Child marriage is a formal marriage or informal union entered into by an individual before reaching the age of 18. The legally prescribed marriageable age in some jurisdictions is below 18 years, especially in the case of girls; and even when the age is set at 18 years, many jurisdictions permit earlier marriage with parental consent or in special circumstances, such as teenage pregnancy. In certain countries, even when the legal marriage age is 18, cultural traditions take priority over legislative law. Child marriage affects both boys and girls, though the overwhelming majority of those affected are girls, most of whom are in poor socioeconomic situations.
Child marriage is related to child betrothal, and it includes civil cohabitation and court approved early marriages after teenage pregnancy. In many cases, only one marriage-partner is a child, usually the female. Causes of child marriages include poverty, bride price, dowry, cultural traditions, laws that allow child marriages, religious and social pressures, regional customs, fear of remaining unmarried, illiteracy, and perceived inability of women to work for money.
Child marriages were common throughout history for a variety of reasons, including poverty, insecurity, as well as for political and financial reasons. Today, child marriage is still fairly widespread in developing countries, such as parts of Africa, South Asia, Southeast and East Asia, West Asia, Latin America, and Oceania. The incidence of child marriage has been falling in most parts of the world. The countries with the highest observed rates of child marriages below the age of 18 are Niger, Chad, Mali, Bangladesh, Guinea and the Central African Republic, with a rate above 60%. Niger, Chad, Bangladesh, Mali and Ethiopia were the countries with child marriage rates greater than 20% below the age of 15, according to 2003-2009 surveys.
Child marriage has lasting consequences on girls, from their health, education and social development perspectives. These consequences last well beyond adolescence. One of the most commons causes of death for girls aged 15 to 19 in developing countries was pregnancy and child birth.
- 1 History
- 2 Causes of child marriage
- 3 Child marriage by region
- 4 Consequences of child marriage
- 5 International initiatives to prevent child marriage
- 6 Prevalence data
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Historically, child marriage was common around the world. The practice began to be questioned in the 20th century, with the age of individuals' first marriage increasing in many countries and most countries increasing the minimum marriage age.
In ancient and medieval societies, it was common for girls to be betrothed at or even before puberty. In Greece, early marriage and motherhood for girls was encouraged. Even boys were expected to marry in their teens. With an average life expectancy between 40 to 45 years, early marriages and teenage motherhood was typical. In Ancient Rome, girls married above the age of 12 and boys above 14. In the Middle Ages, under English civil laws that were derived from Roman laws, marriages before the age of 16 were common. In Imperial China, child marriage was the norm.
Friedman claims, "arranging and contracting the marriage of a young girl were the undisputed prerogatives of her father in ancient Israel." Most girls were married before the age of 15, often at the start of their puberty.
Most religions, over history, influenced the marriageable age. For example, Christian ecclesiastical law forbade marriage of a girl before the age of puberty. Hindu vedic scriptures mandated the age of a girl's marriage to be adulthood which they defined as three years after the onset of puberty. Jewish scholars and rabbis strongly discouraged marriages before the onset of puberty. In contrast, some Islamic marriage practices have permitted marriage of girls below the age of 10, because Shariat law is based in part on the life and practices of Muhammad, the Prophet, as described in part in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. The Prophet married Aisha, his third wife, when she was about age six, and consummated the marriage when she was about age nine.
Narrated 'Aisha: that the Prophet married her when she was six years old and he consummated his marriage when she was nine years old, and then she remained with him for nine years (i.e., till his death).
Some mainstream Islamic scholars have suggested that it is not the chronological age that matters; marriageable age under Muslim religious law is the age when the guardians of the girl feel she has reached sexual maturity. Such determination of sexual maturity is a matter of subjective judgment, and there is a strong belief among most Muslims and scholars, based on Sharia, that marrying a girl less than 13 years old is an acceptable practice for Muslims.
Causes of child marriage
According to UNFPA, factors that promote and reinforce child marriage include poverty and economic survival strategies; gender inequality; sealing land or property deals or settling disputes; control over sexuality and protecting family honour; tradition and culture; and insecurity, particularly during war, famine or epidemics. Other factors include family ties in which marriage is a means of consolidating powerful relations between families.
Dowry and brideprice
Providing a girl with a dowry at her marriage is an ancient practice which continues in some parts of the world. This requires parents to bestow property on the marriage of a daughter, which is often an economic challenge for many families. The difficulty to save and preserve wealth for dowry was common, particularly in times of economic hardship, or persecution, or unpredictable seizure of property and savings for discriminatory taxes such as Jizya. These difficulties pressed families to betroth their girl, irrespective of her age, as soon as they had the resources to pay the dowry. Thus, Goitein notes that European Jews would marry their girls early, once they had collected the expected amount of dowry.
A bride price is the amount paid by the groom to the parents of a bride for them to consent to him marrying their daughter. In some countries, the younger the bride, the higher the price she may fetch. This practice creates an economic incentive where girls are sought and married early by her family to the highest bidder. Child marriages of girls is a way out of desperate economic conditions, or simply a source of income to the parents. Bride price is another cause of child marriage and child trafficking.
Persecution, forced migration, and slavery
Social upheavals such as wars, major military campaigns, forced religious conversion, taking natives as prisoners of war and converting them into slaves, arrest and forced migrations of people often made a suitable groom a rare commodity. Bride's families would seek out any available bachelors and marry them to their daughters, before events beyond their control moved the boy away. Persecution and displacement of Roma and Jewish people in Europe, colonial campaigns to get slaves from various ethnic groups in West Africa across the Atlantic for plantations, Islamic campaigns to get Hindu slaves from India across Afghanistan's Hindu Kush as property and for work, were some of the historical events that increased the practice of child marriage before the 19th century.
A New York Times report and other scholars claim the origin of child marriages in India to be Muslim invasions that began more than 1,000 years ago. The invaders raped unmarried Hindu girls or carried them off as booty, prompting Hindu communities to marry off their daughters early to protect them. Similarly, among Sephardi Jewish communities, child marriages became frequent from 10th to 13th century as Muslim invasion and rule spread in Spain. This practice intensified after the Jewish community was expelled from Spain, and resettled in the Ottoman Empire. Child marriages among the Eastern Sephardic Jews continued through the 19th century in Islamic majority regions.
A sense of social insecurity has been a cause of child marriages across the world. For example, in Nepal, parents fear likely social stigma if grown-up adult girls (past 18 years) stay at home. Other fear of crime such as rape, which not only would be traumatic but may lead to less acceptance of the girl if she becomes victim of a crime. For example, girls may not be seen as eligible for marriage if they are not virgins. In other cultures, the fear is that an unmarried girl may engage in illicit relationships, or elope causing a permanent social blemish to her siblings, or that the impoverished family may be unable to find bachelors for grown up girls in their economic social group. Such fears and social pressures have been proposed as causes that lead to child marriages.
Extreme poverty may make daughters an economic burden on the family, which may be relieved by their early marriage, to the benefit of the family as well as the girl herself. Poor parents may have few alternatives they can afford for the girls in the family; they often view marriage as a means to ensure their daughter's financial security and to reduce the economic burden of a growing adult on the family. Child marriage can also be seen as means of ensuring a girl's economic security, particularly if she lacks family members to provide for her. In reviews of Jewish community history, scholars claim poverty, shortage of grooms, uncertain social and economic conditions were a cause for frequent child marriages.
An additional factor causing child marriage is the parental belief that early marriage offers protection. Parents feel that marriage provides their daughter with a sense of protection from sexual promiscuity and safe from sexually transmitted infections. However in reality, young girls tend to marry older men, placing them at an increased risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection. Married girls are more likely than unmarried girls to become infected with HIV or the human papilloma virus (‘HPV’).
Protection through marriage may play a specific role in conflict settings. Families may have their young daughters marry members of an armed group or military in hopes that she will be better protected. Girls may also be taken by armed groups and forced into marriages.
Religion and civil law
Although the general marriageable age is 18 in the majority of countries, most jurisdictions allow for exceptions for underage youth with parental and/or judicial consent. Such laws are neither limited to developing countries, nor to state religion. In some countries a religious marriage by itself has legal validity, while in others it does not, as civil marriage is obligatory. In Europe, the Catholic canon law sets 14 as the minimum age for the marriage of girls, as does Spain with a legal guardian's permission. In Mexico, marriage under 18 is allowed with parental consent, from age 14 for girls and age 16 for boys. Canada and many states in the USA permit child marriages, with court's permission. In the UK, marriage is allowed for 16–17 years old with parental consent in England and Wales as well as in Northern Ireland, and even without parental consent in Scotland. However, a marriage of a person under 16 is void under the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973. The United Nations Population Fund stated the following:
- "In 2010, 158 countries reported that 18 years was the minimum legal age for marriage for women without parental consent or approval by a pertinent authority. However, in 146 countries, state or customary law allows girls younger than 18 to marry with the consent of parents or other authorities; in 52 countries, girls under age 15 can marry with parental consent. In contrast, 18 is the legal age for marriage without consent among males in 180 countries. Additionally, in 105 countries, boys can marry with the consent of a parent or a pertinent authority, and in 23 countries, boys under age 15 can marry with parental consent."
Lower legally allowed marriage age does not necessarily cause high rates of child marriages. However, there is a correlation between restrictions placed by laws and the average age of first marriage. In the United States, per 1960 Census data, 3.5% of girls married before the age of 16, while an additional 11.9% married between 16 and 18. States with lower marriage age limits saw higher percentages of child marriages. This correlation between higher age of marriage in civil law and observed frequency of child marriages breaks down in countries with Islam as the state religion. In Islamic nations, many countries do not allow child marriage of girls under their civil code of laws. But, the state recognized Sharia religious laws and courts in all these nations have the power to override the civil code, and often do. UNICEF reports that the top five nations in the world with highest observed child marriage rates — Niger (75%), Chad (72%), Mali (71%), Bangladesh (64%), Guinea (63%) — are Islamic majority countries.
Politics and financial relationships
Child marriages may depend upon socio-economic status. The aristocracy in some cultures, as in the European feudal era tended to use child marriage as a method to secure political ties. Families were able to cement political and/or financial ties by having their children marry. The betrothal is considered a binding contract upon the families and the children. The breaking of a betrothal can have serious consequences both for the families and for the betrothed individuals themselves.
Child marriage by region
A UNFPA report stated that, “For the period 2000-2011, just over one third (an estimated 34 per cent) of women aged 20 to 24 years in developing regions were married or in union before their eighteenth birthday. In 2010 this was equivalent to almost 67 million women. About 12 per cent of them were married or in union before age 15.”  The prevalence of child marriage varies substantially among countries.
According to UNICEF, Africa has the highest incidence rates of child marriage, with over 70% of girls marrying under the age of 18, in three nations. Niger has one of the highest rates of early marriage in sub-Saharan Africa. Among Nigerien women between the ages of twenty and twenty-four, 76% reported marrying before the age of 18 and 28% reported marrying before the age of fifteen. This UNICEF report is based on data that is derived from a small sample survey between 1995 and 2004, and the current rate is unknown given lack of infrastructure and in some cases, regional violence.
African countries have enacted marriageable age laws to limit marriage to a minimum age of 16 to 18, depending on jurisdiction. In Ethiopia, Chad and Niger, the legal marriage age is 15, but local customs and religious courts have the power to allow marriages below 12 years of age. Child marriages of girls in West Africa and Northeast Africa are widespread. Additionally, poverty, religion, tradition, and conflict make the rate of child marriage in Sub-Saharan Africa very high in some regions.
In many tribal systems a man pays a bride price to the girl's family in order to marry her (comparable to the customs of dowry and dower). In many parts of Africa, this payment, in cash, cattle, or other valuables, decreases as a girl gets older. Even before a girl reaches puberty, it is common for a married girl to leave her parents to be with her husband. Many marriages are related to poverty, with parents needing the bride price of a daughter to feed, clothe, educate, and house the rest of the family. In Mali, the female:male ratio of marriage before age 18 is 72:1; in Kenya, 21:1.
The various reports indicate that in many Sub-Saharan countries, there is a high incidence of marriage among girls younger than 15. Many governments have tended to overlook the particular problems resulting from child marriage, including obstetric fistulae, premature births, stillbirth, sexually transmitted diseases (including cervical cancer), and malaria.
In parts of Ethiopia and Nigeria many girls are married before the age of 15, some as young as 7. In parts of Mali 39% of girls are married before the age of 15. In Niger and Chad, over 70% of girls are married before the age of 18.
As of 2006, 15-20% of school dropouts in Nigeria were the result of child marriage. In 2013, Nigeria attempted to change Section 29, subsection 4 of its laws and thereby prohibit child marriages. This was opposed by Islamic states of Nigeria, who called any attempts to prohibit child marriages as un-Islamic. Christianity and Islam are practiced by roughly 50%-50% of its population respectively, and the country continues with personal laws from its British colonial era laws, where child marriages are forbidden for its Christians and allowed for its Muslims. Child marriage is a divisive topic in Nigeria and widely practiced. In northern states, predominantly Muslim, over 50% of the girls marry before the age of 15.
In 2015, Malawi passed a law banning child marriage, which raises the minimum age for marriage to 18. This major accomplishment came following years of effort by the Girls Empowerment Network campaign, which ultimately led to tribal and traditional leaders banning the cultural practice of child marriage.
In Morocco, child marriage is a common practice. Over 41,000 marriages every year involve child brides. Before 2003, child marriages did not require a court or state's approval. In 2003, Morocco passed the family law (Moudawana) that raised minimum age of marriage for girls from 14 to 18, with the exception that underage girls may marry with the permission of the government recognized official/court and girl's guardian. Over the 10 years preceding 2008, requests for child marriages have been predominantly approved by Morocco's Ministry for Social Development, and have increased (~ 29% of all marriages). Some child marriages in Morocco are a result of Article 475 of the Moroccan penal code, a law that allows rapists to avoid punishment if they marry their underage victims. Article 475 was amended in January 2014 after much campaigning, and rapists can legally no longer avoid sentencing by marrying their victim.
In South Africa the law provides for respecting the marriage practices of traditional marriages, whereby a person might be married as young as 12 for females and 14 for males. Early marriage is cited as "a barrier to continuing education for girls (and boys)". This includes absuma (arranged marriages set up between cousins at birth in local Islamic ethnic group), bride kidnapping and elopement decided on by the children.
Asia and Oceania There was a decrease in the rates of child marriage across South Asia from 1991 to 2007, but the decrease was observed among young adolescent girls and not girls in their late teens. Some scholars believe this age-specific reduction was linked to girls increasingly attending school until about age 15 and then getting married.
According to UNICEF's "State of the World's Children-2009" report, 47% of India's women aged 20–24 were married before the legal age of 18, with 56% marrying before age 18 in rural areas. The report also showed that 40% of the world's child marriages occur in India. As with Africa, this UNICEF report is based on data that is derived from a small sample survey in 1999. The latest available UNICEF report for India uses 2004-2005 household survey data, on a small sample, and other scholars report lower incidence rates for India. According to Raj et al., the 2005 small sample household survey data suggests 22% of girls ever married aged 16–18, 20% of girls in India were married between 13-16, and 2·6% were married before age 13. According to 2011 nationwide census of India, the average age of marriage for women in India is 21. The child marriage rates in India, according to a 2009 representative survey, dropped to 7%. In its 2001 demographic report, the Census of India stated zero married girls below age 10, 1.4 million married girls out of 59.2 million girls in the age 10-14, and 11.3 million married girls out of 46.3 million girls in the age 15-19 (which includes 18-19 age group). For 2011, the Census of India reports child marriage rates dropping further to 3.7% of females aged less than 18 being married.
The Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929 was passed during the tenure of British rule on Colonial India. It forbade the marriage of a male younger than 21 or a female younger than 18 for Hindus, Buddhists, Christians and most people of India. However, this law did not and currently does not apply to India's 165 million Muslim population, and only applies to India's Hindu, Christian, Jain, Sikh and other religious minorities. This link of law and religion was formalized by the British colonial rule with the Muslim personal laws codified in the Indian Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act of 1937. The age at which India's Muslim girls can legally marry, according to this Muslim Personal Law, is 9, and can be lower if her guardian (wali) decides she is sexually mature. Over the last 25 years, All India Muslim Personal Law Board and other Muslim civil organizations have actively opposed India-wide laws and enforcement action against child marriages; they have argued that Indian Muslim families have a religious right to marry a girl aged 15 or even 12. Several states of India claim specially high child marriage rates in their Muslim and tribal communities. India, with a population of over 1.2 billion, has the world's highest total number of child marriages. It is a significant social issue.
According to "National Plan of Action for Children 2005", published by Indian government's Department of Women and Child Development, set a goal to eliminate child marriage completely by 2010. This plan has been unsuccessful.
According to two 2013 reports, over 50% of all marriages in Pakistan involve girls less than 18 years old. Another UNICEF report claims 70 per cent of girls in Pakistan are married before the age of 16. As with India and Africa, the UNICEF data for Pakistan is from a small sample survey in the 1990s.
The exact number of child marriages in Pakistan below the age of 13 is unknown, but rising according to the United Nations. Andrew Bushell claims rate of marriage of 8- to 13-year-old girls exceeding 50% in northwest regions of Pakistan.
Another custom in Pakistan, called swara or vani, involves village elders solving family disputes or settling unpaid debts by marrying off girls. The average marriage age of swara girls is between 5 and 9. Similarly, the custom of watta satta has been cited as a cause of child marriages in Pakistan.
According to Population Council, 35% of all females in Pakistan become mothers before they reach the age of 18, and 67% have experienced pregnancy — 69% of these have given birth — before they reach the age of 19. Less than 4% of married girls below the age of 19 had some say in choosing her spouse; over 80% were married to a near or distant relative. Child marriage and early motherhood is common in Pakistan.
Child marriage rates in Bangladesh are amongst the highest in the world. Every 2 out of 3 marriages involve child marriages. According to statistics from 2005, 49% of women then between 25 and 29 were married by the age of 15 in Bangladesh. According to the "State of the World's Children-2009" report, 63% of all women aged 20–24 were married before they were 18. According to a 2008 study, for each additional year a girl in rural Bangladesh is not married she will attend school an additional 0.22 years on average. The later girls were married, the more likely they were to utilize preventative health care. Married girls in the region were found to have less influence on family planning, higher rates of maternal mortality, and lower status in their husband's family than girls who married later.
Mia's Law was enacted in 2006 to protect child brides from abuse following the torture and murder of Mia Armador, an 11-year-old who was killed by her abusive 48 year-old husband. This law requires all marriages under 13 to require special government permission. The Ministry of Women and Children Affairs is making progress in increasing women's education and employment opportunities. This, combined with specific education about child marriage and cooperation with religious leaders, is hoped to decrease child marriage.
UNICEF reported that 28.8% of marriages in Nepal were child marriages as of 2011. A UNICEF discussion paper determined that 79.6 percent of Muslim girls in Nepal, 69.7 percent of girls living in hilly regions irrespective of religion, and 55.7 percent of girls living in other rural areas, are all married before the age of 15. Girls who were born into the highest wealth quintile marry about two years later than those from the other quintiles.
A 2013 report claims 53% of all married women in Afghanistan were married before age 18, and 21% of all were married before age 15. Afghanistan's official minimum age of marriage for girls is 15 with her father's permission. In all 34 provinces of Afghanistan, the customary practice of ba'ad is another reason for child marriages; this custom involves village elders, jirga, settling disputes between families or unpaid debts or ruling punishment for a crime by forcing the so-called guilty family to give their 5- to 12-year-old girls as a wife. Sometimes a girl is forced into child marriage for a crime her uncle or distant relative is alleged to have committed.
In Iran, girls may marry at 13 and boys at 15, and children under 10 may marry if their guardian approves it. According to a 2013 report, about one million children, including those under age 10, are married every year. About 85% of these married children are girls. As in Western Pakistan and Afghanistan, in some cases, girls are married to settle disputes between families.
Over half of Yemeni girls are married before 18, some by the age eight. Yemen government's Sharia Legislative Committee has blocked attempts to raise marriage age to either 15 or 18, on grounds that any law setting minimum age for girls is un-Islamic. Yemeni Muslim activists argue that some girls are ready for marriage at age 9. According to HRW, in 1999 the minimum marriage age 15 for women was abolished; the onset of puberty, interpreted by conservatives to be at age nine, was set as a requirement for consummation of marriage. In practice "Yemeni law allows girls of any age to wed, but it forbids sex with them until the indefinite time they're 'suitable for sexual intercourse" As with Africa, the marriage incidence data for Yemen in HRW report is from surveys between 1990 and 2000. Current data is difficult to obtain, given regional violence.
In April 2008 Nujood Ali, a 10-year-old girl, successfully obtained a divorce after being raped under these conditions. Her case prompted calls to raise the legal age for marriage to 18. Later in 2008, the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood proposed to define the minimum age for marriage at 18 years. The law was passed in April 2009, with the age voted for as 17. But the law was dropped the following day following maneuvers by opposing parliamentarians. Negotiations to pass the legislation continue. Meanwhile, Yemenis inspired by Nujood's efforts continue to push for change, with Nujood involved in at least one rally. In September 2013, an 8-year-old girl died of internal bleeding and uterine rupture on her wedding night after marrying a 40-year-old man.
The widespread prevalence of child marriage in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been documented by human rights groups. Saudi clerics have justified the marriage of girls as young as 9, with sanction from the judiciary. There are no laws in place defining a minimum age of consent in Saudi Arabia, though drafts for possible laws have been created since 2011.
Child marriage was also found to be prevalent among Syrian and Palestinian Syrian refugees in Lebanon, in addition to other forms of sexual and gender-based violence. Marriage was seen as a potential way to protect family honor and protect a girl from rape given how common rape was during the conflict. Incidents of child marriages increased in Syria and among Syrian refugees over the course of the conflict. The proportion of Syrian refugee girls living in Jordan who were married increased from 13% in 2011 to 32% in 2014.
Southeast Asia and Oceania
About 22% of Indonesian girls experience child marriage every year, and 12% get married before age 15, according to 2012 United Nations Population Fund report. There are many reports of Muslim clerics taking multiple underage wives, some less than 12 years old. Indonesian prosecutors have attempted to stop this practice by demanding prison terms for such clerics, however local courts have issued soft sentences.
In Indonesia the 1974 Law on Marriage stipulates that a woman must be at least 16 years old and a man must be at least 19 years old to marry. With the popular rise of social networking sites like Facebook underage marriage appears to be increasing in areas like Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta. Couples have reported becoming acquainted through Facebook and continuing their relationships until girls became pregnant. Among the Atjeh of Sumatra girls formerly married before puberty. The husbands, though usually older, were still unfit for sexual union. Among the islanders of Fiji, also, marriage took place before puberty.
The Marquesas Islands have been noted for their sexual culture. Many sexual activities seen as taboo in Western cultures are viewed appropriate by the native culture. One of these differences is that children are introduced and educated to sex at a very young age. Contact with Western societies has changed many of these customs, so research into their pre-Western social history has to be done by reading antique writings. Children slept in the same room as their parents and were able to witness their parents while they had sex. Intercourse simulation became real penetration as soon as boys were physically able. Adults found simulation of sex by children to be funny. As children approached 11 attitudes shifted toward girls.[clarification needed] When a child reaches adulthood, they are educated on sexual techniques by a much older adult.
The next day, as soon as it was light, we were surrounded by a still greater multitude of these people. There were now a hundred females at least; and they practised all the arts of lewd expression and gesture, to gain admission on board. It was with difficulty I could get my crew to obey the orders I had given on this subject. Amongst these females were some not more than ten years of age. But youth, it seems, is here no test of innocence; these infants, as I may call them, rivalled their mothers in the wantonness of their motions and the arts of allurement.
Adam Johann von Krusenstern in his book about the same expedition as Yuri's, reports that a father brought a 10-to 12-year-old girl on his ship, and she had sex with the crew. According to the book of Charles Pierre Claret de Fleurieu and Étienne Marchand, 8-year-old girls had sex and other unnatural acts in public.
Child marriage is common in Latin America and the Caribbean island nations. About 29% of girls are married before age 18. The child marriage incidence rates varies between the countries, with Dominican Republic, Honduras, Brazil, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Haiti and Ecuador reporting some of the highest rates in the Americas. Bolivia and Guyana have shown the sharpest decline in child marriage rates as of 2012. Poverty and lack of laws mandating minimum age for marriage have been cited as reasons of child marriage in Latin America.
Child marriage, as defined by UNICEF, is observed in the United States. The UNICEF definition of child marriage includes couples who are formally married, or who live together as a sexually active couple in an informal union, with at least one member — usually the girl — being less than 18 years old. The latter practice is more common in the United States, and it is officially called cohabitation. According to a 2010 report by National Center for Health Statistics, an agency of the government of United States, 2.1% of all girls in the 15-17 age group were in a child marriage. In the age group of 15-19, 7.6% of all girls in the United States were formally married or in an informal union. The child marriage rates were higher for certain ethnic groups and states. In Hispanic groups, for example, 6.6% of all girls in the 15-17 age group were formally married or in an informal union, and 13% of the 15-19 age group were. Over 350,000 babies are born to teenage mothers every year in the United States, and over 50,000 of these are second babies to teen mothers. In 1991, underage teen pregnancies were significantly higher.
Laws regarding child marriage vary in the different states of the United States. Generally, children 16 and over may marry with parental consent, with the age of 18 being the minimum in all but two states to marry without parental consent. Those under 16 generally require a court order in addition to parental consent.
Until 2008 the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints practiced child marriage through the concept of "spiritual marriage" as soon as girls were ready to bear children, as part of its polygamy practice, but laws have raised the age of legal marriage in response to criticism of the practice. In 2008 the Church changed its policy in the United States to no longer marry individuals younger than the local legal age. In 2007 church leader Warren Jeffs was convicted of being an accomplice to statutory rape of a minor due to arranging a marriage between a 14-year-old girl and a 19-year-old man. In March 2008 officials of the state of Texas believed that children at the Yearning For Zion Ranch were being married to adults and were being abused. The state of Texas removed all 468 children from the ranch and placed them into temporary state custody. After the Austin's 3rd Court of Appeals and the Supreme Court of Texas ruled that Texas acted improperly in removing them from the YFZ Ranch, the children were returned to their parents or relatives.
In the UK girls as young as 12 have been smuggled in to be brides of men in the Muslim community, according to a 2004 report in The Guardian. These men are looking for a malleable wife that has not learnt to be independent and will not question their strict Islamic wife role. Girls trying to escape this child marriage can face death because this breaks the honor code of her husband and both families.
As with the United States, underage cohabitation is observed in the United Kingdom. According to a 2005 study, 4.1% of all girls in the 15-19 age group in the UK were cohabiting (living in an informal union), while 8.9% of all girls in that age group admitted to have been in a cohabitation relation (child marriage per UNICEF definition), before the age of 18. Over 4% of all underage girls in the UK were teenage mothers.
In July 2014, the United Kingdom hosted its first global Girl Summit; the goal of the Summit was to increase efforts to end child, early, and forced marriage and female genital mutilation within a generation.
Consequences of child marriage
Child marriage has lasting consequences on girls, which last well beyond adolescence. Women married in their teens or earlier, struggle with the health effects of getting pregnant at a young age and often with little spacing between children. Early marriages followed by teen pregnancy also significantly increase birth complications and social isolation. In poor countries, early pregnancy limits or eliminates their education options. This affects their economic independence. Girls in child marriages are more likely to suffer from domestic violence, child sexual abuse, and marital rape.
Child marriage threatens the health and life of girls. Complications from pregnancy and childbirth are the main cause of death among adolescent girls below age 19 in developing countries. Pregnant girls aged 15 to 19 are twice as likely to die in childbirth as women in their 20s, and girls under the age of 15 are five to seven times more likely to die during childbirth. These consequences are due largely to girls' physical immaturity where the pelvis and birth canal are not fully developed. Teen pregnancy, particularly below age 15, increases risk of developing obstetric fistula, since their smaller pelvises make them prone to obstructed labor. Girls who give birth before the age of 15 have an 88% risk of developing fistula. Fistula leaves its victims with urine or fecal incontinence that causes lifelong complications with infection and pain. Unless surgically repaired, obstetric fistulas can cause years of permanent disability, shame to mothers, and can result in being shunned by the community. Married girls also have an increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases, cervical cancer, and malaria than non-married peers or girls who marry in their 20s.
Child marriage not only threatens the mother’s health, it also threatens the lives of offspring. Mothers under the age of 18 years old have 35 to 55% increased risk of delivering pre-term or having a low birth weight baby than a mother who is 19 years old. In addition, infant mortality rates are 60% higher when the mother is under 18 years old. Infants born to child mothers tend to have weaker immune systems and face a heightened risk of malnutrition.
Prevalence of child marriage may also be associated with higher rates of population growth, more cases of children left orphaned, and the accelerated spread of disease.
Illiteracy and poverty
Child marriage often ends a girl's education, particularly in impoverished countries where child marriages are common. In addition, uneducated girls are more at risk for child marriage. Girls that have only a primary education are twice as likely to marry before age 18 than those with a secondary or higher education, and girls with no education are three times more likely to marry before age 18 than those with a secondary education. Early marriage impedes a young girl’s ability to continue with her education as most drop out of school following marriage to focus their attention on domestic duties and having or raising children. Girls may be taken out of school years before they are married due to family or community beliefs that allocating resources for girls' education is unnecessary given that her primary roles will be that of wife and mother. Without education, girls and adult women have fewer opportunities to earn an income and financially provide for themselves and their children. This makes girls more vulnerable to persistent poverty if their spouses die, abandon, or divorce them. Given that girls in child marriages are often significantly younger than their husbands, they become widowed earlier in life and may face associated economic and social challenges for a greater portion of their life than women who marry later.
Married teenage girls with low levels of education suffer greater risk of social isolation and domestic violence than more educated women who marry as adults. Following marriage, girls frequently relocate to their husband’s home and take on the domestic role of being a wife, which often involves relocating to another village or area. This transition may result in a young girl dropping out of school, moving away from her family and friends, and a loss of the social support that she once had. A husband's family may also have higher expectations for the girl's submissiveness to her husband and his family because of her youth. This sense of isolation from a support system can have severe mental health implications including depression.
Large age gaps between the child and her spouse makes her more vulnerable to domestic violence and nonconsensual sexual intercourse. Girls who marry as children face severe and life-threatening marital violence at higher rates. Husbands in child marriages are often more than ten years older than their wives. This can increase the power and control a husband has over his wife and contribute to prevalence of spousal violence. Early marriage places young girls in a vulnerable situation of being completely dependent on her husband. Domestic and sexual violence from their husbands has lifelong, devastating mental health consequences for young girls because they are at a formative stage of psychological development. These mental health consequences of spousal violence can include depression and suicidal thoughts. Child brides, particularly in situations such as vani, also face social isolation, emotional abuse and discrimination in the homes of their husbands and in-laws.
The United Nations, through a series of conventions has declared child marriage a violation of human rights. The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination of Women (‘CEDAW’), the Committee on the Rights of the Child (‘CRC’), and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights form the international standard against child marriage. Child marriages impact violates a range of women's interconnected rights such as equality on grounds of sex and age, to receive the highest attainable standard of health, to be free from slavery, access to education, freedom of movement, freedom from violence, reproductive rights, and the right to consensual marriage. The consequence of these violations impact not only the woman, but her children and broader society.[how?]
High rates of child marriage negatively impact countries' economic development because of early marriages' impact on girls' education and labor market participation. Some researchers and activists note that high rates of child marriage prevent significant progress toward each of the eight Millennium Development Goals and global efforts to reduce poverty due to its effects on educational attainment, economic and political participation, and health.
A UNICEF Nepal issued report noted that child marriage impacts Nepal's development due to loss of productivity, poverty, and health effects. Using Nepal Multi-Indicator Survey data, its researchers estimate that all girls delaying marriage until age 20 and after would increase cash flow among Nepali women in an amount equal to 3.87% of the country's GDP. Their estimates considered decreased education and employment among girls in child marriages in addition to low rates of education and high rates of poverty among children from child marriages.
International initiatives to prevent child marriage
In December 2011 a resolution adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/66/170) designated October 11 as the International Day of the Girl Child. On October 11, 2012 the first International Day of the Girl Child was held, the theme of which was ending child marriage.
In 2013 the first United Nations Human Rights Council resolution against child, early, and forced marriages was adopted; it recognizes child marriage as a human rights violation and pledges to eliminate the practice as part of the U.N.'s post-2015 global development agenda.
The World Health Organization recommends increased educational attainment among girls, increased enforcement structures for existing minimum marriage age laws, and informing parents in practicing communities of the risks associated as primary methods to prevent child marriages.
Programs to prevent child marriage have taken several different approaches. Various initiatives have aimed to empower young girls, educate parents on the associated risks, change community perceptions, support girls' education, and provide economic opportunities for girls and their families through means other than marriage. A survey of a variety of prevention programs found that initiatives were most effect when they combined efforts to address financial constraints, education, and limited employment of women.
Girls in families participating in an unconditional cash transfer program in Malawi aimed at incentivizing girls' education got married and had children later than their peers who had not participated in the program. The program's effects on rates of child marriage were greater for unconditional cast tranfer programs than those with conditions. Evaluators believe this demonstrated that the economic needs of the family heavily influenced the appeal of child marriage in this community. Therefore, reducing financial pressures on the family decreased the economic motivations to marry daughters off at a young age.
The Haryana state government in India operated a program in which poor families were given a financial incentive if they kept their daughters in school and unmarried until age 18. Girls in families who were eligible for the program were less likely to be married before age 18 than their peers.
A similar program was operated in 2004 by the Population Council and the regional government in Ethiopia's rural Amhara region. Families received cash if their daughters remained in school and unmarried during the two years of the program. They also instituted mentorship programs, livelihood training, community conversations about girls' education and child marriage, and gave school supplies for girls. After the two year program, girls in families eligible for the program were three times more likely to be in school and one tenth as likely to be married compared to their peers.
Other programs have addressed child marriage less directly through a variety of programming related to girls' empowerment, education, sexual and reproductive health, financial literacy, life skills, communication skills, and community mobilization.
Tipping Point Analysis
Researchers at the International Center for Research on Women found that in some communities rates of child marriage increase significantly when girls are a particular age. This "tipping point," or age at which rates of marriage increase dramatically, may occur years before the median age of marriage. Therefore, the researchers argue prevention programs should focus their programming on girls who are pre-tipping point age rather than only girls who are married before they reach the median age for marriage.
Percentage of women aged 20–24 who were married or in union before the age of 18 is listed in the table below. The data from International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) and UNICEF, if traced all the way to the ultimate sources, is from surveys that are 10 to 20 years old. The UN data is between 10 to 15 years old.
|Country||% girls married before 18
(Year of data)
| % girls married|
|23x15px Niger||76 (2012)||62|
|23x15px Chad||68 (2010)||49|
|23x15px Central African Republic||68 (2010)||42|
|23x15px Bangladesh||65 (2011)||48|
|23x15px Mali||55 (2010)||50|
|23x15px Guinea||52 (2012)||46|
|23x15px Malawi||50 (2010)||37|
|23x15px Mozambique||48 (2011)||47|
|23x15px Madagascar||41 (2012)||34|
|23x15px Sierra Leone||44 (2010)||47|
|23x15px Burkina Faso||52 (2010)||35|
|Template:Country data India||47 (1999-2005)||30|
|23x15px Somalia||45 (1998-2006)||38|
|23x15px Nicaragua||41 (2000-2006)||32|
|23x15px Zambia||42 (2002-2007)||24|
|23x15px Eritrea||41 (2010)||38|
|23x15px Uganda||40 (2011)||32|
|23x15px Ethiopia||41 (2011)||30|
|File:Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal||41 (2011)||40|
|23x15px Dominican Republic||41 (2009-2010)||29|
|23x15px Afghanistan||40 (2012)||29|
- Age of consent
- Because I Am a Girl (campaign)
- Child Marriage
- Child sexuality
- Forced marriage
- Jewish views on marriage
- List of child brides
- Marriageable age
- Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery
- Teen marriage
- Teenage pregnancy
- "Child marriage". UNICEF. 22 October 2014.
- "Child Marriage". icrw.org.
- Nour, NM (2009). "Child Marriage: a silent health and human rights issue". Reviews in obstetrics and gynecology 2 (1): 51–56.
- "A Note on Child Marriage" (PDF). UNICEF. July 2012. p. 3.
- "Marriage and Cohabitation in the United States: A Statistical Portrait Based on Cycle 6 (2002) of the National Survey of Family Growth" (PDF). US Department of Health and Human Services.
- Sharon K. Houseknecht and Susan K. Lewis, 'Explaining Teen Childbearing and Cohabitation: Community Embeddedness and Primary Ties', Family Relations, Vol. 54, No. 5, Families and Communities (Dec., 2005), pp. 607-620
- "Eradicating child marriage in Africa - FORWARD UK - FORWARD". Forward Uk. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
- "allAfrica.com: Africa: Child Brides Die Young". allAfrica.com.
- [ttp://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/MarryingTooYoung.pdf "Marrying Too Young: End Child Marriage"] (PDF). UNFPA. p. 23.
- Early Marriage, Child Spouses UNICEF, See section on Asia, page 4 (2001)
- Southeast Asia's big dilemma: what to do about child marriage? August 20, 2013
- "IRIN Asia - PHILIPPINES: Early marriage puts girls at risk - Philippines - Gender Issues - Health & Nutrition - Human Rights". IRINnews.
- "Child Brides - Child Marriage: What We Know . NOW - PBS". pbs.org.
- "Child marriage still an issue in Saudi Arabia". SFGate.
- "Early Marriage, Child Spouses" (PDF). UNICEF (see section on Oceania. p. 5.
- "Child Marriage is a Death Sentence for Many Young Girls" (PDF). UNICEF. 2012.
- Child brides - For poorer, most of the time The Economist (February 28, 2011)
- Child Marriage Ford Foundation (2011)
- "Q & A: Child Marriage and Violations of Girls' Rights - Human Rights Watch". hrw.org.
- 5 Things you may not know about Child Marriage NPR, Washington DC
- Abgeliki Laiou (1993), Coercion to sex and marriage in ancient and medieval societies, Washington, DC, pages 85-190
- Ross Kraemer (1993), The Jewish Family in Antiquity, Scholars Press (Atlanta), pages 82-110
- Nancy Demand (1994), Birth, Death, and Motherhood in Classical Greece, Johns Hopkins University Press, pages 101-104
- "Early Teen Marriage and Future Poverty". nih.gov.
- Saito, O. (1996). "Historical demography: achievements and prospects". Population Studies 50 (3): 537–553. doi:10.1080/0032472031000149606.
- Zhao, Z. (1997). "Demographic systems in historic China: some new findings from recent research". Journal of the Australian Population Association 14 (2): 201–232.
- M.A. Friedman (1980), Jewish Marriage in Palestine, Vol 1, The Jewish Theological Seminary of America
- Richard Burn, Robert Tyrwhitt and Robert Phillimore, The Ecclesiastical Law, Volume 4, Sweet Stevens & Norton (London), page 54
- "Vedic index of names and subjects". archive.org.
- some sources suggest age at marriage as 6 and some as 7, see Denise Spellberg (1996), Politics, Gender, and the Islamic Past: The Legacy of 'A'isha Bint Abi Bakr, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231079990, pp 39-40
- most sources suggest age at consummation as 9, and one that it may have been age 10; See: Denise Spellberg (1996), Politics, Gender, and the Islamic Past: The Legacy of 'A'isha Bint Abi Bakr, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231079990, pp 39-40;
The Ahmadiyya minority sect has published Pakistan's Muhammad Ali view that Sahih al-Bukhari is unauthentic, and argued that Aisha may have been a teenager; See: Ali, Muhammad (1997). Muhammad the Prophet. Ahamadiyya Anjuman Ishaat Islam. ISBN 978-0913321072.
However, Ahmadiyya sect views about Islam and its history are widely disputed by mainstream Islam. See: Siddiq & Ahmad (1995), Enforced Apostasy: Zaheeruddin v. State and the Official Persecution of the Ahmadiyya Community in Pakistan, Law & Inequality, 14: 275-284
- L. Ahmed, Women and the Advent of Islam, Signs, Vol. 11, No. 4 (Summer, 1986), pp. 677-678;
- Cynthia Gorney, Too Young to Wed – The secret world of child brides, National Geographic, June 2011, Quote - "If there were any danger in early marriage, Allah would have forbidden it," a Yemeni member of parliament named Mohammed Al-Hamzi told me in the capital city of Sanaa one day. 'Something that Allah himself did not forbid, we cannot forbid.' Al-Hamzi, a religious conservative, is vigorously opposed to the legislative efforts in Yemen to prohibit marriage for girls below a certain age (17, in a recent version), and so far those efforts have met with failure. Islam does not permit marital relations before a girl is physically ready, he said, but the Holy Koran contains no specific age restrictions and so these matters are properly the province of family and religious guidance, not national law. Besides, there is the matter of the Prophet Muhammad's beloved Ayesha—nine years old, according to the conventional account, when the marriage was consummated."
- A. A. Ali, Child Marriage in Islamic Law, The Institute of Islamic Studies, McGill University (Canada), August 2000; see pages 16-18
- "Surah At-Talaq 65:- - Towards Understanding the Quran - Quran Translation Commentary - Tafheem ul Quran". islamicstudies.info.
- "Saudi judge refuses to annul 8-year-old's marriage". cnn.com.
- "Marrying Too Young: End Child Marriage" (PDF). UNFPA.
- S.D. Goitein (1978), A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the Arab World, Vol. 3, University of California Press
- The Bride Price Barry Bearak, New York Times (July 9, 2006)
- Nour, Nawal M. (2006), "Health Consequences of Child Marriage in Africa", Emerging Infectious Diseases 12 (11): 1644–1649, ISSN 1080-6059, PMID 17283612, doi:10.3201/eid1211.060510
- Tremayne, S. (2006). Modernity and early marriage in Iran: A View from Within.Journal of Middle East Women's Studies, 2(1), pages 65-94
- Boyden, J., Pankhurst, A., & Tafere, Y. (2012). Child protection and harmful traditional practices: female early marriage and genital modification in Ethiopia; Development in Practice, 22(4), pages 510-522
- Chowdhury, F. D. (2004). The socio‐cultural context of child marriage in a Bangladeshi village. International Journal of Social Welfare, 13(3), pages 244-253
- Warner, E. (2004). Behind the wedding veil: Child marriage as a form of trafficking in girls. Am. Univ Journal Gender Soc. Pol'y & Law, 12, pages 233-247
- "The trafficking of children in the Asia–Pacific". Aic.gov.au. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
- Andre Wink (1997), Al-Hind: the Making of the Indo-Islamic World, vol. 2, The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest, 11th-13th Centuries (Leiden)
- Assaf Likhovski (2006), Law and Identity in Mandate Palestine, ISBN 978-0-8078-3017-8; University of North Carolina Press, pages 93-103
- Though Illegal, Child Marriage Is Popular in Part of India, The New York Times (May 11, 1998)
- H Ralston (1991), Religious Movements and the Status of Women in India, Social Compass, vol. 38, no. 1, pages 43-53
- Sophie Tharakan and Michael Tharakan (1975), Status of women in India: a historical perspective, Social Scientist, Vol. 4, No. 4/5, pages 115-123
- Julia Rebollo Lieberman (2011), Sephardi Family Life in the Early Modern Diaspora, pages 8-10; Brandeis University Press; ISBN 978-1-58465-957-0
- Ruth Lamdan, Child Marriages in Jewish Society in Eastern Mediterranean during the 16th Century, Mediterranean Historical Review, 2 (June 1996); Vol 11, pages 37-59
- Joseph Hacker, in Moreshet Sheparad: The Sephardi Legacy, Vol 2, (Editor: Haim Beinart), Magnes Press, 1992; pages 109-133
- Thapa, S. (1996). ITS PREVALENCE AND CORRELATES. Contributions to Nepalese Studies, 23(2), pages 361-375
- Raj, Anita (2010). "When the Mother Is a Child: The Impact of Child Marriage on the Health and Human Rights of Girls". Archives of Disease in Childhood. doi:10.1136/adc.2009.178707.
- "8-year-old Saudi girl divorces 50-year-old husband - USATODAY.com". usatoday.com.
- "Targeting Girls in the Name of Tradition: Child Marriage". U.S. Department of State.
- Asad Zia, 42% of underage married girls from Pakistan, Express Tribune / International Herald Tribune (New York Times), January 2, 2013
- Gaffney-Rhys, Ruth (2011). "International Law as an Instrument to Combat Child Marriage". The International Journal of Human Rights. doi:10.1080/13642980903315398.
- Lamdān, R. (2000). A Separate People: Jewish Women in Palestine, Syria, and Egypt in the Sixteenth Century (Vol. 26). Brill; see pages 28-31
- A. Grossman, 'Child marriage in Jewish society in the Middle Ages until the thirteenth century' (in Hebrew), Peamim 45 (1990), 108–126
- Abrahams, Israel (2005). Jewish life in the Middle Ages. Routledge; see pages 183-189
- "Code of Canon Law - IntraText". vatican.va.
- "Los hijos de maltratadas serán considerados víctimas de violencia de género". El Mundo (Spain) (in Spanish). May 4, 2013.
- "Marriage requirements in Mexico". Embamex.sre.gob.mx. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
- "Marriages and civil partnerships in the UK". GOV.UK. 2014-12-16. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
- "Matrimonial Causes Act 1973". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
- Shulamith Shaha (1983), The Fourth Estate: A History of Women in the Middle Ages, ISBN 0-415-30851-8, Routledge, pages 131-149
- "Child marriage - UNFPA - United Nations Population Fund". unfpa.org.
- "Child Marriage" (PDF). Table 1. UNICEF. 2005.
- "IRIN Africa - NIGER: Early marriage – from rural custom to urban business - Niger - Children - Economy - Education - Gender Issues - Human Rights". IRINnews.
- Lbarnes. "Africa - Child marriage". unfpa.org.
- Nguyen,Minh Cong and Quentin Wodon. 2012. “Child Marriage and Education: A Major Challenge.” http://www.ungei.org/files/Child_Marriage_Edu_Note.pdf
- "allAfrica.com: Nigeria: Senate Denies Child Marriage Wrongdoing, Says Law May Be Revisited". allAfrica.com.
- "More on child brides: After a political fight, Nigeria will continue allowing them". Washington Post.
- "allAfrica.com: Nigeria - Child Not Bride". allAfrica.com.
- Batha, Emma (2009-02-09). "Malawi bans child marriage, lifts minimum age to 18". Reuters. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
- "United Nations General Assembly. Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights: Preventing and eliminating child, early and forced marriage".
- "Outlawing Child Marriage In Morocco - Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East". Al-Monitor.
- Les marocains évaluent les progrès de la Moudawana Siham Ali, Magharebia à Rabat (October 9, 2009)
- MOROCCO: Underage marriages increase CRIN, Rabat (January 28, 2011)
- "Morocco: Child marriages continue despite law to curb practice - Adnkronos Culture And Media". adnkronos.com.
- "In Morocco, the rape and death of an adolescent girl prompts calls for changes to the penal code". UNICEF. 28 March 2012.
- "msn". msn.com.
- "Morocco amends controversial rape marriage law". BBC News. 23 January 2014.
- "LEARNING FROM CHILDREN, FAMILIES, AND COMMUNITIES TO INCREASE GIRLS' PARTICIPATION IN PRIMARY SCHOOL" (PDF). Save the Children USA report.
- Raj, A.; Saggurti, N.; Balaiah, D.; Silverman, J. G. (2009). "Prevalence of child marriage and its effect on fertility and fertility-control outcomes of young women in India: a cross-sectional, observational study". The Lancet 373 (9678): 1883–1889. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60246-4.
- Raj, Anita (2012). "Changes in Prevalence of Girl Child Marriage in South Asia". JAMA. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.3497.
- "40 p.c. child marriages in India: UNICEF". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 18 January 2009.
- "Child Marriage" (PDF). Table 1. UNICEF.
- "Women and men in India 2012" (PDF). CSO/Census India 2011, Government of India. p. xxi, Highlights item 5.
- K. Sinha Nearly 50% fall in brides married below 18 The Times of India (February 10, 2012)
- Table C-2 Marital Status by Age and Sex Subtable C0402, India Total Females Married by Age Group, 2001 Census of India, Government of India (2009)
- "Percentage of Female by age at effective marriage and by residence India and bigger States, 2011, chapter 2: Population Composition, Table Statement 12, India totals for < 18, 2011 Census of India, Government of India (2013), page 26" (PDF).
- Htun, M., & Weldon, L., "Sex equality in family law: historical legacies, feminist activism, and religious power in 70 countries" (PDF). World Development Report, (Purdue University, 2012).
- "Wakf Board bristles at women panel's advice on child marriages". The Times of India.
- Haviland, Charles (5 September 2002). "Battle over India's marriage age". BBC News.
- Call to avoid ambiguity on minimum age of marriage The Hindu (October 29, 2010)
- "Legalising underage marriage is Indian Union Muslim League's new ploy to gain political mileage in Kerala : NATION - India Today". intoday.in.
- Nasrullah, M et al. (2013). "Bielefeld University, Germany, Girl Child Marriage and Its Effect on Fertility in Pakistan: Findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007". Matern Child Health J. 18 (3): 534–43. PMID 23580067. doi:10.1007/s10995-013-1269-y.
- Social customs: 'Nearly half of Pakistani women are married before the age of 18' Tribune / IHT (New York Times), August 31, 2013
- "Pakistan's child brides: suffering for others’ crimes". thestar.com. 26 August 2013.
- "IRIN Asia - PAKISTAN: Child marriages on the rise across rural Sindh - Pakistan - Children - Human Rights". IRINnews.
- "Child Marriage in Afghanistan and Pakistan". America Magazine.
- Mehreen Zahra-Malik. "Child brides blot tribal Pakistan". aljazeera.com.
- Lane, Samuel (2012). "Stealing innocence: child marriage in Pakistan" (PDF). Abo Akademi University. Finland.
- Adolescents and Youth in Pakistan Zeba Sathar, Cynthia Lloyd, et al., Population Council, with support from UNICEF; page 96-101
- Sathar, Zeba; Lloyd, Cynthia et al. "Adolescents and Youth in Pakistan" (PDF). Population Council, with support from UNICEF. Table 5.8 and 5.15. pp. 188–193.
- Field, Erica; Ambrus, Attila (2008). "Early Marriage, Age of Menarche, and Female Schooling Attainment in Bangladesh" (PDF). Journal of Political Economy.
- "A toothless law to combat child marriage". The Daily Dot. April 1, 2014.
- Rabi, Amjad (2014). "Cost of Inaction: Child and Adolescent Marriage in Nepal" (PDF). UNICEF Nepal Working Paper Series.
- "Child Marriages in Southern Asia (see Solutions to Ending Child Marriage in Southern Asia: Nepal, Australian AID - ICRW" (PDF). reliefweb.int. 2009.
- "Afghanistan - Ending Child Marriage and Domestic Violence" (PDF). Human Rights Watch. September 2013. pp. 3–10.
- "United Nations News Centre". UN News Service Section. 20 May 2013.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld - Afghan Girls Suffer for Sins of Male Relatives". Refworld.
- "Gender and Society In Iran – Part 1: The Debate Over Child Marriage, Including Child Brides Wed To Adult Men". MEMRI - The Middle East Media Research Institute.
- Power, Carla (12 August 2009), Nujood Ali & Shada Nasser win "Women of the Year Fund 2008 Glamour Award", Yemen Times, retrieved 16 February 2010
- "How Come You Allow Little Girls to Get Married?" - Child Marriage in Yemen Human Rights Watch, (2011); pages 15-23
- Yemen's Child Bride Backlash Foreign Policy, April 30, 2010
- "IRIN Middle East - YEMEN: Deep divisions over child brides - Yemen - Gender Issues - Human Rights". IRINnews.
- Human Rights Watch (2001), "Yemen: Human Rights Developments", World Report 2001, Human Rights Watch, retrieved 8 April 2010
- Daragahi, Borzou (June 11, 2008), Yemeni bride, 10, says I won't, Los Angeles Times, retrieved 16 February 2010
- Mahmoud Assamiee and Nadia Al (25 March 2010), Relative breakthrough in Yemen's early marriage dilemma, Yemen Times, retrieved 8 April 2010
- Sadeq Al-Wesabi (25 February 2010), Yemen's children say no to early marriage, Yemen Times, retrieved 9 April 2010
- "Yemeni child bride, eight, 'dies on wedding night'". the Guardian. 11 September 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- [dead link]
- "Top Saudi cleric: OK for young girls to wed". CNN. 17 January 2009.
- "Turkey - Child Marriage" (PDF). United Nations Population Fund. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
- "Turkish women strive for gender equality". Jerusalem Post. 2013-08-20.
- Charles, Lorraine (2013). "Syrian and Palestinian Syrian Refugees in Lebanon: The Plight of Women and Children". Journal of International Women's Studies.
- Berti, Benedetta (2015). "The Syrian Refugee Crisis: Regional and Human Security Implications". Strategic Assesment.
- Marshall, H. I., (1922) The Karen of Burma. Bangkok: White Lotus (Reprinted, 1997).
- "Number of Child Brides Down in Indonesia: UN". The Jakarta Globe.
- "Cleric With Child Bride Should Be Jailed Six Years, Court Told". The Jakarta Globe.
- "Facebook blamed for sharp increase in underage marriage in G. Kidul". The Jakarta Post. 2011-08-04. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
- Metchnikoff, Elie (1903). The Nature of Man: Studies in Optimistic Philosophy. New York: Putnam. p. 90.
- "A Voyage Round the World". google.com.
- Reise um die Welt in den Jahren 1803, 1804, 1805 und 1806 auf Befehl Seiner Kaiserliche Majestät Alexanders des Ersten auf den Schiffen Nadeschda und Newa (Journey around the World in the Years 1803, 1804, 1805, and 1806 at the Command of his Imperial Majesty Alexander I in the Ships Nadezhda and Neva) published in Saint Petersburg in 1810. volume I, p116
- Voyage autour du monde par Étienne Marchand, précédé d'une introduction historique; auquel on a joint des recherches sur les terres australes de Drake, et un examen critique de voyage de Roggeween, avec cartes et figures, Paris, years VI-VIII, 4 vol. p109
- The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality in volume 1, French Polynesia (Anne Bolin, Ph.D.), 5. Interpersonal Heterosexual Behaviors, A. Children, edited by Robert T. Francoeur publish by Continuum International Publishing Group
- "CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: French Polynesia". kinseyinstitute.org.
- "The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality: French Polynesia". hu-berlin.de.
- "Sexual Behavior in Pre Contact Hawai’i:". hu-berlin.de.
- "Marrying Too Young: End Child Marriage" (PDF). UNFPA. p. 24.
- "Early Marriages - Child Spouses" (PDF). UNICEF. 2010. pp. 5–9.
- Myers, Juliette; Harvey, Rowan. "Breaking Vows: Early and Forced Marriage and Girls' Education". London: Plan UK. p. 24.
- "Marriage Requirements in Canada | AngloINFO Canada". Canada.angloinfo.com. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
- Breaking the Cycle of Teen Pregnancy CDC, US Government (April 2013)
- "U.S. Teenage Pregnancies, Births and Abortions: National and State Trends and Trends by Race and Ethnicity" (PDF). Guttmacher Institute. 2010.
- D'Onofrio, Eve (2005), "Child Brides, Inegalitarianism, and the Fundamentalist Polygamous Family in the United States", International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family 19 (3): 373–394, doi:10.1093/lawfam/ebi028.
- Anthony, Paul A. (2 June 2008). "Sect renounces underage marriage as children return". Standard Times - San Angelo (Scripps Newspaper Group). Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- Winslow, Ben; O'Donoghue, Amy Joi (June 2, 2008), "FLDS official: No more underage marriages, reunifications begin with the children", Deseret News, retrieved 2013-09-10
- Dobner, Jennifer. Polygamist Leader Convicted in Utah. Associated Press. ABC News. 2007-09-25.
- Blumenthal, Ralph. Court Says Texas Illegally Seized Sect's Children. The New York Times. 2008-05-23. Retrieved 2008-05-24.
- Winslow, Ben (June 5, 2008), All FLDS children returned to parents, SAN ANGELO, Texas: Deseret News
- Caloum, Leslie. "How has Scotland's law on marriage evolved over the centuries?". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- "Did You Know? - How to Get Married in Scotland". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- Hill, Amelia. "Revealed: the child brides who are forced to marry in Britain". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- "'Girl Summit' Aims To End Child Marriage - Yahoo News UK". Uk.news.yahoo.com. 2014-07-22. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
- Bunting, Annie. 2005. Stages of development: marriage of girls and teens as an international human rights issue. Social and Legal Studies 14(2):17-38
- "Yahoo". Voices.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
- "I have a right to | BBC World Service". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
- "Yemeni child bride dies of internal bleeding". cnn.com.
- "Yemeni child bride, 8, dies of internal injuries on first night of forced marriage to groom, 40 - Daily Mail Online". Mail Online.
- Cook, Rebecca J., Bernard M. Dickens, and S. Syed. 2004. Obstetric fistula: the challenge to human rights. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 87:72-77
- "Child marriage: a silent health and human rights issue".
- "Health Consequences of Child Marriage in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases".
- International Center for Research in Women (2005), Too young to wed: education & action toward ending child marriage. Washington DC
- Lee-Rife, Susan; Malhotra, Anju; Warner, Ann; McGonagle Glinski, Allison (2012). "What Works to Prevent Child Marriage: A Review of the Evidence". Studies In Family Planning.
- "Individual Characteristics and Use of Maternal and Child Health Services by Adolescent Mothers in Niger".
- Haberland, Nicole, Eric L. Chong, and Hillary J. Bracken. 2006. A world apart: the disadvantage and social isolation of married adolescent girls. Brief based on background paper prepared for the WHO/UNFPA/Population Council Technical Consultation on Married Adolescents. New York: The Population Council
- "Council on Foreign Relations".
- Raj, Anita; Saggurti, Niranjan; Lawrence, Danielle; Balaiah, Donta; Silverman, Jay G. (2010). "Association between adolescent marriage and marital violence among young adult women in India" (PDF). International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
- "Child Marriage And the Law" (PDF). UNICEF.
- Clark, Shelley, Judith Bruce, and Annie Dude. 2006. Protecting young women from HIV/AIDS: the case against child and adolescent marriage. International Family Planning Perspectives 32(2):79-88
- "United Nations Official Document". Un.org. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
- Stuart, Hunter (16 October 2013). "Country With The Most Child Brides Won't Agree To End Forced Child Marriage". Huffington Post.
- "UN Takes Major Action to End Child Marriage | Center for Reproductive Rights". Reproductiverights.org. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
- Girls Not Brides (2013-09-27). "States adopt first-ever resolution on child, early and forced marriage at Human Rights Council". Girls Not Brides. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
- Liz Ford. "Campaigners welcome 'milestone' agreement at UN gender equality talks | Global development". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
- Chandra- Mouli, Venkatraman, Alma Virginia Camacho, and Pierre-Andre Michaud. 2013. “WHO Guidelines on Preventing Early Pregnancy and Poor Reproductive Outcomes Among Adolescents in Developing Countries.” Journal of Adolescent Health 52: 517–22.
- Parsons, Jennifer; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer. 2014. Preventing child marriage: lessons from World Bank Group gender impact evaluations. enGender Impact : the World Bank's Gender Impact Evaluation Database. Washington, DC : World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2014/08/20105853/preventing-child-marriage-lessons-world-bank-group-gender-impact-evaluations
- Warner, Ann, Stoebenau, Kristen and Allison M. Glinski. 2014. More Power to Her: How Empowering Girls Can Help End Child Marriage.” International Center for Research on Women. http://www.icrw.org/publications/more-power-her-how-empowering-girls-can-end-child-marriage
- Jain, Saranga, and Kathleen Kurz. 2007. New Insights on Preventing Child Marriage. International Center for Research on Women. http://wpfpak.org/pdfs/GBV-RH/ProgramResources/2007-new-insights-preventing-child-marriage.pdf.
- "Child Marriage Facts and Figures". icrw.org.
- Percentage of women aged 20 to 24 years who were first married or in union before ages 15 and 18, UNICEF
- "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics". un.org.