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Christopher Snowden

Sir Christopher Maxwell Snowden FRS FREng[1] FIET FIEEE FCGI (born 5 March 1956 in Kingston upon Hull) is the president and vice-chancellor of the University of Surrey in Guildford, Surrey, United Kingdom. On 1 August 2013, Snowden took office as President of Universities UK for a two-year term.[2]

Early career

Snowden studied electronic and electrical engineering at the University of Leeds, gaining a BSc in 1977, an MSc and a PhD in 1982. His PhD involved microwave oscillators for radar applications and semiconductor device modelling. He conducted his PhD research at Racal-MESL Ltd near Edinburgh in Scotland as well as at the University of Leeds.[3]

Snowden was an applications engineer for Mullard Applications Laboratory from 1977-78. He lectured at the Department of Electronics in the University of York from 1982-83. From 1983-2005 he was a member of staff at the University of Leeds, his former alma mater, working in the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, becoming professor of microwave engineering in 1992 until 2005. He was head of the school from 1995–98 and for a while was warden of Bodington Hall. Whilst at Leeds he was a founder of the Institute of Microwave and Photonics. He supervised 50 successful PhD students. He has also worked at M/A-COM in the US from 1989-91 as senior staff scientist in the Corporate Research and Development Centre, based just outside Boston.

In 1998 he was appointed to the board of Filtronic plc as executive director of technology, where he initiated the Global Technology Group. He was subsequently appointed joint chief executive officer of Filtronic plc in 1999. As the company grew in 2001 he became chief executive officer of Filtronic ICS, responsible for compound semiconductor business and fabrication facilities in the UK and US (including the world's largest 150 mm gallium arsenide wafer facility at that time), defence businesses in the UK and US, module assembly and point-point microwave transceiver businesses.[4]

He has held a number of consultancy positions including positions with General Electric (US), M/A-Com inc (US), Filtronic Comtek, Lucas-Variety (UK), Filtronic plc and Diamond Microwave Devices Ltd (UK). He was also a visiting professor at Durham until 2005 and a visiting scientist at the Delft University of Technology from 1996-98.

University of Surrey

On 1 August 2005, Snowden was appointed president and vice-chancellor of the University of Surrey, succeeding Professor Patrick J Dowling. As vice-chancellor he is responsible for leading the University's new strategy.

The University is now structured into four faculties in engineering and physical sciences, arts and human sciences, health and medical sciences and business, economics and law. Its Guildford campus in Surrey in the UK has over 15,000 students and the Surrey International Institute at Dalian in China (in partnership with DUFE) has over 1500 students studying for Surrey degrees. Since 2005 the University has forged partnerships and links with California Institute of Technology (where Professor Snowden was a visiting member of staff in 1987), North Carolina State University, São Paulo, UCLA, Beijing, Nanjing and Seoul National University. The entrance standards at the university have risen 35% since 2005 and applications have risen over 100% over the last five years.

Under Snowden's leadership the University has risen steadily up the rankings and is now a Top Ten UK University having achieved 8th place in the 2014 Guardian University League Table[5] and 6th place the following year in 2015.[6]

Surrey was awarded the 2006 THES Prize for Outstanding Contribution to Innovation and Technology sponsored by Toshiba. It has invested nearly £36 million in a new world-class sports park on its Guildford campus which opened in April 2010. The University recently sold its satellite technology business SSTL for close to £50 million cash whilst retaining continuing relationship with the University's Space Research Centre, which was a record for a cash spin-out from a UK university.[7] In November 2011, the University was awarded the Queen's Anniversary Prize for Higher and Further Education.[8]

The University has recently secured £35 million from the UK Government and a consortium of industry partners for a new research hub to take global leadership in 5G mobile telecommunications.[9] It has also just announced plans to build a vet school which will be one of only eight such schools in the UK.

University of Southampton

On 20 March 2015 the University of Southampton announced[10] that Sir Christopher would become its new Vice Chancellor following the retirement of the present Vice Chancellor, Professor Don Nutbeam, a move expected to take effect from October 2015. This was announced just as Snowden also announced redundancies at the University of Surrey as part of a review.[11]

Universities UK

Sir Christopher is currently President of the 134-member[12] Universities UK group (UUK), from 1 August 2013 to July 2015.[13] He succeeded Eric Thomas, the vice-chancellor of the University of Bristol. Prior to that,[14] Sir Christopher held one of the vice-president positions of UUK, representing England and Northern Ireland, and from 2009 to 2011 he chaired their Employability, Business and Industry Policy Committee.


Snowden's research interests are in the areas of microwave, millimetre-wave and optoelectronic devices and circuits. He pioneered the application of numerical physical device models to comprehensively describe electron transport in microwave transistor operation and in particular investigating device-circuit interaction properties. This allowed transistor designs to be significantly improved and optimized. This work was specifically recognised in his election as a Fellow of the Royal Society[15] and as a Fellow of the IEEE.

His early work was focused on two-dimensional numerical modelling. In particular, he worked on hot-electron effects in short-gate length field effect transistors (FETs), where he showed that the high energy electrons in transistor substrates contributed significantly to the conduction current.[16] He also contributed to the development of new non-linear laser diode models which found particular application in emerging high data rate communication systems.[17][18]

During the mid-1980s, along with colleagues in Lille and Duisburg universities, he explored the potential for a new class of physical model which became known as the quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) approach.[19] This was shown to be extremely effective at modelling field-effect transistors such as the popular metal semiconductor FET (MESFET). Snowden's models were shown to have the ability to accurately predict the DC and RF performance based on the physical geometry and material properties available from fabrication data.[20] Moreover, the Q2D model can be solved over 1000 times faster than full two-dimensional models, making it suitable for computer aided design applications.[21][22] These models were widely used around the world in industry and academia. The models were used to develop high performance microwave transistors with highly predictable characteristics which went on to be manufactured in high volumes by several companies. One of the most successful was the ‘hi-lo-hi’ pulse-doped microwave transistor which achieved high breakdown voltages and was particularly suited to high volume manufacturing.[23]

Snowden went on to apply this technique to high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), between 1995 and 2005.[24] It was shown to be an effective method for modelling and designing AlGaAs/GaAs HEMTs and the important pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors (pHEMTs) based on InGaAs/GaAs systems. New designs of power pHEMT (some with capabilities of over 100 W at 2 GHz) were developed and fabricated using this knowledge.[25] pHEMTs are widely used in communication applications and many billions of circuits based on pHEMT integrated circuits have been used in products such as mobile phones, radar and satellite receivers.[26] More recently, since 2008 he has applied new Q2D models to laterally diffused MOS power transistors (LDMOS) for high power amplifiers in communications systems, achieving similar high levels of accurate prediction and speed advantage.[27]

During the period 1990 to 1997 Snowden developed a new electrothermal physics-based equivalent circuit model for heterojunction bipolar transistors which was suited to power amplifier applications (widely used in cellular handsets). He was awarded the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society Microwave Prize in 1999[28] for this work described in his 1997 paper "Large-signal Microwave Characterization of AlGaAs/GaAs HBT's Based on a Physics Based Electrothermal Model' (IEEE TMTT, MTT-45, pp. 58–71, 1997).[29]

Snowden went on to develop further models based on incorporating the interaction between thermal effects and electronic behaviour, which proved to be important in accurately modelling power transistor and in power amplifier designs. Subsequently, he developed this into fully integrated models incorporating electromagnetic effects into the physical models and demonstrating the significance of this type of global model for millimetre-wave circuits.

He also developed several novel techniques for integrating microwave, millimeter-wave and optical circuits and during his time at M/A-COM whilst working as Senior Staff Scientist he extended their glass microwave integrated circuit (GMIC) technology to photonics, introducing the concept of embedding light guides in the GMIC to allow photonic circuits and interfaces to solid-state lasers, detectors and high speed processors. He first presented these concepts at the 1991 IEEE LEOS conference [30] and the concept was subsequently developed for use at 622Mb/s in synchronous optical network (SONET) applications.[31]

Snowden has published over 330 technical papers, patents and has written 8 books including *Introduction to Semiconductor Device Modelling. World Scientific Pub Co Inc. 1998. ISBN 978-9971-5-0142-6.  (World Scientific in English and Japanese). He has acted as editor for 4 journals and 3 special issues as well as the EEE Wiley book series. He has given over 70 keynote invited and plenary lectures. He has chaired a number of major international conferences including the 2006 European Microwave Conference.[32]

Fellowships, memberships, societies and companies

Snowden is past-president of the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) (2009–10).[33] and until August 2013 he was vice-president of the Royal Academy of Engineering[34] where he chaired the Academy's Engineering Policy Committee.[35] In 2014 he was invited to be Deputy Chairman of the 2015 judging panel for the Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering (QEPrize).[36]

Sir Christopher was appointed by the Prime Minister to his advisory Council for Science and Technology (CST) in 2011. He is also a member of the UK Government's Foresight Advisory Board.[37]

Sir Christopher has been a member of the governing body of the UK's Innovate UK (previously known as the Technology Strategy Board (TSB)) 2009-2015. He is a member of the Council for Industry and Higher Education (CIHE) and until March 2012 he was a Member of the Council of the UK's Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC).[38]

He is a Fellow of the Royal Society (2005) and was a member of their Council (2012–13). He is a Fellow[39] of the Royal Academy of Engineering[40] (2000), the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) (1993), the IEEE (1996) and the City and Guilds of London Institute (2005).[41]

He has been a member of Foresight Committee panels on Communications and Media, and Exploitation of the Electromagnetic Spectrum. He was a member of the UK's National Advisory Committee on Electronic Materials 2002-7. He was a member of the supervisory board of the Electromagnetic Remote Sensing Defense Technology Centre from 2002-5. He has appeared before the UK's House of Commons Select Committee on several occasions.

He was Chairman of the Daphne Jackson Trust from 2005 to 2009 and was a patron of the Trust until 2015.[42] He was a patron Surrey Youth Focus and Transform Housing & Support until 2015. He was a Governor of the Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation UK until 2011.

He has been a non-executive director of companies such as Intense Ltd, CENAMPS Ltd, SSTL. He was a Board member of the European Microwave Association from 2003-7, where he was also Vice-Chair for a period. He was Chair of HERO Ltd from 2006-9 and a Member of the governing board of the Engineering Technology Board from 2007-9.

He was a member of the South East England Science, Engineering and Technology Advisory Council (SESETAC) until 2011.[43] and is a member of the Council of Industry and Higher Education (CIHE).[44] He is a board member of the ERA Foundation[45] and will take up the Chair from 2016[citation needed].

Honours and awards

He was awarded the IEEE Microwave Prize in 1999 for his world-leading research paper on Microwave power transistors for communicating applications and the IEEE Distinguished Educator Award in 2009 by the Microwave Theory and Techniques Society.[46]

The Royal Academy of Engineering[47] awarded him their Silver Medal for 'Outstanding personal contributions to the UK microwave semiconductor industry' in 2004.[48]

Between 1998 and 2005 he was a Distinguished Lecturer for the IEEE Electron Devices Society.

In 2003 he was invited by HM The Queen to Buckingham Palace for the Pioneer Reception recognizing his contributions to communication technology.

Snowden was knighted in the 2012 New Year Honours for services to engineering and higher education.[49][50]

He received the 2012 Outstanding Career Award from the European Microwave Association.

Personal life

He married Irena Lewandowska in 1993. They have two sons (born March 1994 and August 1996).


  1. ^ "List of Fellows". 
  3. ^ Biographical details from the EPSRC website
  4. ^ News Story from Filtronic's website
  5. ^ [1] Guardian University Guide 2014
  6. ^ [2]
  7. ^ [3] Details taken from University of Surrey website
  8. ^ [4] Times Higher Education website
  9. ^ [5] Details taken from University of Surrey website
  10. ^
  11. ^ University of Surrey to cut around 100 academic and support jobs, James Watkins, getSurrey, 18 March 2015]
  12. ^
  14. ^ November 2012 to August 2013
  15. ^ [6] The Royal Society Archive
  16. ^ Snowden, C.M. and Loret, D, "Two dimensional hot electron models for short gate length GaAs MESFET's", IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, pp.212 223, February 1987
  17. ^ Iezekiel S., Snowden, C.M and Howes M.J., "Nonlinear Circuit Analysis of Harmonic and Intermodulation Distortions in Laser Diodes Under Microwave Direct Modulation", IEEE MTT, Vol. 38, No.12, pp.1906-1915, December 1990
  18. ^ Lim, C.G., Iezekiel, S., and Snowden, C.M, "Nonlinear Dynamics of Optically-Injected Self-Pulsating Laser Diodes" IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol.37, pp.699-706, May 2001
  19. ^ [7] CORE
  20. ^ 4 Snowden, C.M. and Pantoja, R.R., "GaAs MESFET Physical Models for Process Oriented Design", IEEE Trans. MTT, Vol. 40, No.7, pp.1401-1409, July 1992
  21. ^ Snowden, C.M. and Pantoja, R.R., "Quasi Two Dimensional MESFET Models Application and Validation", European Transactions on Telecommunications and Related Technologies, No. N.4-1990, Volume 1, pp.383-388, August 1990
  22. ^ Pantoja, R.R., Howes, M.J., Richardson, J.R.R and Snowden, C.M., "A Large Signal Physical MESFET Model for CAD and its Applications" IEEE Trans. MTT, pp.2039 2045, December 1989
  23. ^ Snowden, C.M. and Pantoja, R.R., "GaAs MESFET Physical Models for Process Oriented Design", IEEE Trans. MTT, Vol. 40, No.7, pp.1401-1409, July 1992
  24. ^ Drury, R. and Snowden, C.M., "A Quasi-Two-Dimensional HEMT Model for Microwave CAD Applications", IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, pp. 1026-1032, June 1995
  25. ^ M. Akkul, M. Sarfraz, J. Mayock, and W. Bosch, “50 watt MMIC power amplifier design for 2 GHz applications,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Microwave Symp., Fort Worth, TX, June 2004, pp. 1355–1358
  26. ^ O’Keefe, M.F., Atherton, J.S., Bösch, W., Burgess, P., Cameron, N.I., and Snowden, C.M., “GaAs pHEMT Based Technology for Microwave Applications in a Volume MMIC Production Environment on 150mm Wafers”, IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing, Vol.16, No.3: 376-383, August 2003
  27. ^ Everett, J, Kearney, M.J., Rueda, H., Johnson, E.M., Aaen, P.H., Wood, J, and Snowden, C.M., “A Quasi-Two-Dimensional Model for High-Power RF LDMOS Transistors” (10.1109/TED.2011.2160546) IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. 58, No. 9, pp.3081-3088, September 2011
  28. ^ Past Awardees Microwave Prize
  29. ^ IEEE Explore Digital Library
  30. ^ Snowden, C.M., "Modeling of III-V Electronic and Optoelectronic Devices: An Overview", Invited Speaker, IEEE/Lasers and Electro-Optics Society/Optical Society of America, Proceedings Integrated Photonics Research Conference, April 9th-11th 1991
  31. ^ Stavros Iezekiel, , Eric A. Soshea, , Matthew F. O’Keefe and Christopher M. Snowden, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 43. NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 1995
  32. ^ European Microwave Week 2006 programme
  33. ^ IET Website
  34. ^ "List of Fellows". 
  35. ^ RAeng website
  36. ^ [8]
  37. ^ CST website
  38. ^ EPSRC Press Release
  39. ^ "List of Fellows". 
  40. ^ "List of Fellows". 
  41. ^ Biographical details on EPSRC website
  42. ^ Charity Commission website
  43. ^ (SESETAC) SESETAC Membership]
  44. ^ CIHE Council Members
  45. ^ "ERA Foundation Board". Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  46. ^ IET press release
  47. ^ "List of Fellows". 
  48. ^ RAeng press release
  49. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 60009. p. 1. 31 December 2011.
  50. ^ The Guardian, 31 December 2011: New Year honours list: Knights

External links

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