Chronology of Tamil history
|Part of a series on|
|History of Tamil Nadu|
- 1 Pre-historic period
- 2 Pre-Sangam period
- 3 Sangam age
- 4 Post-Sangam period
- 5 Pallava and Pandya
- 6 Chola period
- 7 Chola to Pandya transition
- 8 Pandiya revival and Muslim rule
- 9 Vijayanagar and Nayak period
- 10 East India Company
- 11 British rule
- 12 Post independence period
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
- c. 150,000-100,000 BCE - Evidence for presence of Hominins with Acheulean technology in north Tamil Nadu.
- c. 30,000 BCE-Paleolithic industries in north Tamil Nadu
- c. 8000-3000 BCE-Pre-pottery microlithic industries
- c. 3000-1000 BCE-Neolithic and fine microlithic industries
- c. 1000-300 BCE-Megalithic age
- c. 600 BCE-Tamil-Brahmi prevalent as the Tamil script 
- c. 300 BCE- Greek ethnographer Megasthenes visits Pandyan capitol Madurai.,
- c. 250 BCE-Asoka's inscription recording the four kingdoms (Chera, Cholas, Pandya and Satyaputra) of the ancient Tamil country
- c. 200 BCE-Elara, a Tamil prince and contemporary of Dutte Gamini, rules Lanka
- c. 200 BCE-200 CE-Sangam age during which books of Sangam Literature are created 
- c. 150 BCE-Kharavela of Kalinga records his conquest of a federation of Tamil kings in his Hathigumpha inscription 
- c. 13- Greek historian Nicolaus of Damascus met an ambassador sent by Pandyan King to Caesar Augustus, Strabo XV.1-73.
- c. 1-100 - The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea gives a detailed description of early Chera and Pandya kingdom and mentions Tamil country as 'Damirica' 
- c. 77 and 140 Greco-Roman writers Pliny the Elder and Ptolemy mention Madurai ruled by Pandyan.
- c. 130- Chera king Udayanjeral rules in the Chera country
- c. 175-195-Gajabahu I of Lanka a contemporary of Chera Senguttuvan and Karikala Chola (the Gajabahu synchronism)
- c. 190- Chera Kadukko Ilanjeral Irumporai rules in the Chera country 
- c. 200-Writing becomes widespread and vattezuttu evolved from the Tamil Brahmi becomes a mature script for writing Tamil 
- c. 210- Pandya Neduncheliyan rules in Madurai and defeats his enemies at the battle of Talaiyalanganam
- c. 300-590-Kalabhras invade the Tamil country and displace the traditional rulers
- c. 300-500-Post-Sangam period, Tamil epics such as Silappatikaram written
Pallava and Pandya
- c. 560-580-Pallava Simhavishnu overthrows the Kalabhras in Tondaimandalam
- c. 560-590-Pandya Kadungon rules from Madurai and displaces the Kalabhras from the south
- c. 590-630-Pallava Mahendravarman I rules in Kanchipuram
- c. 610-Saiva saint Thirunavukkarasar (Appar) converts Mahendravarman from Jainism
- c. 628-Chalukya Pulakesi II invades the Pallava kingdom and lays siege on Kanchipuram
- c. 630-668 Pallava Narasimhavarman I (Mamalla) rules in Tondaimandalam
- c. 642-Pallava Narasimhavarman I launches a counter invasion into the Chalukya country and sacks Vatapi. Pulakesi is killed in battle
- c. 670-700 CE-Pandya Arikesari Parankusa Maravarman rules in Madurai
- c. 700-728-Pallava Rajasimha builds the Kailasanatha temple in Kanchipuram and many of the shore temples in Mamallapuram
- c. 710-730-Pandya king Kochadaiyan Ranadhiran expands the Pandya kingdom into the Kongu country
- c. 731-Succession crisis in the Pallava kingdom. Council of ministers select Nandivarman II (Pallavamalla) (731-796) as the Pallava king
- c. 731-765-Pandya Maravarman Rajasimha aligns with the Chalukya Vikramaditya II and attacks the Pallava king Nandivarmam
- c. 735-Chaluka Vikramaditya II invades the Pallava country and occupies the capital Kanchipuram
- c. 760-Pallava Nandivarman II invades and defeats the Ganga kingdom at the battle of Villande
- c. 768-815-Pandya Parantaka Nedunchadaiyan (Varaguna Pandyan) rules in Madurai
- c. 767-Pandya forces defeat the Pallavas on the south banks of the Kaveri
- c. 800-830-Varagunan I becomes Pandya king and extends his empire up to Tiruchirapalli by defeating the Pallava king Dandivarman
- c. 830-862-Pandya Sirmara Srivallabha rules in Madurai
- c. 840-Srimara invades Lanka and captures the northern provinces of the Lanka king Sena I
- c. 848 -Rise of Vijayalaya Chola in Tanjavur after defeating the MuttaraiyarMuthuraja rulers of kaveri delta
- c. 846-869-Pallava Nadivarman III leads an invasion against the Pandya kingdom and defeats the Pandyas at the battle of Tellaru. Pallava kingdom extends up to the river Vaigai
- c. 859-Pandya Srivallaba defeats the Pallavas at a battle at Kumbakonam
- c. 862-Sinhala forces under Sena II invade the Pandya country and sack Madurai. Srimara is killed in battle
- c. 903 -Adithya Chola defeats the Pallava king Aparajita 
- c. 949 -Battle of Takkolam. Rashtrakuta Krishna III defeats the Chola army 
- c. 985 -Accession of Rajaraja Chola I 
- c. 1010 -Rajaraja completes the Brihadisvara Temple
- c. 1012 -Accession of Rajendra Chola I 
- c. 1023 -Rajendra's Expedition to the Ganges 
- c. 1025 -Chola navies defeat the king of Srivijaya 
- c. 1041 -Rajendra invades Lanka 
- c. 1054 -Rajadhiraja Chola dies in the battle of Koppam against Western Chalukyas 
- c. 1070 -Accession of Kulothunga Chola I 
- c. 1118 -Vikrama Chola 
- c. 1133 -Kulothunga Chola II 
- c. 1146 -Rajaraja Chola II 
- c. 1163 -Rajadhiraja Chola II 
- c. 1178 -Kulothunga Chola III 
- c. 1216 -Rajaraja Chola III 
- c. 1246 -Rajendra Chola III 
Chola to Pandya transition
- c. 1190-1260 - Bana Dynasty rule Magadaimandalam with family title of 'ponparappinan' and headquarters at Aragalur 
- c. 1216 - 1238 - Kadava Dynasty and Maravarman Sundara Pandyan ruled regions of South India
Pandiya revival and Muslim rule
- 1251 -Accession of Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan I
- 1279 -End of the Chola dynasty with the death of Rajendra Chola III
- 1268-1310 - Kulasekara Pandiyan rules in Madurai
- 1308 -Malik Kafur a general of Allaudin Khilji invades Devagiri en route to Tamil Nadu
- 1310 -Sundara Pandian, son of Kulasekara Pandiyan, kills his father and becomes king. In the ensuing civil war he is defeated by his brother Vira Pandiyan.
- 1311 -Malik Kafur, invades Pandiya country and attacks Madurai
- 1327-1370 Madurai under the rule of Madurai Sultanate
Vijayanagar and Nayak period
- 1370 - Bukka, the Vijayanagara ruler and his son Kumara Kamapna capture the entire Tamil country
- 1518 -Portuguese land on the Coromandel Coast in Pulicat
- 1532-1580 -Sevappa Nayak rules as the first independent Nayak ruler in Tanjavur
- 1600-1645 -Ragunatha Nayak, the greatest of the Tanjavur Nayaks
- 1609 -the Dutch establish a settlement in Pulicat
- 1623-1659 -Tirumalai Nayak rules in Madurai
- 1639 British East India Company purchases Chennapatinam and establishes Fort St. George
- c. 1652 -Tanjavur and Gingee fall to the Bijapur Sultan
- 1656 -Mysore army invades Salem against the Madurai Nayak Tirumalai
- 1676 -Maratha army from Bijapur marches into Tanjavur, Ekoji declares himself king
- 1692 Nawab of Arcot established by Nawab Zulfiqar Ali Khan, a viceroy of the Moghul Emperor
- 1746 La Bourdonnais of the French East India company attacks and takes Fort St. George
East India Company
- 1749 British regain Fort St. George through the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle arising out of the War of the Austrian Succession
- 1751 Robert Clive attacks Arcot and captures it.
- 1756 The British and the French sign the first Carnatic treaty. Mahommed Ali Walajah was recognized as Nawab of the Carnatic
- 1759 French under Thomas Arthur, Comte de Lally, attack Madras
- 1760 Battle of Vandavasi between the British and the French. Birth of Veerapandya Kattabomman
- 1767 Hyder Ali, Sultan of Mysore attacks Madras against British, but defeated by the British at the Battle of Chengam
- 1773 -British Government passes the Regulating Act. The administration of Madras comes under British Government review
- 1777-1832 - Serfoji II rules in Tanjavur
- 1799 -Serfoji cedes the Tanjavur kingdom to the British. Kattabomman executed by British
- 1803 -Bentinck appointed governor of Madras
- 1800-1805 Poligar Wars
- 1806 -Vellore Mutiny East India Company's Indian soldiers in Vellore mutiny against governor Bentinck in Vellore fort. 114 British officers killed and 19 mutineers executed.
- 1892 – British government passes the Indian Councils Act
- 1909 - 'Minto-Morley Reforms'. Madras Legislative Council formed
- 1921 - First regional elections held in Madras. Justice party forms government
- 1927 - Madras Congress passes a resolution for 'Full Independence'
- 1928 - Simon Commission visits Madras. Mass protests result in several deaths
- 1937 - Congress party under C. Rajagopalachari wins provincial elections and forms government in Madras
- 1938 - Periyar E. V. Ramasamy organises a separatist agitation demanding Dravida Nadu consisting of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala
- 1941 - Indian Muslim League holds its congress in Madras. Muhammad Ali Jinnah delivers keynote speech
- 1944 - Periyar E. V. Ramasamy and C. N. Annadurai organise Dravidar Kazhagam
Post independence period
- 1947 -Madras Presidency, comprising Tamil Nadu and parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka established
- 1953 -Madras state comes into being along linguistic lines
- 1965 -Widespread agitations in response to the Federal Government's directive of Hindi being the National Language
- 1969 -Madras state is renamed as Tamil Nadu (Country of the Tamils)
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- "Evidence of pre-historic humans in Thanjavur". The Hindu (Thanjavur, India). 10 May 2009.
- "Bedrock on which Neolithic man sharpened stone tools found in T.N.". The Hindu (India). 3 April 2013.
- "Kanchi district, gold mine of megalithic sites". IBN Live (Tamilnadu, India). 14 March 2012.
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- Strabo XV.1
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