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China–Japan–South Korea trilateral summit

China–Japan–South Korea trilateral summit
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 中日韩领导人会议
South Korean name
Hangul 한중일 정상회의
Hanja 韓中日頂上會議
Japanese name
Kanji 日中韓首脳会議

The China–Japan–South Korea trilateral summit is an annual summit held between the People's Republic of China, Japan and South Korea. The first was held during December 2008 in Fukuoka, Japan.[1] The talks are focused on maintaining strong international relations,[2] the global economy[3][4] and disaster relief.[5]

The summits were first proposed by South Korea in 2004, as a meeting outside of the framework of the ASEAN(+3), with the three major economies of East Asia having a separate community forum. In November 2007 during the ASEAN(+3) meeting, the leaders of China, Japan and Korea held their eighth meeting, and decided to strengthen political dialogue and consultations between the three countries, eventually deciding on an ad hoc meeting to be held in 2008.

In September 2011, the three countries launched the Trilateral Cooperation Secretariat in Seoul. The Secretary-General is appointed on a two-year rotational basis in the order of Korea, Japan, and China. Each country other than the one of the Secretary-General nominates a Deputy Secretary-General respectively.


Leader summits

Summit Host Country Host Leader Host City Date
1st Template:Country data Japan Taro Aso Fukuoka 13 December 2008
2nd 23x15px China Wen Jiabao Beijing 10 October 2009
3rd Template:Country data South Korea Lee Myung-bak Jeju 29 May 2010
4th Template:Country data Japan Naoto Kan Fukushima & Tokyo[6] 21–22 May 2011
5th 23x15px China Wen Jiabao Beijing 13–14 May 2012
6th Template:Country data South Korea Park Geun-hye (expected) TBD TBD

Foreign Minister summits

Summit Host Country Host Minister Host City Date
1st Template:Country data South Korea Song Min-soon Jeju 3 June 2007
2nd Template:Country data Japan Masahiko Kōmura Tokyo 14 June 2008
3rd 23x15px China Yang Jiechi Shanghai 28 September 2009
4th Template:Country data South Korea Yu Myung-hwan Gyeongju 15 May 2010
5th Template:Country data Japan Takeaki Matsumoto Kyoto 19 March 2011
6th 23x15px China Yang Jiechi Ningbo 8 April 2012
7th Template:Country data South Korea Yun Byung-se Seoul 21 March 2015
8th Template:Country data Japan Fumio Kishida (expected) TBD TBD

Leader summits at EAS

Summit Host Country Host City Date
1st 23x15px Philippines Manila 29 November 1999
2nd 23x15px Singapore Singapore 24 November 2000
3rd 23x15px Brunei Bandar Seri Begawan 5 November 2001
4th 23x15px Cambodia Phnom Penh 4 November 2002
5th Template:Country data Indonesia Bali 7 October 2003
6th 23x15px Laos Vientiane 29 November 2004
7th 23x15px Philippines Cebu 14 January 2007
8th 23x15px Singapore Singapore 20 November 2007
9th 23x15px Thailand Pattaya 11 April 2009
10th 23x15px Vietnam Hanoi 29 October 2010
11th Template:Country data Indonesia Bali 19 November 2011

2008 summit

The first separate meeting of the leaders of the three countries was held in Fukuoka, Japan. During the meeting, the "Joint Statement between the three partners" was signed and issued, which identified the direction and principles behind cooperation between China, Japan and South Korea. The conference adopted the "International Financial and Economic Issues Joint Statement", "Disaster Management of the Three Countries Joint Statement" and "Action plan to promote cooperation between China, Japan and South Korea".

Trilateral relations

One of the topics discussed focused in the improvement of future relations between the three countries, from strategic and long-term perspectives. Prior talks between the three countries have been hindered specifically by various territorial and historical disputes.[7] Chinese premier Wen Jiabao stated that "China is willing to make joint efforts with Japan to continue to develop the strategic and mutually beneficial ties in a healthy and stable manner, to benefit the peoples of the two countries and other nations in the region as well." [2] Japanese prime minister Taro Aso also expressed that he believed the best manner in dealing with the economic crisis of 2008 was economic partnership.[8] There is also speculation of a future regional free-trade agreement. Such co-operation would greatly benefit the three nations, which account for two thirds of total trade,[9] 40% of total population and three quarters [10] of the GDP of Asia (20% of global GDP [11]), during the ongoing economic crisis.[12]

2009 summit

The second summit was held in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. Despite the worries of limitations that the summit has faced in 2008, this all changed in 2009, when Japan, China and Korea were forced to coordinate and cooperate more closely to manage the regional effects of the global financial crisis.

In their joint statement on the crisis, the trio identified the need to cooperate on global issues (such as financial risk) and in global institutions, including at the G20. While a reaction to global events, this cooperation began to significantly affect the management of East Asia. Over the course of 2009, the three nations resolved their long running dispute over contributions (and thus voting weight) in the Chiang Mai Initiatives, the first major ‘success’ of the ASEAN Plus Three process. The three nations also worked together to push through a general capital increase at the Asian Development Bank to help it fight the effects of the global financial crisis, a decision mandated by the G20 but about which the US appeared ambivalent.[13]

2010 summit

2011 summit

Because the previous three summit meetings covered a wide range of world issues, they did not produce any concrete outcome. There was no agreement on North Korea’s nuclear development or on the March and September 2010 incidents involving North Korea. Moreover, although the leaders of the three countries had agreed to set up a permanent secretariat headquartered in Seoul to facilitate trilateral cooperation, it has still not been implemented. The three leaders had also agreed to strengthen mutual understanding and trust, expand cooperation in trade, investment, finance, and environmental protection. Not much progress has been achieved in these areas as well over the past one year.

The fourth meeting was held in the wake of the nuclear accident at Fukushima and the natural disaster in Japan. Prime Minister Kan Naoto proposed to hold the summit in Fukushima to convey the message to the world that Fukushima has already become a safe place. The Japanese government hoped that if the heads of the three countries gather in the crisis-stricken city, radiation fears will be mitigated. However, due to logistic problems, the meeting could not be held in Fukushima and instead was held in Tokyo.

While Japan was accused of not providing its neighbours with accurate information when radioactive materials leaked at Fukushima, the summit led to agreement to establish an emergency notification system, enhance cooperation among experts, and share information in the event of emergencies.[14]

2012 summit

May 14, 2012, Leaders from China, Japan, and South Korea concluded the Fifth Trilateral Summit Meeting and signed the Trilateral Agreement for the Promotion, Facilitation and Protection of Investment (hereinafter referred as the Trilateral Agreement) at a summit in Beijing. The Trilateral Agreement represents a stepping stone towards a three-way free trade pact to counter global economic turbulence and to boost economic growth in Asia.

According to a joint declaration, the three nations will further enhance the “future-oriented comprehensive cooperative partnership” to unleash vitality into the economic growth of the three countries, accelerate economic integration in East Asia, and facilitate economic recovery and growth in the world.

In the joint declaration, the three nations list directions and prioritization of future cooperation, which includes enhancing mutual political trust, deepening economic and trade cooperation, promoting sustainable development, expanding social, people-to-people and cultural exchanges, and strengthening communication and coordination in regional and international affairs.

Among all these proposals, the signing of the Trilateral Agreement and the decision to endorse the recommendation from the trade ministers to launch the trilateral FTA negotiations within this year are at the top of the priority list in deepening economic and trade cooperation.[15]

TCS Secretary-General

  1. Shin Bong-gil Template:Country data South Korea
  2. Shigeo Iwatani Template:Country data Japan

Countries data

Pudong financial center of Shanghai.
Shinjuku financial center of Tokyo.
Jongno financial center of Seoul.


Country Area km² Population
(2010 Census)
Population density
per km²
Largest City 2nd Largest City 3rd Largest City
23x15px China 9,596,961 1,349,585,838 140.6 0.719 (high) Shanghai Beijing (capital) Guangzhou
Template:Country data Japan 377,915 127,253,075 336.7 0.890 (very high) Tokyo (capital) Yokohama Osaka
Template:Country data South Korea 100,210 50,219,669 490.9 0.891 (very high) Seoul (capital) Busan Incheon


Country Active Military Military Budget
millions of USD
Military Budget PPP
millions of USD
Military Ranking
23x15px China 2,285,000 188,000 249,000 3rd
Template:Country data Japan 247,764 48,600 46,000 10th
Template:Country data South Korea 655,000 33,900 44,200 9th


Country Currency GDP nominal
millions of USD
millions of USD
GDP nominal per capita
GDP PPP per capita
millions of USD
millions of USD
International Trade
millions of USD
23x15px China Renminbi/Chinese yuan
(CNY; 元; ¥)
10,355,350 17,632,014 7,572 12,893 2,210,000 1,950,000 4,160,000
Template:Country data Japan Japanese yen
(JPY; 円; ¥)
4,769,804 4,788,033 37,540 37,683 697,000 766,600 1,463,600
Template:Country data South Korea South Korean won
(KRW; 원; ₩)
1,679,494 1,789,758 28,739 35,485 557,300 514,200 1,073,900

Credit ratings

Country Fitch
23x15px China A+ Aa3 AA-
Template:Country data Japan A+ Aa3 AA-
Template:Country data South Korea AA- Aa3 A+

Organization and groups

23x15px China 13pxY 13pxN 13pxY 13pxN 13pxN 13pxN 13pxN 13pxY 13pxN 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY
Template:Country data Japan 13pxY 13pxY 13pxN 13pxY 13pxN 13pxY 13pxY 13pxN 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY
Template:Country data South Korea 13pxY 13pxN 13pxN 13pxN 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY 13pxN 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY 13pxY

Airport Traffic

Top busiest airports by passenger traffic (2013)
Country Airport Total passengers
23x15px China Beijing Capital International Airport 83,712,355
Template:Country data Japan Tokyo (Haneda) International Airport 68,906,636
Template:Country data South Korea Seoul Incheon International Airport 41,679,758
Top busiest airports by international passenger traffic (2013)
Country Airport Total passengers
  1. REDIRECT Template:Country data Hong Kong
Hong Kong International Airport* 59,294,439
Template:Country data South Korea Seoul Incheon International Airport 40,785,953
Template:Country data Japan Tokyo (Narita) International Airport 30,516,135
Top busiest airports by cargo traffic (2013)
Country Airport Total passengers
  1. REDIRECT Template:Country data Hong Kong
Hong Kong International Airport* 4,161,718
Template:Country data South Korea Seoul Incheon International Airport 2,464,384
Template:Country data Japan Tokyo (Narita) International Airport 2,019,844
Top busiest city airport systems by passenger traffic (2012)
Country Airport Total passengers
Template:Country data Japan Tokyo: Narita, Haneda, & Ibaraki 99,879,178
23x15px China Beijing: Capital & Nanyuan 85,389,239
Template:Country data South Korea Seoul: Incheon & Gimpo 58,583,599

See also

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External links