrophe, Conspiracy, Celebration. The Benefits of Empire, Lady Lawley Cottage (Western Australian Red Cross) 2008 iBook
  46. ^ Notes on the Administration of Sir Arthur Lawley, Governor of Madras,1906–1911. Madras Government Press, 1912
  47. ^ A Message from Mesopotamia, Sir Arthur Lawley, Hodder and Stoughton, London. 1917.
  48. ^ Hodge, Carl Cavanagh (2008). Encyclopedia of the age of imperialism, 1800–1914. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 446. ISBN 978-0-313-04341-3. Retrieved 4 March 2013. 
  49. ^ J W Bond and Arnold Wright (1914). Southern India: Its History, People, Commerce and Industrial resources. Foreign and Colonial Compiling and Publishing Company, London. pp. 51–52. ISBN 81-206-1344-9. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  50. ^ V. Shoba (14 August 2011). "Chennai says it in Hindi". The Indian Express. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  51. ^ Altaff, K; J Sugumaran, Maryland S Naveed (10 July 2005). "Impact of tsunami on meiofauna of Marina beach, Chennai, India" (PDF). Current Science 89 (1). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  52. ^ Mohanty, Ashutosh. "Impact of Tsunami in India". Expressindia. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  53. ^ a b Chris Devonshire-Ellis (2012). Doing Business in India. Springer. p. 218. ISBN 978-3-642-27617-0. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  54. ^ S. Muthiah; Rupinder Khullar (1992). The Splendour of South India. UBS Publishers' Distributors, Original from University of Michigan. p. 22. ISBN 978-81-85273-56-3. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  55. ^ "Geographical and physical features". Chennai District. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  56. ^ Pulikesi, M; P. Baskaralingam, D. Elango, V.N. Rayudu, V. Ramamurthi, S. Sivanesan (25 August 2006). "Air quality monitoring in Chennai, India, in the summer of 2005". Journal of Hazardous Materials 136 (3): 589–596. PMID 16442714. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.12.039. Chennai is fairly low–lying, its highest point being only Script error: No such module "convert". above sea level is a rugged barren hill opposite to the Airport called Pallavapuram Hill. 
  57. ^ "Welcome to University of Madras - 154 years of Excellence". 2 February 2012. Retrieved 10 June 2013. 
  58. ^ S. Theodore Baskaran (2008). "Chapter 2: Wildlife". In S. Muthiah. Madras, Chennai: A 400-year Record of the First City of Modern India, Volume 1. Palaniappa Brothers. p. 55. ISBN 978-81-8379-468-8. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  59. ^ K, Lakshmi (13 July 2004). "It's no cola, it's the water supplied in Korattur". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  60. ^ "Practices and Practitioners". Centre for Science and Environment. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  61. ^ "Quality of groundwater better this year". The Times of India. 29 January 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  62. ^ a b Lakshmi, K. (28 August 2012). "Tardy monsoon: Chennai water table rises only marginally". The Hindu (Chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  63. ^ Susheela Raghavan; Indira Narayanan (2008). "Chapter 1: Geography". In S.Muthiah. Madras, Chennai: A 400-year Record of the First City of Modern India, Volume 1. Palaniappa Brothers. p. 13. ISBN 978-81-8379-468-8. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  64. ^ John, Ekatha Ann (29 September 2012). "Disaster body for panel to monitor highrises in Chennai". The Times of India (Chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  65. ^ Yadav, Priya (10 January 2013). "Soon, power from ancient rocks". The Times of India (Chennai). Retrieved 10 January 2013. 
  66. ^ "World Weather Information Service - Chennai". 5 October 2006. Retrieved 10 June 2013. 
  67. ^ "latest cmoll.gif". Space Science and Engineering Centre, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  68. ^ "About Chennai" (PDF). Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  69. ^ Ramakrishnan, T (18 May 2005). "Hot spell may continue for some more weeks in the State". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  70. ^ "Indian Meteorological Department, Chennai Regional Website". Indian Meteorological Department. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  71. ^ Ramakrishnan, T (3 January 2006). "Entering 2006, city's reservoirs filled to the brim". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  72. ^ "NASA climate data visualised". Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  73. ^ Ayyappan, V. (22 March 2012). "Metro dips under historic Cooum". The Times of India. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  74. ^ "Chennai- Climatological Information". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 29 May 2014. 
  75. ^ India Meteorological Department. "Ever Recorded Maximum Temperature, Minimum Temperature and 24 Hours Heaviest Rainfall up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department, Pune. Retrieved 29 May 2014. 
  76. ^ "Madras (Chennai) Climate Normals 1971–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 25, 2015. 
  77. ^ S.Muthiah (2008). Madras, Chennai: A 400-year Record of the First City of Modern India, Volume 1. Association of British Scholars (India). Chennai Chapter (Palaniappa Brothers). p. 217. ISBN 978-81-8379-468-8. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  78. ^ Achutan, Kannal (23 September 2008). "Chennai Corporation to celebrate 320 years". The Hindu (Chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  79. ^ "Scope of digital mapping exercise in city likely to be enlarged". The Hindu. 24 December 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  80. ^ "Expanded Chennai Corporationto be divided into 3 regions". The Hindu. 25 November 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  81. ^ "Wards Committee" (PDF). Chennai Corporation. 12 September 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  82. ^ "Executive Chart". About COC;Corporation of Chennai. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  83. ^ Srivathsan, A (19 September 2013). "Indecisiveness keeps urban projects on hold". The Hindu (Chennai: The Hindu). Retrieved 20 September 2013. 
  84. ^ "About Corporation of Chennai". Chennai Corporation. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  85. ^ "Chennai Metropolitan Area – Profile". Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  86. ^ "3 satellite towns proposed for Chennai". The Hindu. 12 April 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  87. ^ "Government of Tamil Nadu: Home Department: Department of Justice". Official website of the Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 19 January 2013. 
  88. ^ "List of TN Assembly constituencies". Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  89. ^ K. T. Sangameswaran (24 February 2005). "City police await notification on extending Commissionerate's jurisdiction". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  90. ^ "Despite rising population, number of police". The Times of India. 7 April 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  91. ^ "Crimes in Mega Cities" (PDF). National Crime Records Bureau. Govt. of India. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  92. ^ Selvaraj, A. (15 April 2011). "Triplicane police station gets bigger with more area, men". The Times of India (Chennai). Retrieved 3 December 2013. 
  93. ^ "150-yr-old Central prison closed for good". The Times of India. 19 January 2009. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  94. ^ Theosophy and the Origins of the Indian National Congress, Bevir, Mark, University of California, Berkeley, Publication Date: 1 January 2003 s. 14–18. Original Citation: Mark Bevir, "Theosophy and the Origins of the Indian National Congress", International Journal of Hindu Studies 7 (2003), 99–115. E.g., "Theosophical Society provided the framework for action within which some of its Indian and British members worked to form the Indian National Congress.10", "1884 annual convention of the Theosophical Society. At this convention, Rao argued that the Society should start formally to discuss the political situation in India as well as more strictly religious matters. Although Rao did not get his way, he did arrange a meeting of sympathetic theosophists to be held at his home. Those who attended this meeting with Rao included Aiyar, Ananda Charlu, and M. Viraraghavachariar. They formed the Madras Mahajana Sabha," "meeting to coincide with the next annual convention of the Theosophical Society. This meeting would promote their idea of an all-India body." "Hume was probably the single most important individual for the formation of the Indian National Congress."
  95. ^ Sitaramayya, B. Pattabhi. 1935. The History of the Indian National Congress. Working Committee of the Congress. Scanned version
  96. ^ Rajaraman 1988, ch. 4 (Ideology, Organisation and Programme of the Justice Party)
  97. ^ Irschick 1969, pp. 172–178
  98. ^ Taylor, Richard Warren (1982). Religion and Society: The First Twenty-five Years, 1953–1978. Christian Literature Society (for the Christian Institute for the Study of Religion and Society, Bangalore). p. 242. OCLC 9007066. 
  99. ^ S. Viswanathan (7 December 2009). "Language issue again: the need for a clear-headed policy". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 20 January 2010. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  100. ^ Second Master Plan (PDF). Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority. pp. 157–159. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  101. ^ a b "Water Supply System". Chennai Metro Water. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  102. ^ Second Master Plan (PDF). Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority. p. 163. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  103. ^ "India's biggest desalination plant opens in Chennai". Hindustan Times. 1 August 2010. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  104. ^ "IVRCL to set up desalination plant near Chennai". The Hindu. 12 August 2005. Retrieved 28 December 2012. [dead link]
  105. ^ Radhakrishnan, R.K. (4 September 2007). "Preliminary work on desalination plant to be completed by December-end". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  106. ^ "Chennai worst in saving water". Deccan Chronicle. 6 May 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  107. ^ Ann, Ekatha (22 October 2014). "Rain opens city's filthy underbelly". The Times of India (Chennai). Retrieved 26 October 2014. 
  108. ^ "No response from firms to build toilets". The Times of India. 24 September 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  109. ^ "From Feb 24, use public toilets for free, says mayor". The Times of India (Chennai). 31 October 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  110. ^ "Residents to soon have free use of community halls". The Hindu (Chennai). 31 October 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  111. ^ "New firm to begin conservancy work next week". The Hindu. 4 January 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  112. ^ "New garbage collection, street cleaning mechanism". The Hindu. 27 January 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  113. ^ "Soild Waste Management". Corporation of Chennai. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  114. ^ Madhavan, D. (7 April 2012). "Cluster-based solid waste mgmt may ease pressure on dump yards". The Times of India. 
  115. ^ Ramakrishnan, Deepa H (25 January 2012). "SMS fillip for garbage collection". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  116. ^ "Emergency and Utility Services Contact Details at Chennai". Govt. of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  117. ^ "Contact us". Tamil Nadu Fire and Rescue Service. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  118. ^ "List of fire stations". Tamil Nadu Fire and Rescue Service. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  119. ^ Sujatha, R. (29 April 2012). "Agraharam – time virtually stands still here". The Hindu (Chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. [dead link]
  120. ^ Iyer, Aruna V. (7 October 2011). "Chennai's vanishing agraharams". The Hindu (Chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  121. ^ Ravishankar, Sandhya (6 September 2007). "No fire safety norms at Chennai heritage buildings". IBN Live (Chennai: CNN IBN). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  122. ^ Metcalfe, Thomas R. "A Tradition Created: Indo-Saracenic Architecture under the Raj". History Today 32 (9). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  123. ^ a b c d Sitalakshmi, K. R. (5 August 2006). "Art Deco buildings in Chennai". The Hindu (Chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  124. ^ "Indo-saracenic Architecture". Henry Irwin, Architect in India, 1841–1922. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  125. ^ Jeyaraj, George J. "Indo Saracenic Architecture in Channai" (PDF). CMDA. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  126. ^ The History of Indian Art (2013 ed.). saraswati publication. 
  127. ^ "New for Old". Frontline. Volume 20 – Issue 14, 5 to 18 July 2003. India's National Magazine from publishers of the Hindu.
  128. ^ Sir Arthur Lawley, Eloquent Knight Errant, Chapter 6. Catastrophe, Conspiracy, Celibration. The Benefits of Empire. Lady Lawley Cottage (Western Australian Red Cross) 2008 iBooks
  129. ^ Sir Arthur Lawley's Photo Album, Empire and Commonwealth Museum
  130. ^ "A day in Chennai". Chennai Magic. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  131. ^ Srivathsan, A. (14 July 2007). "Reaching the sky". The Hindu (Chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  132. ^ Kannan, Shanthi (19 March 2005). "GREEN buildings". The Hindu (Chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  133. ^ Koshy, Jacob P. (13 December 2007). "Doppler radar may put cap on building heights". New Delhi: Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  134. ^ Brueckner, Jan K.; Kala Seetharam Sridhar (2012). "Measuring Welfare Gains from Relaxation of Land-Use Restrictions: The Case of India's Building-Height Limits" (PDF). Retrieved 28 December 2012. [dead link]
  135. ^ "Chennaite to represent India at Abilympics". The Hindu. 2 March 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  136. ^ Lakshmi, C. S. (1 January 2004). The Unhurried City: Writings on Chennai. Penguin Books India. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-14-303026-3. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  137. ^ Bergman. Introduction to Geography. Pearson Education. p. 485. ISBN 978-81-317-0210-9. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  138. ^ "Census: Chennai's population up by 7.8 percent". The Hindu. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  139. ^ a b "Demography" (PDF). Second Master Plan. Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  140. ^ "Census 2001 Data". Census of India. Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  141. ^ "India". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  142. ^ "Chennai : Census 2011". Directorate of Census Operations – Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  143. ^ "Slum Population – Census 2001" (PDF). The Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 June 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  144. ^ Aloysius Xavier Lopez (28 March 2012). "Half of city lives in rented homes". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  145. ^ Siddique, Zahra (2008). Ethnicity, Race and Gender in the Labor Market. ProQuest. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-549-50781-9. 
  146. ^ Joseph Getter; B.Balasubrahmaniyan (29 September 2008). "Tamil Film Music: Sound and Significance". In Slobin, Mark. Global Soundtracks: Worlds of Film Music. Wesleyan University Press. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-8195-6882-3. "Kannadigas outnumber Malayalis 2:1 in Tamil Nadu". The Times of India. 15 April 2008. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  147. ^ "The magic of melting pot called Chennai". The Hindu. 19 December 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2012. 
  148. ^ "The Parsi Arrival". The Hindu. 10 March 2008. Retrieved 29 December 2012. 
  149. ^ "The Parsis of Madras". Madras Musings. XVIII (12). 15 October 2008. Retrieved 29 December 2012. 
  150. ^ "Sindhis to usher in new year with fanfare". The Times of India. 24 March 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2012. 
  151. ^ "Catholic in outlook". The Hindu. 3 April 2003. Retrieved 29 December 2012. 
  152. ^ "Why Oriyas find Chennai warm and hospitable". The Times of India. 12 May 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2012. 
  153. ^ "Goan spirit in Chennai". The Hindu. 18 December 2000. Retrieved 29 December 2012. 
  154. ^ "Chennai's Kannadigas not complaining". The Times of India. 5 April 2008. Retrieved 29 December 2012. 
  155. ^ "The Anglo-Indians of Chennai". Madras Musings XX (12). 15 October 2010. Retrieved 29 December 2012. 
  156. ^ "A slice of Bengal in Chennai". The Times of India. 22 October 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2012. 
  157. ^ B.R., Madhu (16 September 2009). "The Punjabis of Chennai". Madras Musings XX (12). Retrieved 29 December 2012. 
  158. ^ "Area and Population" (PDF). Government of Tamil Nadu. pp. 1–3. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  159. ^ "Chennai in top 25 real estate destinations in Asia-Pacific: PwC survey". Business Line (Mumbai: The Hindu). 10 December 2013. Retrieved 22 Dec 2013. 
  160. ^ "Departments—Health". Corporation of Chennai. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  161. ^ Srivathsan, A. (5 November 2012). "Plenty of houses, few affordable". The Hindu (Chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  162. ^ Manish (27 March 2013). "Shelters Stay Shuttered". The Times of India (Chennai). 
  163. ^ "CM wants global arts fest in Chennai". Deccan Chronicle. 16 December 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2012. 
  164. ^ "Where creativity thrives". The Hindu. 3 April 2009. Retrieved 25 November 2013. 
  165. ^ "For a solid grounding in arts". The Hindu. 3 April 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2012. [dead link]
  166. ^ "A blend of hues and ideas". The Hindu. 3 April 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2012. 
  167. ^ "Chennai". The Hindu. 1 December 2002. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  168. ^ Lakshmi Subramanian (2008). New Mansions for Music: Performance, Pedagogy and Criticism. Social Science Press. pp. 121–122. ISBN 978-81-87358-34-3. Retrieved 2 May 2012. 
  169. ^ Knight Jr., Douglas M. (2010). Balasaraswati: Her Art and Life. Wesleyan University Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-8195-6906-6. 
  170. ^ Charukesi (2 January 2009). "Diary of a different kind". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  171. ^ "Chennai Sangamam 2011". The official website. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  172. ^ Peter Fletcher (29 April 2004). World Musics in Context: A Comprehensive Survey of the World's Major Musical Cultures. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-816636-8. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  173. ^ GR (2 December 2000). "Yearning for Chennai ambiance". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  174. ^ "Bharatanatyam at London Olympics". The Hindu (Chennai). 11 August 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  175. ^ "Of choirs and carols". Business Standard. 2010. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  176. ^ "There's a song in the air..". NXg. January 2009. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  177. ^ "Structure of Chennai" (PDF). Second Master Plan. Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority. pp. 9, 10. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  178. ^ Ellens, Dan; Lakshmi Srinivas (2006). A Time for India. Vantage Press Inc., New York. p. 150. ISBN 0-533-15092-2. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  179. ^ Kamath, Sudhish (15 July 2009). "When studios dotted Vadapalani". The Hindu (Chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  180. ^ RamaKrishnan, Deepa H. (24 February 2012). "Cinema halls oppose service tax, stay shut". The Hindu (chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  181. ^ Ramesh, V (17 July 2003). "The Sultan of sarcasm". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  182. ^ Ashok Kumar, S.R. (11 January 2006). "Actor R.S. Manohar dead". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  183. ^ Kumar, Ranee (10 December 2003). "Laughter, the best medicine". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  184. ^ "All for a laugh". India Today. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  185. ^ "Chennai High: City gets most foreign tourists". The Times of India (27 August 2010). Retrieved 30 August 2012. 
  186. ^ a b "Chennai High: City gets most foreign tourists". The Times of India (Chennai). 27 August 2010. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  187. ^ Thomas, Liffy; Deepa H. Ramakrishnan (1 June 2012). "New hotels beckon the business class". The Hindu (Chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  188. ^ IBN Live (3 June 2011). "Wandering down Chennais wild side". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  189. ^ T, Madhavan (12 May 2012). "Water, water, everywhere ...". The Hindu (Chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  190. ^ T, Madhavan (16 June 2012). "Amusement parks: a preferred destination". The Hindu (Chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  191. ^ "Do amusement parks ride roughshod over safety?". The Hindu (Chennai). 30 January 2008. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  192. ^ Rowing federation. "Home page". Rowing federation. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  193. ^ "No market for malls?". The Hindu (Chennai). 4 December 2004. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  194. ^ "More malls to Chennai's skyline". The Hindu (Chennai). 3 April 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  195. ^ Varghese, Nina (7 August 2006). "Mall activity picks up in Chennai IT hubs". Business Line (Chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  196. ^ "Phoenix Market City in Chennai". The Hindu (Chennai). 25 January 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2013. 
  197. ^ a b Varghese, Nina (29 August 2006). "T.Nagar: Shop till you drop, and then shop some more". Business Line (Chennai). Retrieved 14 January 2013. 
  198. ^ "Mumbai records maximum growth in retail rent globally". Samay Live ( 19 November 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  199. ^ EARSeL (2002). Observing our environment from space: new solutions for a new millennium ... A. A. Balakema. ISBN 90-5809-254-2. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  200. ^ "Guindy National Park". Tamil Nadu Forest Department. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  201. ^ Janardhanan, Arun (9 May 2011). "Massive afforestation drive to begin in Chennai". The Times of India. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  202. ^ a b Philip, Christin Mathew (24 August 2012). "More parks, but Chennai needs green thumb". The Times of India. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  203. ^ Lopez, Aloysius Xavier (30 March 2012). "More green relief for Chennai soon". The Hindu (Chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  204. ^ A., Srivathsan; J. Malarvizhi (30 March 2007). "Eco-park will cover entire 358-acre expanse of the Adyar Creek". The Hindu (Chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  205. ^ Sivan, Jayraj (11 October 2011). "Collector refutes MK's charge, says property on Cathedral Rd not govt's". The Times of India (Chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  206. ^ a b c "Chennai activities". NASSCOM. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  207. ^ a b Chandramouli, Rajesh (1 May 2008). "Chennai emerging as India's Silicon Valley?". The Economic Times. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  208. ^ U.S. International Trade Commission (2007). Competitive Conditions for Foreign Direct Investment in India, Staff Research Study #30. DIANE Publishing. pp. 2–10. ISBN 978-1-4578-1829-5. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  209. ^ "The economist" 370 (8361–8364). Economist Newspaper Ltd. 2004. p. 282. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  210. ^ Rina Kamath (2000). Chennai. Orient Blackswan. p. 66. ISBN 9788125013785. 
  211. ^ "Top 100 City Destinations Ranking - Analyst Insight from Euromonitor International". 2014-01-27. Retrieved 2014-04-06. 
  212. ^ "In pictures: the next decade's fastest-growing cities – Chennai, India". Forbes. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  213. ^ "Company tax upped, capped at ₹ 30,000". The Hindu (Chennai). 30 October 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  214. ^ "Seminar to focus on Chennai's growth potential". The Hindu. 21 August 2008. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  215. ^ "Chennai tops in occupancy level in hospitality sector". 5 October 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  216. ^ "GaWC - The World According to GaWC 2010". 2011-09-14. Retrieved 2014-04-06. 
  217. ^ Tourism and the branded city: film and identity on the Pacific Rim. Ashgate publishing Ltd. 6 November 2007. ISBN 978-0-7546-4829-1. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  218. ^ "Chennai: The next global auto manufacturing hub?". CNBC-TV18 (CNBC). 27 April 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  219. ^ "Chennai will be world's largest auto-manufacturing hub: Stalin". The Economic Times. 10 February 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012. [dead link]
  220. ^ Bhatia, Vikram (25 June 2012). "Trials of Arjun mark II start in Pokhran". The Times of India (Jaisalmer). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  221. ^ "Profile". Integral Coach Factory. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  222. ^ Ravi Kumar, N (3 December 2004). "Mahindra City, a world of its own". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  223. ^ "Development Plan for Chennai Metropolitan Area" (PDF). Govt. of India. p. 13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  224. ^ "Ford's Rs. 200-cr. IT hub in Chennai". The Hindu (Chennai). 2 November 2000. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  225. ^ "Work ethics: How Indian cities fare". Rediff. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  226. ^ Padmapriya, J (4 April 2009). "RBS may set up a facility in Chennai". The Economic Times. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  227. ^ "Indian Bank Head Office". Indian Bank. Archived from the original on 1 August 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  228. ^ Muthiah, S (1 October 2003). "The bank in a 'palace' grounds". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  229. ^ "Branch Network". Bharat Overseas Bank Bank. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  230. ^ "Electronics Hardware Export 2010-11" (PDF). ECSIndia. Retrieved 9 November 2014. 
  231. ^ "List of clients". TICEL Bio Park. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  232. ^ "Existing units". Golden Jubilee Biotech Park for Women Society. Retrieved 2 February 2012. 
  233. ^ "Investors told to go in for long term investment, index funds". The Hindu (Trichy). 25 March 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  234. ^ "The Organisation". Madras Stock Exchange. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  235. ^ Sivan, Jayaraj (7 April 2012). "High-rise Market". The Times of India. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  236. ^ "Chennai Real Estate Price Trends (January to March 2011)". 10 April 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  237. ^ Connell, John (200). Medical Tourism. ISBN 978-1-84593-660-0. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  238. ^ "Annual report 2011" (PDF). Central Board of Film Certification. 
  239. ^ "Chennai Trade Centre—A Profile". India Trade Promotion Organisation. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  240. ^ Karthiyayini (18 October 2013). "Chennai comes sixth among India’s super-rich cities". TruthDive (Chennai). Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  241. ^ Aravind, Indulekha (26 October 2012). "Chennai swank". Business Standard (Bangalore). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  242. ^ "Bharti, SingTel announce pact for submarine cable -- Chennai-Mumbai-Singapore link to cost Rs $650m". Business Line (New Delhi). 25 October 2000. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  243. ^ "India's 1st undersea cable network ready". The Economic Times (Singapore). 8 April 2002. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  244. ^ "VSNL completes Singapore's first Indian-owned undersea fiber-optic cable". 3 November 2004. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  245. ^ "BRICS Cable Unveiled for Direct and Cohesive Communications Services Between Brasil, Russia, India, China and South Africa". BRICS Cable News. BRICS Cable. 16 April 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  246. ^ "Information note to the Press (Press Release No.71/2007)" (PDF) (Press release). Telecom Regulatory Authority of India. 24 August 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2012.  Annexure lists these six entities as the licensed cellular operators for the Chennai circle. The CDMA Development Group's official website lists Tata Teleservices and Reliance Communications as the only operators to have deployed CDMA on cellular systems in India. "CDMA Worldwide: Deployment search – Asia-Pacific". CDMA Development Group. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  247. ^ Narayanan, R.Y. (5 September 2002). "Touchtel arrives in Coimbatore". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  248. ^ "Chennai is now wi-fi-enabled". The Times of India. 15 June 2009. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  249. ^ Narayanan, Vivek (20 December 2010). "Chennai ranks third among metros in surfing internet on cellphones". The Times of India. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  250. ^ "India's Internet users top 100 m in Sept". Business Line. 7 November 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  251. ^ Srikanth, R. (22 April 2014). "Chennai consumes 20% of the power of the State". The Hindu (Chennai). Retrieved 24 Apr 2014. 
  252. ^ "Metro rail sets up units to power trains, stations to meet year-end deadline to start services". The Times of India (Chennai). 15 April 2014. Retrieved 18 Apr 2014. 
  253. ^ PTI. "No power cuts in Tamil Nadu from this year end, says Jaya". The Times of India. Retrieved 10 June 2013. 
  254. ^ Padmini Sivarajah, TNN 5 Feb 2013, 05.28AM IST (5 February 2013). "Power crisis improving in southern Tamil Nadu". The Times of India. Retrieved 10 June 2013. 
  255. ^ "Electrical—Consumption and Cost". Corporation of Chennai. Retrieved 29 December 2012. 
  256. ^ "LED lights on roads in added city areas soon". The Hindu (Chennai). 3 February 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2013. 
  257. ^ Suresh, S. (3 November 2012). "The Banking Heritage of Madras". The Times of India (Chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  258. ^ Mukund, Kanakalatha (3 April 2007). "Insight into the progress of banking". The Hindu (Chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  259. ^ Kumar, Shiv (26 June 2005). "200 years and going strong". The Tribune. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  260. ^ "IOB set to take over Bharat Overseas Bank". Rediff Business ( 28 January 2006. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  261. ^ "About Us". Reserve Bank of India. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  262. ^ Radhakrishnan, R. K. (26 May 2009). "World Bank decides to locate back office in Chennai". The Hindu (Chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  263. ^ "World Bank may ramp up Chennai BPO operations". Business Standard (Chennai). 17 November 2003. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  264. ^ "About Us—India, Chennai (Madras)". Sri Lanka Deputy High Commission in Southern India. Retrieved 6 January 2013. 
  265. ^ De, Barun Kumar (2006). Public System Management. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers. ISBN 81-224-1767-1. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  266. ^ National Accreditation Board for Hospitals & Healthcare Providers (March 2012). "NABH Accredited Hospitals". NABH. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  267. ^ National Accreditation Board for Hospitals & Healthcare Providers. "Chennai – India's Health Capital". India Health Visit. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  268. ^ Hamid, Zubeda (20 August 2012). "The medical capital's place in history". The Hindu (Chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  269. ^ a b "Country's med capital to get 3,000 more beds". The Times of India (Chennai). 16 July 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  270. ^ Kannan, Ramya (20 August 2011). "What the new hospital and college mean for Chennai". The Hindu (Chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  271. ^ Ramkumar, Pratiksha (4 April 2013). "Chennai stares at a plastic disaster". The Times of India (Chennai). Retrieved 6 April 2013. 
  272. ^ "City to finally be free of garbage dumps". The Times of India (Chennai). 30 October 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  273. ^ "Corpn plans to move dump yards; residents breathe easy". The Times of India (Chennai). 30 October 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  274. ^ Philip, Christin Mathew (3 November 2012). "Don't dump waste on others: Experts". The Times of India (Chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  275. ^ "Traffic Statistics - Passengers" (PDF). Airports Authority of India. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  276. ^ "Traffic Statistics - Aircraft Movements" (PDF). Airports Authority of India. 
  277. ^ "Hoax bomb threat at Chennai airport". The Times of India. 10 June 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012. [dead link]
  278. ^ "New greenfield airport to be set up near Chennai". The Hindu. 22 May 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  279. ^ Arun Janardhanan; V Ayyappan (3 May 2012). "Chennai's aero dreams take wing". The Times of India (Chennai). Retrieved 25 November 2013. 
  280. ^ "Central station to shut down on December 13". The Times of India. 2 December 2009. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  281. ^ "35 trains to run at higher speed". The Hindu. 27 August 2004. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  282. ^ The CSR (18 April 2008). "Chennai metro work begins". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  283. ^ "Chennai's Koyambedu-Alandur metro closer to opening". The Economic Times. 
  284. ^ Joshi, Sandeep (7 April 2012). "Hitches on the highways". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  285. ^ "GIS database for Chennai city roads and strategies for improvement". Geospatial World. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  286. ^ a b c "MTC website to help keep track of buses". The Hindu. 21 October 2010. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  287. ^ a b Srivathsan, A (29 September 2007). "Bridge across time Skyline". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  288. ^ "Great demand for better public transport". The Times of India. 20 May 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  289. ^ S, Dorairaj (28 December 2005). "Koyambedu bus terminus gets ISO certification". The Hindu (Chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  290. ^ "Clogged way to filthy Koyambedu bus terminus". The Times of India. 22 May 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  291. ^ "More buses coming but no new routes". The Times of India. 8 January 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  292. ^ V, Venkatasubramanian (19 February 2010). "A boon to Kancheepuram unit of TNSTC". The Hindu (Kancheepuram). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  293. ^ "Airport taxis, a law unto themselves". The Hindu (Chennai). 8 September 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  294. ^ "Traffic handled". Government of Tamil Nadu ( 7 September 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  295. ^ "Shipyard Cum Captive Port Complex in the Kattupalli Village, Ponneri Taluk of Tiruvallur District. – Signing of joint venture agreement between Tamilnadu Industrial Development Corpn. Ltd. and Toubro Ltd. in the presence of Hon'ble Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu" (PDF). Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  296. ^ a b c "Historical Events at a Glance". District Profile. Govt. of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  297. ^ Muthiah, S (3 February 2003). "A landmark's last vestiges vanish". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 27 May 2006. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  298. ^ Shankaran, Sanjiv (4 May 2005). "How Deccan Chronicle stormed Chennai". Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  299. ^ Hindu, The (7 Oct 2013). "Hindu Tamil Magazine". The Hindu. Retrieved 7 Oct 2013. 
  300. ^ "Publication Place Wise-Registration". Registrar of Newspapers for India. Retrieved 28 December 2012. [dead link] If one types in Chennai in the input box and submits, the list is displayed.
  301. ^ "Rajasthan Patrika to launch Chennai edition". Deccan Herald. 
  302. ^ "Arasu Cable to launch operations from September 2". The Hindu. 30 August 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012. [dead link]
  303. ^ "Dish TV launches 'One Alliance' bouquet". The Hindu. 13 June 2006. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  304. ^ "DTH companies come up with offers for World Cup". The Hindu. 4 March 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  305. ^ "Conditional Access System in South Delhi from December 15". The Hindu. 6 December 2003. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  306. ^ Gilbert, Sean, ed. (2006). World Radio TV Handbook 2007: The Directory of International Broadcasting. London: WRTH Publications Ltd. pp. 237–242. ISBN 0-8230-5997-9. 
  307. ^
  308. ^ Sun 6 Apr 2014, 7:34 PM IST - India Markets closed (2012-10-23). "Indian metro cities with the highest literacy rates | Photo Gallery - Yahoo! India Finance". Retrieved 2014-04-06. 
  309. ^ a b c "History of the Education Department". Corporation of Chennai. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  310. ^ Ramachandran, K. and Srinivasan, Meera (20 November 2006). "Balancing uniformity and diversity". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  311. ^ "Indian Certificate of Secondary Education schools achieve 100% pass percentage". The Times of India (Chennai). 21 May 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  312. ^ "Educational structure". Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  313. ^ "Educational system in Tamil Nadu". Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  314. ^
  315. ^
  316. ^
  317. ^
  318. ^
  319. ^
  320. ^
  321. ^
  322. ^
  323. ^
  324. ^
  325. ^
  326. ^
  327. ^
  328. ^
  329. ^
  330. ^
  331. ^
  332. ^
  333. ^
  334. ^
  335. ^
  336. ^
  337. ^
  338. ^
  339. ^
  340. ^
  341. ^
  342. ^
  343. ^
  344. ^
  345. ^
  346. ^ "Connemara library's online catalogue launched". The Hindu. 23 April 2010. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  347. ^ Singh, Sahib (2004). Library and literacy movement for national development. New Delhi: Concept. ISBN 81-8069-065-2. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  348. ^ Venkatsh, M. R. (15 September 2010). "Chennai now boasts South Asia's largest library". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  349. ^ G.C. Shekhar (2011-11-03). "Largest library to turn into hospital". Retrieved 2014-04-06. 
  350. ^ Kamath, Rina (2000). Chennai. Orient Blackswan. p. 105. ISBN 8125013784. 
  351. ^ Kaminsky, Arnold P; Long, Roger D (2011). India Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic. p. 618. ISBN 978-0-313-37462-3. Retrieved 1 March 2013. 
  352. ^ a b Pletcher, Kenneth (2010). The Geography of India:Sacred and Historic Places. p. 184. ISBN 978-1-61530-142-3. Retrieved 5 March 2013. 
  353. ^ "MA Chidambaram stadium". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  354. ^ Ramchand, Partab. "Srinivas Venkataraghavan". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  355. ^ Ramchand, Partab. "Kris Srikkanth". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  356. ^ "Howard visits MRF Pace Foundation". The Hindu. 9 March 2006. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  357. ^ "Pathan owes his success to MRF Pace Foundation". Yahoo! News. Indo-Asian News Service. 20 February 2004. Archived from the original on 11 March 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  358. ^ "RCB vs CSK: Chennai Super Kings beat Royal Challengers Bangalore to reach IPL 4 final". The Times of India. 24 May 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  359. ^ "Chennai home to IPL final again in 2012". The Times of India. 30 May 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  360. ^ Thyagarajan, S (4 December 2003). "On the road to restoration". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  361. ^ "About the venue". International Management Group. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  362. ^ Basu, Arundhati (19 March 2005). "Off-court ace". The Telegraph. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  363. ^ Thyagarajan, S (22 August 2002). "On the right track". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  364. ^ "Chennai on right track". The Indian Express. 5 February 1998. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  365. ^ "Karthikeyan to race for HRT in 2012". The Times of India. Retrieved 28 December 2012. [dead link]
  366. ^ "Karun Chandhok goes the Endurance way". The Times of India. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  367. ^ "Chennai Cheetahs lifts title". The Hindu. 16 April 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  368. ^ Brijnath, Rohit (6 October 2007). "India's most consistent champion". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  369. ^ Srinivasan, Meera (7 September 2007). "Four Chennai teachers have a reason to rejoice". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  370. ^ "Indian Teams in International Competitions". Govt. of India. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  371. ^ Nandanan, Hari Hara (21 August 2011). "Fide offers 2013 World Chess C'ship to Chennai". The Times of India (Chennai). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  372. ^ "world chess championship 2013 at chennai". The Hindu. 
  373. ^ "History". US Consulate Chennai. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  374. ^ Clark, Mike. "Abbott Family Genealogy". Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  375. ^ "An Abbott of Teynampet". The Hindu (Chennai). 30 April 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  376. ^ "Did you know that ...". Embassy Pages. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  377. ^ "U.S. Consulate in Chennai among top 10 visa issuers". The Hindu (Chennai). 9 July 2010. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  378. ^ "Foreigners Regional Registration Office, Chennai". Bureau of Immigration, Ministry of Home Affairs, India. Retrieved 5 January 2013. 
  379. ^ "Volgograd: 80 Kilometers of Industry and War Heroes". The Moscow Times. 24 October 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  380. ^ "Overview of Chennai, India: Denver Sister Cities International". Archived from the original on 5 June 2008. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  381. ^ "What is it?". Official Website of the City of San Antonio. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  382. ^ "Chennai, Kuala Lumpur sign sister city pact". The Hindu. 26 November 2010. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  383. ^ "Agreement between PRC and India". Ministry of external affairs, India. 15 May 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015. 
  384. ^ Gunasekaran, M (30 December 2009). "Chennai city just got bigger". The Times of India (India). Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  385. ^ "Expansion of corporation limits". The Times of India. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  386. ^ "Final call on Greater Chennai by fiscal year-end". Retrieved 28 December 2012. 


External links

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft"padding-top:0.75em;"#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Search Wiktionary#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft"padding-top:0.75em;"#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Definitions from Wiktionary #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Search Commons#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Media from Commons #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Search Wikinews#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.News stories from Wikinews #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Search Wikiquote#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Quotations from Wikiquote #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Search Wikisource#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Source texts from Wikisource #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Search Wikibooks#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Textbooks from Wikibooks #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Search Wikivoyage#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Travel guide from Wikivoyage #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Search Wikiversity#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Learning resources from Wikiversity