Clostridium - Related Links
Open Access Articles- Top Results for Clostridium
Journal of Nursing & CareDeclaring War on Clostridium difficile and other GI Pathogens: A Review of Disposable Commode Products
Journal of General PracticeNewer Diagnostic Methods in Clostridium difficile Infection
Journal of Medical Microbiology & DiagnosisFecal specimens for Clostridium difficile Diagnostic Testing are Stable for up to 72 hours at 4°C
Air & Water Borne DiseasesAn Unusual Case of Clostridium difficile Infection in Trinidad and Tobago
Clostridium is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes. They are obligate anaerobes capable of producing endospores. Individual cells are rod-shaped, which gives them their name, from the Greek kloster (κλωστήρ) or spindle. These characteristics traditionally defined the genus; but many species originally classified as Clostridium have been reclassified in other genera.
- C. botulinum can produce botulinum toxin in food or wounds and can cause botulism. Honey sometimes contains spores of C. botulinum, which may cause infant botulism in humans one year old and younger. The toxin eventually paralyzes the infant's breathing muscles. Adults and older children can eat honey safely, because Clostridium species do not compete well with the other rapidly growing bacteria present in the gastrointestinal tract. This same toxin is known as Botox and is used cosmetically to paralyze facial muscles to reduce the signs of aging; it also has numerous therapeutic uses.
- C. difficile can flourish when other bacteria in the gut are killed during antibiotic therapy, leading to pseudomembranous colitis (a cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea).
- C. perfringens, formerly called C. welchii, causes a wide range of symptoms, from food poisoning to gas gangrene. It also causes enterotoxemia (also known as "overeating disease" or "pulpy kidney disease") in sheep and goats. C. perfringens also takes the place of yeast in the making of salt rising bread. The name perfringens means 'breaking through' or 'breaking in pieces'.
- C. tetani is the causative organism of tetanus. The name is derived from Ancient Greek: τέτανος tetanos "taut", and τείνειν teinein "to stretch", due to the violent spasms caused by C. tetani infection.
- C. sordellii can cause a fatal infection in exceptionally rare cases after medical abortions. Fewer than one case per year has been reported since 2000.
Neurotoxin production is the unifying feature of the species C. botulinum. Eight types of toxins have been identified and allocated a letter (A-H). Most strains produce one type of neurotoxin, but strains producing multiple toxins have been described. C. botulinum producing B and F toxin types have been isolated from human botulism cases in New Mexico and California. The toxin type has been designated Bf as the type B toxin was found in excess of the type F. Similarly, strains producing Ab and Af toxins have been reported.
Organisms genetically identified as other Clostridium species have caused human botulism: Clostridium butyricum producing type E toxin and Clostridium baratii producing type F toxin. The ability of C. botulinum to naturally transfer neurotoxin genes to other Clostridium species is concerning, especially in the food industry where preservation systems are designed to destroy or inhibit only C. botulinum, but not other Clostridium species.
C. thermocellum can use lignocellulosic waste and generate ethanol, thus making it a possible candidate for use in production of ethanol fuel. It also has no oxygen requirement and is thermophilic, which reduces cooling cost.
C. botulinum produces a potentially lethal neurotoxin used in a diluted form in the drug Botox, which is carefully injected to nerves in the face, which prevents the movement of the expressive muscles of the forehead, to delay the wrinkling effect of aging. It is also used to treat spasmodic torticollis and provides relief for around 12 to 16 weeks.
The anaerobic bacterium C. ljungdahlii, recently discovered in commercial chicken wastes, can produce ethanol from single-carbon sources including synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, that can be generated from the partial combustion of either fossil fuels or biomass. Use of these bacteria to produce ethanol from synthesis gas has progressed to the pilot plant stage at the BRI Energy facility in Fayetteville, Arkansas.
Genes from C. thermocellum have been inserted into transgenic mice to allow the production of endoglucanase. The experiment was intended to learn more about how the digestive capacity of monogastric animals could be improved.
Nonpathogenic strains of Clostridium may help in the treatment of diseases such as cancer. Research shows that Clostridium can selectively target cancer cells. Some strains can enter and replicate within solid tumors. Clostridium could, therefore, be used to deliver therapeutic proteins to tumours. This use of Clostridium has been demonstrated in a variety of preclinical models.
- Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9.
- Bruggemann H, Gottschalk G (editors). (2009). Clostridia: Molecular Biology in the Post-genomic Era. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-38-7.
- UK Standards for Microbiology Investigations (October 10, 2011). "Identification of Clostridium Species". Standards Unit, Health Protection Agency. p. 7. 8. Retrieved November 3, 2013.
- Wells CL, Wilkins TD (1996). Clostridia: Sporeforming Anaerobic Bacilli in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al., eds.) (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1.
- Wells CL, Wilkins TD (1996). Botulism and Clostridium botulinum in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al., eds.) (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1.
- Tanzi MG, Gabay MP (2002). "Association between honey consumption and infant botulism". Pharmacotherapy 22 (11): 1479–83. PMID 12432974. doi:10.1592/phco.22.16.1479.33696.
- Wells CL, Wilkins TD (1996). Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea, Pseudomembranous Colitis, and Clostridium difficile in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al., eds.) (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1.
- Wells CL, Wilkins TD (1996). Other Pathogenic Clostridia Food Poisoning and Clostridium perfringens in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al., eds.) (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1.
- Wells CL, Wilkins TD (1996). Tetanus and Clostribium tetani in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al., eds.) (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1.
- tetanus. CollinsDictionary.com. Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved October 01, 2012
- Meites E, Zane S, Gould C (2010). "Fatal Clostridium sordellii infections after medical abortions". New England Journal of Medicine 363 (14): 1382–3. PMID 20879895. doi:10.1056/NEJMc1001014.
- Valli, Eric; Summers, Diane (January 1990). The Nest Gatherers of Tiger Cave. National Geographic.
- Dover, N.; Barash, J. R, J.R.; Hill, K.K.; Xie, G.; Arnon, S.S. (January 2014). "Molecular characterization of a novel botulinum neurotoxin type H gene". Journal of Infectious Diseases 209 (2): 192–202. PMID 24106295. doi:10.1093/infdis/jit450.
- Velickovic M, Benabou R, Brin MF. Cervical dystonia pathophysiology and treatment options" Drugs 2001;61:1921–1943.
- "Providing for a Sustainable Energy Future". Bioengineering Resources, inc. Retrieved 21 May 2007.
- Mengesha et al. (2009). "Clostridia in Anti-tumor Therapy". Clostridia: Molecular Biology in the Post-genomic Era. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-38-7.
- Chou, Chia-Hung; Chang-Lung Han, Jui-Jen Chang, Jiunn-Jyi Lay (October 2011). "Co-culture of Clostridium beijerinckii L9, Clostridium butyricum M1 and Bacillus thermoamylovorans B5 for converting yeast waste into hydrogen". International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 36 (21): 13972–13983. doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2011.03.067.
- Clostridium genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded by NIAID
- Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology
- UK Clostridium difficile Support Group
- Pathema-Clostridium Resource
- Water analysis: Clostridium video