Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines
|Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines|
|Appointer||Presidential appointment upon nomination by the Judicial and Bar Council|
|Term length||Retirement at the age 70|
|Inaugural holder||Cayetano Arellano|
|Formation||Jun 11, 1901|
|1|| Cayetano Arellano
(March 2, 1847 – December 23, 1920)
|June 11, 1901||April 1, 1920||18 years, 9 months, 22 days|| William McKinley |
|2|| Victorino Mapa
(February 25, 1855 – April 12, 1927)
|July 1, 1920||October 31, 1921||1 year, 3 months, 25 days|| Woodrow Wilson |
|3|| Manuel Araullo
(January 1, 1853 – July 26, 1924)
|November 1, 1921||July 26, 1924||2 years, 8 months, 26 days|| Warren G. Harding |
|4|| Ramón Avanceña
(April 13, 1872 – June 12, 1957)
|April 1, 1925||December 24, 1941||16 years, 8 months, 24 days|| Calvin Coolidge |
|5|| José Abad Santos1
(February 19, 1886 – May 7, 1942)
|December 24, 1941||May 7, 1942||4 months, 9 days|| Manuel L. Quezon |
|6|| José Yulo
(September 24, 1894 – October 27, 1976)
|May 7, 1942||July 9, 1945||3 years, 5 months, 5 days||Japanese Military Administration|
|7|| Manuel Moran
(October 27, 1893 – August 23, 1961)
|July 9, 1945||March 20, 1951||5 years, 7 months, 12 days|| Sergio Osmeña |
|8|| Ricardo Paras
(February 17, 1891 – October 10, 1984)
|April 2, 1951||February 17, 1961||9 years, 10 months, 16 days|| Elpidio Quirino |
|9|| César Bengzon
(May 29, 1896 – September 3, 1992)
|April 28, 1961||May 29, 1966||5 years, 1 month, 2 days|| Carlos P. Garcia |
|10|| Roberto Concepcion
(June 7, 1903 – May 3, 1987)
|June 17, 1966||April 18, 1973||6 years, 10 months, 2 days|| Ferdinand Marcos|
|11|| Querube Makalintal
(December 22, 1910 – November 8, 2002)
|October 21, 1973||December 22, 1975||2 years, 1 month, 23 days|
|12|| Fred Ruiz Castro
(September 2, 1914 – April 19, 1979)
|January 5, 1976||April 19, 1979||3 years, 3 months, 18 days|| Ferdinand Marcos |
(Kilusang Bagong Lipunan)
|13|| Enrique Fernando
(July 25, 1915 – October 13, 2004)
|July 2, 1979||July 24, 1985||6 years, 23 days|
|14|| Felix Makasiar
(November 20, 1915 – February 19, 1992)
|July 25, 1985||November 19, 1985||3 months, 26 days|
|15|| Ramon Aquino
(August 31, 1917 – March 31, 1993)
|November 20, 1985||March 6, 1986||3 months, 15 days|
|16|| Claudio Teehankee, Sr.
(April 18, 1918 – November 27, 1989)
|April 2, 1986||April 18, 1988||2 years, 17 days|| Corazon Aquino |
(United Nationalist Democratic Organization)
|17|| Pedro Yap
(July 1, 1918 – November 20, 2003)
|April 19, 1988||June 30, 1988||2 months, 12 days|
|18|| Marcelo Fernan
(October 24, 1927 – July 11, 1999)
|July 1, 1988||December 6, 1991||3 years, 5 months, 25 days|
|19|| Andres Narvasa
(November 30, 1928 - October 31, 2013)
|December 8, 1991||November 30, 1998||6 years, 11 months, 23 days|
|20|| Hilario Davide, Jr.
(born December 20, 1935)
|November 30, 1998||December 20, 2005||7 years, 21 days|| Joseph Estrada |
(Laban ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino)
|21|| Artemio Panganiban
(born December 7, 1936)
|December 20, 2005||December 7, 2006||11 months, 18 days|| Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo |
|22|| Reynato Puno
(born May 17, 1940)
|December 8, 2006||May 17, 2010||3 years, 5 months, 10 days|| Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo |
|23|| Renato Corona2
(born October 15, 1948)
|May 17, 2010||May 29, 2012||2 years, 13 days|
|24|| Maria Lourdes Sereno
(born July 2, 1960)
|August 25, 2012||Incumbent|| Benigno Aquino III |
- ^1 José Abad Santos was unable to preside over the Supreme Court due to the outbreak of World War II.
- ^2 Renato Corona was impeached on Dec 12, 2011 and convicted on May 29, 2012, removing him from office. Antonio Carpio, the most senior Associate Justice, was Acting Chief Justice from May 30, 2012 to Aug 25, 2012, when Maria Lourdes Sereno was sworn into office by President Benigno Aquino III.
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width:5 align:left fontsize:S shift:(5,-4) anchor:till barset:PM from:06/11/1901 till:04/01/1920 text:"Cayetano Arellano" color:UST from:07/01/1920 till:10/31/1921 text:"Victorino Mapa" color:UST from:11/01/1921 till:07/26/1924 text:"Manuel Araullo" color:UST from:04/01/1925 till:12/24/1941 text:"Ramon Avanceña" color:UST from:12/24/1941 till:05/07/1942 text:"Jose Abad Santos" color:Northwestern from:02/05/1942 till:07/09/1945 text:"Jose Yulo" color:UP from:07/09/1945 till:03/20/1951 text:"Manuel Moran" color:Esc from:04/02/1951 till:02/16/1961 text:"Ricardo Paras" color:UP from:04/28/1961 till:05/29/1966 text:"Cesar Bengzon" color:UP from:06/17/1966 till:04/18/1973 text:"Roberto Concepcion" color:UST from:10/21/1973 till:12/22/1975 text:"Querebe Macalintal" color:UP from:01/05/1976 till:04/19/1979 text:"Fred Ruiz Castro" color:UP from:07/02/1979 till:07/24/1985 text:"Enrique Fernando" color:UP from:07/25/1985 till:11/19/1985 text:"Felix Makasiar" color:UP from:11/20/1985 till:03/06/1986 text:"Ramon Aquino" color:UP from:04/02/1986 till:04/18/1988 text:"Claudio Teehankee" color:ADMU from:04/18/1988 till:07/01/1988 text:"Pedro Yap" color:UP from:07/01/1988 till:12/06/1991 text:"Marcelo Fernan" color:UP from:12/08/1991 till:12/30/1998 text:"Andres Narvasa" color:UST from:12/30/1998 till:12/20/2005 text:"Hilario Davide" color:UP from:12/20/2005 till:12/07/2006 text:"Artemio Panganiban" color:FEU from:12/08/2006 till:05/17/2010 text:"Reynato Puno" color:UP from:05/17/2010 till:05/29/2012 text:"Renato Corona" color:ADMU from:08/25/2012 till:01/13/2015 text:"Maria Lourdes Sereno" color:UP
- José Yulo was the only former Speaker of the House of Representatives to be subsequently appointed as Chief Justice. Another, Querube Makalintal, would be elected as Speaker of the Interim Batasang Pambansa (parliament) after his retirement from the Court. On the other hand, Marcelo Fernan would, after his resignation from the Court, be elected to the Senate and later serve as its President. Other Chief Justices served in prominent positions in public service after their retirement include Manuel Moran (Ambassador to Spain and the Vatican), and Hilario Davide, Jr. (Ambassador to the UN). The most prestigious position held by a former Chief Justice was undoubtedly that of César Bengzon, who was elected as the first Filipino to sit as a judge on the International Court of Justice shortly after his retirement in 1966.
- Roberto Concepcion was reputedly so disappointed with the Court's ruling in Javellana v. Executive Secretary where the majority affirmed the validity of the Marcos Constitution despite recognizing the flaws in its ratification, that he retired 2 months prior to his reaching the mandatory retirement age of 70. 13 years later, after the ouster of Marcos, the 83-year old Concepcion was appointed a member of the 1986 Constitutional Commission tasked with drafting a new Constitution. Drawing from his experiences as Chief Justice in the early days of martial law, Concepcion introduced several new innovations designed to assure the independence of the Supreme Court, such as the Judicial and Bar Council and the express conferment on the Court the power to review any acts of government.
- The longest period one person served as Chief Justice was 18 years, 294 days in the case of Cayetano Arellano, who served from 1901 to 1920. Arellano was 73 years, 29 days old upon his resignation, the greatest age ever reached by an incumbent Chief Justice, and a record unlikely to be broken with the current mandatory retirement age of 70.
- The shortest tenure of any Chief Justice was that of Pedro Yap, who served as Chief Justice for 73 days in 1988. Other Chief Justices who served for less than a year were Felix Makasiar (85 days), Ramon Aquino (78 days) and Artemio Panganiban (352 days). Of these Chief Justices, all but Aquino left office upon reaching the mandatory retirement age of 70; Aquino resigned in 1986 after the newly installed President Corazon Aquino asked for the courtesy resignations of all the members of the Court.
- The oldest person appointed as Chief Justice was Pedro Yap, who was 69 years, 292 days old upon his appointment in 1988. Other persons appointed as Chief Justice in their 69th year were Felix Makasiar (69 years, 280 days old) and Artemio Panganiban (69 years, 13 days old). The youngest person named as Chief Justice was Manuel Moran, who was 51 years, 256 days old upon his appointment.
- Claudio Teehankee had to wait for nearly 18 years as Associate Justice before he was appointed as Chief Justice. He was twice bypassed by Ferdinand Marcos in favor a more junior Associate Justice before he was finally appointed Chief Justice by Corazon Aquino. Of the Filipino Associate Justices, Florentino Torres and J. B. L. Reyes served over 18 years in the Court without becoming Chief Justice. In contrast, Pedro Yap had served as Associate Justice for only 2 years, 10 days before he was promoted as Chief Justice.
- The longest lived Chief Justice was César Bengzon, who died in 1992 aged 96 years, 97 days old. Two other Chief Justices lived past 90: Ricardo Paras (93 years, 235 days) and Querube Makalintal (91 years, 322 days).
- The youngest Chief Justice to die was José Abad Santos, who was executed by the Japanese army in 1942 at age 56 years, 77 days. The youngest Chief Justice to die from non-violent causes was Fred Ruiz Castro, who died in 1979 of a heart attack inflight to India, at age 64 years, 231 days. Abad Santos, Castro and Manuel Araullo are the only Chief Justices to die while in office.
- The first Chief Justice to be impeached is Renato Corona. On Dec 12, 2011, 188 of the 285 members of House of Representatives voted to transmit to the Senate the Articles of Impeachment filed against him. On May 29, 2012, the Senate, voting 20-3, convicted Corona under Article II pertaining to his failure to disclose to the public his statement of assets, liabilities, and net worth.
- Maria Lourdes Sereno is the first female appointed to serve as Chief Justice, following the impeachment of Renato Corona and deliberations by the Judicial and Bar Council in 2012.
The Chief Justice's Judicial Chambers
Reception Room for the Office of the Chief Justice
- Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines
- Supreme Court of the Philippines
- Constitution of the Philippines
- The Supreme Court E-library
- The Chief Justice on the Official Gazette of the Philippines
- Sevilla, Victor J. (1985). Justices of the Supreme Court of the Philippines Vol. I. Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publishers. ISBN 971-10-0134-9.
- Sevilla, Victor J. (1985). Justices of the Supreme Court of the Philippines Vol. II. Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publishers. ISBN 971-10-0137-3.
- Sevilla, Victor J. (1985). Justices of the Supreme Court of the Philippines Vol. III. Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publishers. ISBN 971-10-0139-X.