Chronic neutrophilic leukemia
|Chronic neutrophilic leukemia|
|Classification and external resources|
|Specialty||Hematology and oncology|
|NCI||Chronic neutrophilic leukemia|
|Patient UK||Chronic neutrophilic leukemia|
Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is a rare myeloproliferative neoplasm that features a persistent neutrophilia in peripheral blood, myeloid hyperplasia in bone marrow, hepatosplenomegaly, and the absence of the Philadelphia chromosome or a BCR/ABL fusion gene.
The etiology of CNL is currently unknown. An association between CNL and multiple myeloma has been suggested based on the observation of myeloma in 20% of CNL cases. However, a clonal genetic abnormality has not been detected in these myeloma-associated cases of CNL, raising the possibility that the neutrophilia is a reaction due to the neoplastic myeloma cells. The postulated cell of origin is a limited-potential, marrow-derived stem cell.
Sites of Involvement
Bone Marrow Biopsy
On both the bone marrow aspirate and the core biopsy, a hypercellular marrow with an increased myeloid:erythroid ratio of 20:1 or greater. Myelocytes and neutrophils are increased, and blasts and promyelocytes are not increased. Due to the myeloproliferative nature of the disease, an increase in megakaryocytes and erythroid precursors may be observed, but dyspoiesis in not seen in any cell lineage. Also, reticulin fibrosis is rare. There is a reported association between CNL and multiple myeloma, so the bone marrow biopsy may show evidence of a plasma cell dyscrasia with increased numbers of atypical plasma cells.
No distinct immunophenotype abnormality for CNL has been described. See OHSU 2013 findings of gene CSF3R, mutation p. T6181
- Elaine Sarkin Jaffe, Nancy Lee Harris, World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Harald Stein, J.W. Vardiman (2001). Pathology and genetics of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. World Health Organization Classification of Tumors 3. Lyon: IARC Press. ISBN 92-832-2411-6.
- You W, Weisbrot IM (August 1979). "Chronic neutrophilic leukemia. Report of two cases and review of the literature". Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 72 (2): 233–42. PMID 289288.
- Zittoun R, Réa D, Ngoc LH, Ramond S (February 1994). "Chronic neutrophilic leukemia. A study of four cases". Ann. Hematol. 68 (2): 55–60. PMID 8148416. doi:10.1007/BF01715131.
- Standen GR, Steers FJ, Jones L (April 1993). "Clonality of chronic neutrophilic leukaemia associated with myeloma: analysis using the X-linked probe M27 beta". J. Clin. Pathol. 46 (4): 297–8. PMC 501206. PMID 8098719. doi:10.1136/jcp.46.4.297.
- Yanagisawa K, Ohminami H, Sato M et al. (March 1998). "Neoplastic involvement of granulocytic lineage, not granulocytic-monocytic, monocytic, or erythrocytic lineage, in a patient with chronic neutrophilic leukemia". Am. J. Hematol. 57 (3): 221–4. PMID 9495373. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8652(199803)57:3<221::AID-AJH7>3.0.CO;2-X.