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Close central rounded vowel

For the use of /ʉ/ on Wikipedia, see Help:IPA for English.
Close central rounded vowel
Template:Infobox IPA/format numbers
ü
IPA number 318
Encoding
Entity (decimal) Template:Infobox IPA/format numbers
Unicode (hex) Template:Infobox IPA/format numbers
X-SAMPA }
Kirshenbaum u"
Braille 25px25px
Template:Infobox IPA/format numbers

The close central rounded vowel, or high central rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʉ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is }. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as "barred u".

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

In most languages this rounded vowel is pronounced with protruded lips (endolabial). However, in a few cases the lips are compressed (exolabial).

There is also a near-close central rounded vowel in some languages.

Close central protruded vowel

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
320px
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

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  • Its vowel height is close, also known as high, which means the tongue is positioned as close as possible to the roof of the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel.
  • Its roundedness is protruded, which means that the corners of the lips are drawn together, and the inner surfaces exposed.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Some Eastern dialects[1] յուղ [jʉʁ] 'oil' Allophone of /u/ after /j/
Berber Ayt Seghrouchen[2] ? [lːæjˈɡːʉɾ] 'he goes' Allophone of /u/ after velar consonants.
English Australian[3] choose [t͡ʃʉːz] 'choose' In Australian English it's fronted [ʉ̟ː]. In Cockney and Estuary English it's often a diphthong [ʊʉ̯~əʉ̯]. In Scotland and the Scouse accent it can be more front, while in Geordie it can be more back. The exact length also varies between dialects. See Australian English phonology and English phonology
Central Eastern American[4]
Cockney[5]
D4 Dublin
Estuary[6]
Modern RP speakers[7]
New Zealand[8]
Norfolk[9]
Scottish[10]
Scouse[11]
Some speakers of Geordie[12]
South African[13]
Southern American[14]
Ulster[15] Long allophone of /u/. See English phonology
Canadian about [əˈbɛʉt] 'about' Per Canadian Raising. Lower [əˈbʌʊt] more common in the west.
Irish Munster[16] ciúin [cʉ̠ːnʲ] 'quiet' Somewhat retracted;[16] allophone of /u/ between slender consonants.[16] See Irish phonology
Ulster[17] úllaí [ʉ̠ɫ̪i] 'apples' Somewhat retracted;[17] may be transcribed /u/.[18]
Polish judzić [ˈjʉd͡ʑi̝t͡ɕ] 'to egg on' Allophone of /u/ between palatalized consonants. See Polish phonology
Russian[19] кюрий [ˈkʲʉrʲɪj] 'curium' Allophone of /u/ between palatalized consonants. See Russian phonology
West Frisian drúf [drʉːf] 'grape' Typically transcribed as /yː/.

Close central compressed vowel

Close central compressed vowel
ʉ͍
ɨ͡β̞
ɨᵝ
Encoding
Entity (decimal) Template:Infobox IPA/format numbers
Unicode (hex) Template:Infobox IPA/format numbers
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As there is no official diacritic for compression in the IPA, the spread-lip diacritic   ͍ will be used here with the rounded vowel ʉ as an ad hoc symbol. Other possible transcriptions are ɨ͡β̞ (simultaneous [ɨ] and labial compression) and ɨᵝ ([ɨ] modified with labial compression).

Features

  • Its vowel height is close, also known as high, which means the tongue is positioned as close as possible to the roof of the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel.
  • Its roundedness is compressed, which means that the margins of the lips are tense and drawn together in such a way that the inner surfaces are not exposed.

Occurrence

This vowel is typically transcribed with ʉ. It also occurs in some dialects of Swedish, but see also close front compressed vowel. The close back vowels of Norwegian and Swedish are also compressed. See close back compressed vowel.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Norwegian[20] hus [hʉ͍ːs] 'house' See Norwegian phonology
Swedish ful [fʉ͍ːl] 'ugly' See Swedish phonology

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Abdel-Massih, Ernest T. (1971), A Reference Grammar of Tamazight, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan 
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Harrington, J.; Cox, F.; Evans, Z. (1997), "An acoustic phonetic study of broad, general, and cultivated Australian English vowels" (PDF), Australian Journal of Linguistics 17: 155–184, doi:10.1080/07268609708599550 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Kristoffersen, Gjert (2000), The Phonology of Norwegian, Oxford: Oxford University Press 
  • Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521791052 
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2 
  • Mannell, R.; Cox, F.; Harrington, J. (2009), An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, Macquarie University 
  • Matthews, William (1938), Cockney, Past and Present: a Short History of the Dialect of London, Detroit: Gale Research Company 
  • Ní Chasaide, Ailbhe (1999), "Irish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 111–16, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Gaeilge), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann, ISBN 0-946452-97-0 
  • Przedlacka, Joanna (2001), "Estuary English and RP: Some Recent Findings", Studia Anglica Posnaniensia 36: 35–50 
  • Scobbie, James M; Gordeeva, Olga B.; Matthews, Benjamin (2006). "Acquisition of Scottish English Phonology: an overview". Edinburgh: QMU Speech Science Research Centre Working Papers. 
  • Watson, Kevin (2007), "Liverpool English" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (3): 351–360, doi:10.1017/s0025100307003180 
  • Watt, Dominic; Allen, William (2003), "Tyneside English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 267–271, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001397 
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