Open Access Articles- Top Results for Cholinergic
Natural Products Chemistry & ResearchEffects of Atropa belladonna as an Anti-Cholinergic
Journal of Alzheimers Disease & ParkinsonismLoss of Neuronal Phenotype and neurodegeneration: Effects of T Lymphocytes and Brain Interleukin-2
Journal of Alzheimers Disease & ParkinsonismMemantine Abolishes Anticholinergic Activity in Patient with Alzheimers Disease at Moderate Stage
In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation. Found in most animal tissues, choline is a primary component of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and functions with inositol as a basic constituent of lecithin. It prevents fat deposits in the liver and facilitates the movement of fats into the cells. The richest sources of choline are liver, kidney, brain, wheat germ, brewer's yeast, and egg yolk. Neurologically, cholinergic is the abbreviated term referring to acetylcholine. The parasympathetic nervous system, which uses acetylcholine almost exclusively to send its messages, is said to be almost entirely cholinergic. Neuromuscular junctions, preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system, the basal forebrain, and brain stem complexes are also cholinergic. In addition, the receptor for the merocrine sweat glands are also cholinergic, since acetylcholine is released from postganglionic sympathetic neurons.
In neuroscience and related fields, the term cholinergic is used in these related contexts:
- A substance (or ligand) is cholinergic if it is capable of producing, altering, or releasing acetylcholine ("indirect-acting") or mimicking its behaviour at one or more of the body's acetylcholine receptor types ("direct-acting").
- A receptor is cholinergic if it uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter.
- A synapse is cholinergic if it uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter.
Structure activity relationship for cholinergic drugs
- A molecule must possess a nitrogen atom capable of bearing a positive charge, preferably a quaternary ammonium salt.
- For maximum potency, the size of the alkyl groups substituted on the nitrogen should not exceed the size of a methyl group.
- The molecule should have an oxygen atom, preferably an ester-like oxygen capable of participating in a hydrogen bond.
- A two-carbon unit should occur between the oxygen atom and the nitrogen atom.
Cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease
As researchers began to focus on neurotransmitter imbalances as a cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the cholinergic hypothesis was proposed. The hypothesis states that a possible cause of AD is the reduced synthesis of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved in both memory and learning, two important components of AD. Many current drug therapies for AD are centered around the cholinergic hypothesis, although not all have been effective. Studies performed in the 1980s demonstrated significant impairment of cholinergic markers in Alzheimer’s patients.
Further studies on the cholinergic system and AD demonstrated acetylcholine plays a role in learning and memory. Scopolamine, an anticholinergic drug, was used to block cholinergic activity in young adults and induce memory impairments similar to those present in the elderly. The memory impairments were reversed when treated with physostigmine, a cholinergic agonist. However, reversing memory impairments in AD patients may not be this easy due to permanent changes in brain structure.
When young adults perform memory and attention tasks, brain activation patterns are balanced between the frontal and occipital lobes, creating a balance between bottom-up and top-down processing. Normal cognitive aging may affect long term and working memory, though the cholinergic system and cortical areas maintain performance through functional compensation. Adults with AD presenting with dysfunction of the cholinergic system are not able to compensate for long-term and working memory deficits.
AD is currently treated by increasing acetylcholine concentration by using acetylcholinesterase inhibitors to inhibit acetylcholinesterase from breaking down acetylcholine. Current acetylcholinesterase inhibitors approved in the United States by the FDA to treat Alzheimer’s include Aricept, Exelon, and Reminyl. These drugs work to increase the levels of acetylcholine and subsequently increase the function of neural cells. However, not all treatments based upon the cholinergic hypothesis have been successful in treating the symptoms or slowing the progression of AD. Therefore, a disruption to the cholinergic system has been proposed as a consequence of AD rather than a direct cause.
- "Definition: cholinergic from Online Medical Dictionary".
- "Dorlands Medical Dictionary:cholinergic receptors".
- Medicinal Chemistry of Adrenergics and Cholinergics
- Contestabile, A. (August 2011). "The history of the cholinergic hypothesis". Behavioral Brain Research 221 (2): 334–340. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2009.12.044.
- Craig, L.A., Hong, N.S., McDonald, R.J. (May 2011). "Revisiting the cholinergic hypothesis in the development of Alzheimer's disease". Neuroscience & Behavioral Reviews 35 (6): 1397–1409. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2011.03.001.
- Mapstone, M, Dickerson, K, Duffy, C.J. (2008). "Distinct mechanisms of impairment in cognitive ageing and Alzheimer’s disease.". Brain 131: 1618–1629. doi:10.1093/brain/awn064.
- Tabet, N. (July 2008). "Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer’s disease: anti-inflammatories in acetylcholine clothing.". Age Ageing 35 (4): 336–338. doi:10.1093/ageing/afl027.
- Martorana, A, Esposito, Z, Koch, G. (August 2010). "Beyond the Cholinergic Hypothesis: Do Current Drugs Work in Alzheimer’s Disease?". CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics 16 (4): 235–245. doi:10.1111/j.1755-5949.2010.00175.