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Cherry

This article is about the fruit. For other uses, see Cherry (disambiguation).
For the species called "wild cherry" in the British Isles, see Prunus avium. For other uses, see [[Wild Cherry (disambiguation)#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Wild Cherry]].
"Cherry tree" redirects here. For other uses of "Cherry tree" or "Cherrytree", see Cherry tree (disambiguation).
File:Cherry Stella444.jpg
Prunus avium, sweet cherry, also called wild cherry

A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).

The cherry fruits of commerce are usually obtained from a limited number of species such as cultivars of the sweet cherry, Prunus avium. The name 'cherry' also refers to the cherry tree, and is sometimes applied to almonds and visually similar flowering trees in the genus Prunus, as in "ornamental cherry", "cherry blossom", etc. Wild Cherry may refer to any of the cherry species growing outside of cultivation, although Prunus avium is often referred to specifically by the name "wild cherry" in the British Isles.

Botany

File:Black Che.jpg
Prunus cerasus

Many cherries are members of the subgenus Cerasus, which is distinguished by having the flowers in small corymbs of several together (not singly, nor in racemes), and by having smooth fruit with only a weak groove or none along one side. The subgenus is native to the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with two species in America, three in Europe, and the remainder in Asia. Other cherry fruits are members of subgenus Padus. Cherry trees with low exposure to light tend to have a bigger leaf size so they can intercept all light possible. Cherry trees with high exposure to light tend to have thicker leaves to concentrate light and have a higher photosynthetic capacity.[1]

Most eating cherries are derived from either Prunus avium, the sweet cherry (also called the wild cherry), or from Prunus cerasus, the sour cherry.

History

Etymology and antiquity

The indigenous range of the sweet cherry extends through most of Europe, western Asia and parts of northern Africa, and the fruit has been consumed throughout its range since prehistoric times. A cultivated cherry, as well as the apricot, is recorded as having been brought to Rome by Lucius Licinius Lucullus from northeastern Anatolia, also known as the Pontus region, historic Armenia, in 72 BC.[2]

A form of cherry was introduced into England at Teynham, near Sittingbourne in Kent by order of Henry VIII, who had tasted them in Flanders.[3][4][5]

The English word cherry, French cerise, Spanish cereza, and Turkish kiraz all derive from the classical Greek (κέρασος) through the Latin cerasum, which referred to the ancient Greek place name Cerasus, today the city of Giresun in northern Turkey in the ancient Pontus region, from which the cherry was first exported to Europe.[6] The ancient Greek word κερασός "cherry" itself is thought to be derived from a pre-Greek Anatolian language.[7]

Wildlife value

Cherry trees also provide food for the caterpillars of several Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies).

Cultivation

The cultivated forms are of the species sweet cherry (P. avium) to which most cherry cultivars belong, and the sour cherry (P. cerasus), which is used mainly for cooking. Both species originate in Europe and western Asia; they do not cross-pollinate. Some other species, although having edible fruit, are not grown extensively for consumption, except in northern regions where the two main species will not grow. Irrigation, spraying, labor, and their propensity to damage from rain and hail make cherries relatively expensive. Nonetheless, demand is high for the fruit. In commercial production, cherries are harvested by using a mechanized 'shaker'.[8] Hand picking is also widely used to harvest the fruit to avoid damage to both fruit and trees.

Growing season

File:Cherry trees in Tehran..jpg
Ripe cherries of Tehran in the middle of June.

Cherries have a very short growing season and can grow in most temperate latitudes. The peak season for cherries is in the summer. In Australia and New Zealand they are usually at their peak in late December, in southern Europe in June, in North America in June, in south British Columbia (Canada) in July to mid-August and in the UK in mid-July. In many parts of North America, they are among the first tree fruits to ripen, while in Australia and New Zealand cherries are widely associated with Christmas.[9]

'Kordia' is an early variety which ripens during the beginning of December, 'Lapins peak' ripens near the end of December, and 'Sweethearts' finish slightly later in the Southern Hemisphere.

Like most temperate-latitude trees, cherry seeds require exposure to cold to germinate (a mechanism the tree evolved to prevent germination during the autumn, which would then result in the seedling being killed by winter temperatures). The pits are planted in the autumn (after first being chilled) and seedlings emerge in the spring. A cherry tree will take three to four years to produce its first crop of fruit, and seven years to attain full maturity. Because of the cold-weather requirement, none of the Prunus family can grow in tropical climates.

Cultivars

The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:

Name Height Spread Ref.
Accolade 8m 8m [10]
Amanogawa 8m 4m [11]
Autumnalis (P. × subhirtella) 8m 8m [12]
Autumnalis Rosea (P. × subhirtella) 8m 4m [13]
Avium Grandiflora see Plena
Colorata (P. padus) 12m 8m [14]
Grandiflora see Plena
Kanzan 12m 12m+ [15]
Kiku-shidare-zakura 4m 4m [16]
Kursar 8m 8m [17]
Morello (P. cerasus) 4m 4m [18]
Okamé (P. × incam) 12m 8m [19]
Pandora 12m 8m [20]
Pendula Rosea 4m 4m [21]
Name Height Spread Ref.
Pendula Rubra 4m 4m [22]
Pink Perfection 8m 8m [23]
Plena (Grandiflora) 12m 8m+ [24]
Praecox (P. incisa) 8m 8m [25]
Prunus avium (wild cherry) 12m+ 8m+ [10]
Prunus × cistena 1.5m 1.5m [26]
Prunus sargentii (Sargent's cherry) 12m+ 8m+ [27]
Prunus serrula (Tibetan cherry) 12m 8m+ [28]
Shirofugen 8m 8m [29]
Shirotai 8m 8m [30]
Shōgetsu 8m 8m [31]
Spire 12m 8m [32]
Stella 4m 4m [25]
Ukon 8m 8m+ [33]

Ornamental trees

See cherry blossom and Prunus.

Commercial production

File:CherryYield.png
Worldwide cherry yield
Top Cherry Producing Nations - 2012
(in metric tons)
Rank Country Production
1 23x15px Turkey 480,748
2 23x15px United States 384,646
3 Template:Country data Iran 200,000
4 23x15px Italy 104,766
5 23x15px Spain 98,400
6 23x15px Chile 90,000
7 23x15px Uzbekistan 84,000
8 23x15px Syria 82,341
9 23x15px Ukraine 72,600
10 23x15px Russia 72,000
11 23x15px Romania 70,542
12 23x15px Greece 60,300
13 23x15px Poland 41,063
14 23x15px Austria 38,680
15 23x15px China 35,500
16 23x15px France 30,440
17 23x15px Germany 23,005
18 23x15px Lebanon 22,500
19 23x15px Serbia 22,213
20 23x15px Bulgaria 19,512
Sum 2,033,256
Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organization [34]
Top Sour Cherry Producing Nations - 2012
(in metric tons)
Rank Country Production
1 23x15px Turkey 187,941
2 23x15px Russia 183,300
3 23x15px Poland 175,391
4 23x15px Ukraine 172,800
5 Template:Country data Iran 105,000
6 23x15px Serbia 74,656
7 23x15px Hungary 53,425
8 23x15px United States 38,601
9 23x15px Uzbekistan 34,000
10 23x15px Azerbaijan 23,085
11 23x15px Albania 17,000
12 23x15px Germany 12,941
13 23x15px Belarus 10,674
14 23x15px Macedonia 8,127
15 23x15px Moldova 7,996
16 23x15px Italy 7,000
17 23x15px Croatia 6,000
18 23x15px Denmark 4,868
19 23x15px Armenia 4,699
20 23x15px Austria 4,030
Sum 1,131,534
Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organization [34]

Asia

Major commercial cherry orchards in West Asia are in Turkey (mainly Anatolia), Iran, Uzbekistan, Lebanon (Bekaa Valley), Syria (Golan Heights) and Israel (Golan Heights, Gush Eztion and Northern Galilee).

Europe

Major commercial cherry orchards in Europe are in Italy and Spain and other mediterranean regions, and to a smaller extent in the Baltic States and southern Scandinavia.

In France since the 1920s, the first cherries of the season always come in march from the region of Céret (Pyrénées-Orientales),[35] where the local producers always send, as a tradition since 1932, the first crate of cherries to the French president of the Republic.[36]

North America

File:American Cherries in supermarket.JPG
Cherries imported from USA in Australian supermarket

In the United States, most sweet cherries are grown in Washington, California, Oregon, Wisconsin, and Michigan.[37] Important sweet cherry cultivars include 'Bing', 'Brooks', 'Tulare', 'King', 'Sweetheart',[38] and 'Rainier'. In addition, the 'Lambert' variety is grown on the eastern side of Flathead Lake in northwestern Montana.[39] Both Oregon and Michigan provide light-colored 'Royal Ann' ('Napoleon'; alternately 'Queen Anne') cherries for the maraschino cherry process. Most sour (also called tart) cherries are grown in Michigan, followed by Utah, New York, and Washington.[37] Sour cherries include 'Nanking' and 'Evans'. Traverse City, Michigan claims to be the "Cherry Capital of the World", hosting a National Cherry Festival and making the world's largest cherry pie. The specific region of northern Michigan known for tart cherry production is referred to as the "Traverse Bay" region.

Native and non-native sweet cherries grow well in Canada's provinces of Ontario and British Columbia where an annual cherry fiesta has been celebrated for 66 consecutive years (including 2014) in the Okanagan Valley town of Osoyoos.[40] In addition to the Okanagan, other British Columbia cherry growing regions are the Similkameen Valley and Kootenay Valley, all three regions together producing 5.5 million kg annually or 60% of total Canadian output.[41] Sweet cherry varieties in British Columbia include Rainier, Van, Chelan, Lapin, Sweetheart, Skeena, Staccato, Christalina and Bing.

Australia

In Australia, cherries are grown in all the states except for the Northern Territory. The major producing regions are located in the temperate areas within New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania. Western Australia has limited production in the elevated parts in southwest of the state. Key production areas include Young, Orange and Bathurst in New South Wales, Wandin, the Goulburn and Murray valley areas in Victoria, the Adelaide Hills region in South Australia, and the Huon and Derwent Valleys in Tasmania.

Key commercial varieties in order of seasonality include 'Empress', 'Merchant', 'Supreme', 'Ron's seedling', 'Chelan', 'Ulster', 'Van', 'Bing', 'Stella', 'Nordwunder', 'Lapins', 'Simone', 'Regina', 'Kordia' and 'Sweetheart'. New varieties are being introduced, including the late season 'Staccato' and early season 'Sequoia'. The Australian Cherry Breeding program is developing a series of new varieties which are under testing evaluation.[42]

The New South Wales town of Young is called the "Cherry Capital of Australia" and hosts the National Cherry Festival.

Nutritional value

</td></tr></td></tr></td></tr></td></tr></td></tr>
Cherries, sour, red, raw
Nutritional value per Script error: No such module "convert".
Energy Script error: No such module "convert".
12.2 g
Sugars 8.5 g
Dietary fiber 1.6 g
0.3 g
1 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
(8%)
64 μg
(7%)
770 μg
85 μg
Thiamine (B1)
(3%)
0.03 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(3%)
0.04 mg
Niacin (B3)
(3%)
0.4 mg
(3%)
0.143 mg
Vitamin B6
(3%)
0.044 mg
Folate (B9)
(2%)
8 μg
Choline
(1%)
6.1 mg
Vitamin C
(12%)
10 mg
Vitamin K
(2%)
2.1 μg
Trace metals
Calcium
(2%)
16 mg
Iron
(2%)
0.32 mg
Magnesium
(3%)
9 mg
Manganese
(5%)
0.112 mg
Phosphorus
(2%)
15 mg
Potassium
(4%)
173 mg
Sodium
(0%)
3 mg
Zinc
(1%)
0.1 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
</td></tr></td></tr></td></tr></td></tr></td></tr>
Cherries, sweet, red, raw
Nutritional value per Script error: No such module "convert".
Energy Script error: No such module "convert".
16 g
Sugars 12.8 g
Dietary fiber 2.1 g
0.2 g
1.1 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
(0%)
3 μg
(0%)
38 μg
85 μg
Thiamine (B1)
(2%)
0.027 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(3%)
0.033 mg
Niacin (B3)
(1%)
0.154 mg
(4%)
0.199 mg
Vitamin B6
(4%)
0.049 mg
Folate (B9)
(1%)
4 μg
Choline
(1%)
6.1 mg
Vitamin C
(8%)
7 mg
Vitamin K
(2%)
2.1 μg
Trace metals
Calcium
(1%)
13 mg
Iron
(3%)
0.36 mg
Magnesium
(3%)
11 mg
Manganese
(3%)
0.07 mg
Phosphorus
(3%)
21 mg
Potassium
(5%)
222 mg
Sodium
(0%)
0 mg
Zinc
(1%)
0.07 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

As raw fruit, sweet cherries provide little nutrient content per 100 g serving (nutrient table). Dietary fiber and vitamin C are present in the most significant content while other vitamins and dietary minerals each supply less than 10% of the Daily Value (DV) per serving, respectively.[43]

Compared to sweet cherries, raw sour cherries contain higher content per 100 g of vitamin C (12% DV) and vitamin A (8% DV).[44]

Other information

The wood of some cherry species is especially esteemed for the manufacture of fine furniture.[45]

Species

The list below contains many Prunus species that bear the common name cherry, but they are not necessarily members of the subgenus Cerasus, or bear edible fruit. For a complete list of species, see Prunus. Some common names listed here have historically been used for more than one species, e.g. "rock cherry" is used as an alternative common name for both P. prostrata and P. mahaleb and "wild cherry" is used for several species.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Goncalves, Berta; Carlos M. Correia; Ana Paula Silva; Eunice A. Bacelar; Alberto Santos; José M. Moutinho-Pereira (20 May 2008). "Leaf structure and function of sweet cherry tree (Prunus avium L.) cultivars with open and dense canopies". Scientia Horticulturae. Scientia Horticulturae 116 (4): 381–387. doi:10.1016/j.scienta.2008.02.013. 
  2. ^ 12px "Pontus". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. 
  3. ^ The curious antiquary John Aubrey (1626–1697) noted in his memoranda: "Cherries were first brought into Kent tempore H. viii, who being in Flanders, and likeing the Cherries, ordered his Gardener, brought them hence, and propagated them in England." Oliver Lawson Dick, ed. (1949). <span />Aubrey's Brief Lives. Edited from the Original Manuscripts<span />. p. xxxv. 
  4. ^ "All the cherry gardens and orchards of Kent are said to have been stocked with the Flemish cherry from a plantation of 105 acres in Teynham, made with foreign cherries, pippins [ pippin apples ], and golden rennets [goldreinette apples], done by the fruiterer of Henry VIII." (Kent On-line: Teynham Parish)
  5. ^ The civic coat of arms of Sittingbourne with the crest of a "cherry tree fructed proper" and motto "known by their fruits" were only granted on July 28, 1949, however.
  6. ^ A History of the Vegetable Kingdom, Page 334.
  7. ^ Robert S. P. Beekes (2010). Etymological Dictionary of Greek. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-17418-4. As the improved cherry came from the Pontos area (cf. Κερασοῦς "rich in cherries", town on the Pontos), the name is probably Anatolian as well. Given its intervocalic σ, the form must be Anatolian or Pre-Greek. For the suffix, cf. ▶-θíασος, ▶-κάρπασος, which too are of foreign origin. Assyr. karšu has also been adduced. Cf. on ▶κράνον 'cornelian cherry'. Gr. κέρασος, -íα, κεράσιον were borrowed into many languages: Asiatic names of the cherry-tree and the cherry, like Arm. ker̄as, Kurd. ghilas, and in the West, Lat. cerasus, -ium, VLat. ★cerasia, ★ceresia, -ea; from Latin came the Romance and Germanic forms like MoFr. cerise, OHG chirsa > Kirsche. Lit.: Olck in PW 11: 509f. and Hester Lingua 13 (1965): 356. 
  8. ^ Chainpure (2009-06-23). "Soul to Brain: Wow! Its Cherry Harvesting". Chainpure.com. Retrieved 2011-11-26. 
  9. ^ Footner, Regan (27 November 2008). "Cherries - a sign of Christmas". ABC Blogs. Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  10. ^ a b "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Accolade' (d) AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  11. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Amanogawa' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  12. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus × subhirtella 'Autumnalis' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  13. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus × subhirtella 'Autumnalis Rosea' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  14. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus padus 'Colorata' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  15. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Kanzan' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  16. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Kiku-shidare-zakura' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  17. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Kursar' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  18. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus cerasus 'Morello' (C) AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  19. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus × incam 'Okamé' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  20. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Pandora' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  21. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus pendula 'Pendula Rosea' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  22. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus pendula 'Pendula Rubra' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  23. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Pink Perfection' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  24. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus avium 'Plena' (d) AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  25. ^ a b "RHS Plant Selector Prunus avium 'Stella' (F) AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  26. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus × cistena AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  27. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus sargentii AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  28. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus serrula AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  29. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Shirofugen' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  30. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Shirotae' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  31. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus 'Shogetsu'". Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  32. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus 'Spire'". Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  33. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus 'Ukon'". Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  34. ^ a b "Production of Cherry by countries". UN Food & Agriculture Organization. 2012. Retrieved 2014-09-14. 
  35. ^ Invalid language code. Fabricio Cardenas, Vieux papiers des Pyrénées-Orientales, Premières cerises de Céret et d'ailleurs, August 24, 2014
  36. ^ Invalid language code. Fabricio Cardenas, Vieux papiers des Pyrénées-Orientales, Des cerises de Céret pour le président de la République en 1932, June 1st 2014
  37. ^ a b Cherry Production (PDF) (Report). National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. June 23, 2011. ISSN 1948-9072. Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
  38. ^ "Cherry Varieties". Retrieved 24 October 2014. 
  39. ^ [1] Sweet Cherries Of Flathead Lake, Retrieved on August 28, 2009
  40. ^ "66th Annual Cherry Fiesta/Canada Day Celebrations". Destination Osoyoos. 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2014. 
  41. ^ "Cherries". BC Ministry of Agriculture. 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2014. 
  42. ^ "ANNUAL INDUSTRY REPORT 08 • 09" (PDF). Horticulture Australia Limited (HAL). 
  43. ^ "Nutrition facts, cherries, sweet, raw, 100 g". US Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database, Standard Reference 21. Nutritiondata.com. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  44. ^ "Nutrition facts, cherries, sour, red, raw, 100 g". US Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database, Standard Reference 21. Nutritiondata.com. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  45. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica. 1994–2009. 

External links

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