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Citrus hybrid

A citrus hybrid is typically a somatic hybrid within the genus citrus, thus, combining two different citrus varieties or species into one, in order to get intermediate traits or the most desirable traits of both parents. This is done by plant breeding which is also called cross pollination. The selection of the progeny of the new hybrid into a new variety is called hybrid speciation. Citrus hybrids are usually marked with the "×" after the word "Citrus", for example Citrus × aurantifolia.


Citrus taxonomy is very complex and this page currently follows the Swingle system, that is currently followed in the United States and commonly referred to, elsewhere.

Major citrus hybrids

The most known citrus hybrids that are sometimes treated as a species by themselves, especially in folk taxonomy, are:

Minor citrus hybrids (partial list)

Graft hybrids

There are also some so called graft hybrids, or more commonly graft-chimaeras, which are not somatically fused but rather combine variegated tissue from scion and rootstock via grafting, a popular example the Bizzaria orange. Those are commonly marked with a plus sign "+" instead with an "x".

Intergenetic hybrids


Citrofortunella according to the Swingle system, is a hybrid genus, containing intergenetic hybrids between members of the genus citrus and the closely related Fortunella. It is named after its two parent genera. Such hybrids often combine the cold hardiness of the Fortunella, such as the Kumquat, with some edibility properties of the citrus species. Citrofortunellas, which are all hybrids, are marked with the "×" before the word "Citrofortunella",[1] for example × Citrofortunella microcarpa or × Citrofortunella mitis which refer to the same plant.[2]

Citrofortunella hybrids

These plants are hardier and more compact than most citrus plants, often referred to as cold hardy citrus. They produce small acidic fruit and make good ornamental plants. Citrofortunella hybrids include:


Citrocirus also according to the Swingle system, is a hybrid genus, containing intragenetic hybrids between members of the genus citrus and the closely related Poncirus, which includes the trifoliate orange, a cold hardy plant that commonly uses as a citrus rootstock. Citrocirus commonly refer to the citranges which are somatic hybrid between the trifoliate and sweet oranges. They are botanically classified as × Citrocitrus. However a molecular investigation suggested that Fortunella, Citrofortunella, Poncirus and Citrocirus should all be equivocally included in the genus citrus.[3]

Citrocirus hybrids

See also


  1. ^ "EasyBloom :: Calamondin - x Citrofortunella mitis :: Detailed Plant Information". 
  2. ^ Gardens World
  3. ^ Nicolosi et al. (2000), de Araújo et al. (2003)

External links