Open Access Articles- Top Results for Cologne
Journal of Cancer Science & TherapyImpact of Physical Inactivity on the Multifactorial Process of Developing Cancer-Related Cognitive Impairments
General Medicine: Open AccessRenal Stem Cells Transplantation in Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease; a Visible Science Fiction
Journal of Genetic Syndromes & Gene TherapyRole of Genetic Testing in Lung Transplantation; Prediction of Inflammation
Journal of Gerontology & Geriatric ResearchThere is a Chance to Cure Urinary Incontinence in all Women!
Clinical and Experimental PsychologyRisk and Resilience Factors of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of Current Research
|From top to bottom, left to right: Hohenzollern Bridge by night, Great St. Martin Church, Colonius TV-tower, Cologne Cathedral, Kranhaus buildings in Rheinauhafen, MediaPark|
Cologne is one of the warmest cities in Germany. It has a temperate–oceanic climate with relatively mild winters and warm summers. It is also one of the gloomiest cities in Germany, with just 1427 hours of sun a year. Its average annual temperature is Script error: No such module "convert".: Script error: No such module "convert". during the day and Script error: No such module "convert". at night. In January, the mean temperature is Script error: No such module "convert"., while the mean temperature in July is Script error: No such module "convert".. Precipitation is spread evenly throughout the year.
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This page is a soft redirect. Climate data for Cologne/Bonn Airport, Germany for 1981–2010 (Source: DWD)
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This page is a soft redirect.Source: Data derived from Deutscher Wetterdienst
Cologne is regularly affected by flooding from the Rhine and is considered the most flood-prone European city. A city agency (Stadtentwässerungsbetriebe Köln, "Cologne Urban Drainage Operations") manages an extensive flood control system which includes both permanent and mobile flood walls, protection from rising waters for buildings close to the river banks, monitoring and forecasting systems, pumping stations and programs to create or protect floodplains, and river embankments. The system was redesigned after a 1993 flood, which resulted in heavy damage.
In the Roman Empire the city was large and rich with an population of 40,000 in 100–200 AD. The city was home to around 20,000 people in 1000 AD, growing to 50,000 in 1200 AD. The Rhineland metropolis still had 50,000 residents in 1300 AD.
Cologne is the fourth-largest city in Germany in terms of inhabitants after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich. As of 30 June 2011, there were officially 1,010,269 residents. Cologne is the centre of the Cologne/Bonn Region with around 3 million inhabitants (including the neighbouring cities of Bonn, Hürth, Leverkusen, and Bergisch Gladbach).
According to local statistics, in 2006, the population density in the city was 2,528 inhabitants per square kilometre. 31.4 percent of the population has migrated there, and 17.2 percent of Cologne's population is non-German. The largest group, comprising 6.3 percent of the total population, is Turkish. As of September 2007, there are about 120,000 Muslims living in Cologne, mostly of Turkish origin. Cologne also has the oldest and one of the largest Jewish communities in Germany.
In the city the population was spread out with 15.5% under the age of 18, 67.0% from 18 to 64 and 17.4% who were 65 years of age or older.
|Significant foreign born populations|
|23x15px Serbia & Montenegro||7,995|
|Template:Country data Iraq||3,810|
|Template:Country data Iran||3,330|
Political traditions and developments
The long tradition of a free imperial city, which long dominated an exclusively Catholic population and the age-old conflict between the church and the bourgeoisie (and within it between the patricians and craftsmen) has created its own political climate in Cologne. Various interest groups often form the basis of societal socialization and therefore beyond party boundaries. The resulting network of relationships, with political, economic, and cultural links with each other in a system of mutual favors, obligations and dependencies, is called the Cologne coterie. This has often led to an unusual proportional distribution in the city government and degenerated at times into corruption: in 1999, a "waste scandal" over kickbacks and illegal campaign contributions came to light, which led not only to the imprisonment of the entrepreneur Hellmut Trienekens, but also to the downfall of almost the entire leadership staff of the ruling Social Democrats.
The Lord Mayor of Cologne is Jürgen Roters of the Social Democratic Party. As the joint candidate of the SPD and the Greens, he received 54.67% of the vote on 30 August 2009 at the municipal election. He has been Lord Mayor since 21 October 2009.
City Councillors are elected for a five-year term and the Mayor has a six-year term.
Make-up of city council
|Social Democratic Party||27|||
|Christian Democratic Union||24|
|Free Democratic Party||5|
|Alternative for Germany||3|
|Pirate Party Germany||2|
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The inner city of Cologne was completely destroyed during World War II. The reconstruction of the city followed the style of the 1950s, while respecting the old layout and naming of the streets. Thus, the city today is characterized by simple and modest post-war buildings, with few interspersed pre-war buildings which were reconstructed due to their historical importance. Some buildings of the "Wiederaufbauzeit" (era of reconstruction), for example the opera house by Wilhelm Riphahn, are nowadays regarded as classics of modern architecture. Nevertheless, the uncompromising style of the Cologne Opera house and other modern buildings has remained controversial.
Green areas account for over a quarter of Cologne which is approximately Script error: No such module "convert". of public green space for every citizen of the city.
The presence of animals in Cologne is generally limited to insects, small rodents, and several species of birds. Pigeons are the most often seen animals in Cologne, although the number of birds are augmented each year by a growing population of feral exotics, most visibly parrots such as the rose-ringed Parakeet. The sheltered climate in southeast Westphalia allows these birds to survive through the winter, and in some cases they are displacing native species. The plumage of Cologne's green parrots is highly visible even from a distance, and contrasts starkly with the otherwise muted colors of the cityscape.
Cologne had 4.31 million overnight stays booked and 2.38 million arrivals in 2008. The city also has the most pubs per capita in Germany. The city has 70 clubs, "countless" bars, restaurants, and pubs.
- Cologne Cathedral (German: Kölner Dom) is the city's most famous monument and the Cologne residents' most respected landmark. It is a Gothic church, started in 1248, and completed in 1880. In 1996, it was designated a World Heritage site; it houses the Shrine of the Three Kings, which supposedly contains the relics of the Three Magi (see also). Residents of Cologne sometimes refer to the cathedral as "the eternal construction site" (die ewige Baustelle).
- Twelve Romanesque churches: These buildings are outstanding examples of medieval church architecture. The origins of some of the churches go back as far as Roman times, for example St. Gereon, which was originally a chapel in a Roman graveyard. With the exception of St. Maria Lyskirchen all of these churches were very badly damaged during World War II. Reconstruction was only finished in the 1990s.
- Köln - Groß St. Martin vom Dom.jpg
- Severeinskirche aus Severinstorburg 2009.jpg
- Koeln mariae himmelfahrt 001.jpg
Church of the Assumption
- Trinitatiskirche Koeln2007.jpg
Holy Trinity Church
The Cologne City Hall (Kölner Rathaus), founded in the 12th century, is the oldest city hall in Germany still in use. The Renaissance style loggia and tower were added in the 15th century. Other famous buildings include the Gürzenich, Haus Saaleck and the Overstolzenhaus.
- Keoln Maerz 2009 PD 20090327 028.JPG
- Köln gürzenich.jpg
Medieval city gates
Of the once 12 medieval city gates, only the Eigelsteintorburg at Ebertplatz, the Hahnentor at Rudolfplatz and the Severinstorburg at Chlodwigplatz still stand today.
- Köln eigelsteintorburg.jpg
- Severinstorburg web.jpg
- The Cologne Ring boulevards (such as Hohenzollernring, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Ring, Hansaring) with their medieval city gates (such as Hahnentorburg on Rudolfplatz) are also known for their night life.
- Hohe Straße (literally: High Street) is one of the main shopping areas and extends past the cathedral in an approximately southerly direction. The street contains many gift shops, clothing stores, fast food restaurants and electronic goods dealers.
- Schildergasse – connects the Neumarkt plaza on its west end to the southern end of the Hohe Strasse shopping street at its east end and has been named the busiest shopping street in Europe with 13,000 people passing through every hour.
- Ehrenstraße – the shopping area around Apostelnstrasse, Ehrenstrasse, and Rudolfplatz is a little more on the eccentric and stylish side.
Several bridges cross the Rhine in Cologne. They are (from South to North): the Cologne Rodenkirchen Bridge, South Bridge (railway), Severin Bridge, Deutz Bridge, Hohenzollern Bridge, Zoo Bridge (Zoobrücke) and Cologne Mülheim Bridge. In particular the iron tied arch Hohenzollern Bridge (Hohenzollernbrücke) is a dominant landmark along the river embankment. A Rhine river crossing of a special kind is provided by the Cologne Cable Car (German: Kölner Seilbahn), a cableway that runs across the Rhine between the Cologne Zoological Garden in Riehl and the Rheinpark in Deutz.
Cologne's tallest structure is the Colonius telecommunication tower at Script error: No such module "convert".. The observation deck has been closed since 1992. A selection of the tallest buildings in Cologne are listed below. Other tall structures include the Hansahochhaus (designed by architect Jacob Koerfer and completed in 1925—it was at one time Europe's tallest office building), the Kranhaus buildings at Rheinauhafen, and the Messeturm Köln ("trade fair tower").
|Skyscraper||Image||Height in metres||Floors||Year||Address||Notes|
|KölnTurm||60px||148.5||43||2001||MediaPark 8, Neustadt-Nord||(literally: Cologne Tower), Cologne's second tallest building at Script error: No such module "convert". in height, second only to the Colonius telecommunication tower. The 30th floor of the building has a restaurant and a terrace with 360° views of the city.|
|Colonia-Hochhaus||60px||147||45||1973||An der Schanz 2, Riehl||tallest building in Germany from 1973 to 1976. Today, it is still the country's tallest residential building.|
|Rheintower||60px||138||34||1980||Raderberggürtel, Marienburg||former headquarters of Deutsche Welle, since 2007 under renovation with the new name Rheintower Köln-Marienburg.|
|Uni-Center||60px||133||45||1973||Luxemburger Straße, Sülz|
|TÜV Rheinland||60px||112||22||1974||Am Grauen Stein, Poll|
|KölnTriangle||60px||103||29||2006||Ottoplatz 1, Deutz||opposite to the cathedral with a Script error: No such module "convert". high viewing platform and a view of the cathedral over the Rhine; headquarters of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA).|
|Herkules-Hochhaus||60px||102||31||1969||Graeffstraße 1, Ehrenfeld|
Cologne has several museums. The famous Roman-Germanic Museum features art and architecture from the city's distant past; the Museum Ludwig houses one of the most important collections of modern art in Europe, including a Picasso collection matched only by the museums in Barcelona and Paris. The Museum Schnütgen of religious art is partly housed in St. Cecilia, one of Cologne's Twelve Romanesque churches.
Several orchestras are active in the city, among them the Gürzenich Orchestra and the WDR Symphony Orchestra Cologne, both based at the Cologne Philharmonic Orchestra Building. Other orchestras are the Musica Antiqua Köln and the WDR Rundfunkorchester Köln, as well as the Cologne Opera and several choirs, including the WDR Rundfunkchor Köln. Cologne was also an important centre of electronic music in the 1950s (Studio für elektronische Musik, Karlheinz Stockhausen) and again from the 1990s onward. The public radio and TV station WDR was involved in promoting musical movements such as Krautrock in the 1970s; the influential Can was formed there in 1968. There are several centres of nightlife, among them the Kwartier Latäng (the student quarter around the Zülpicher Straße) and the nightclub-studded areas around Hohenzollernring, Friesenplatz and Rudolfplatz.
The large annual literary festival Lit. Cologne features regional and international authors. The main literary figure connected with Cologne is writer Heinrich Böll, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature.
Cologne is also famous for Eau de Cologne (German: Kölnisch Wasser; lit: "Water of Cologne"), a perfume created by Italian expatriate Johann Maria Farina at the beginning of the 18th century. During the 18th century this perfume became increasingly popular, was exported all over Europe by the Farina family and Farina became a household name for Eau de Cologne. In 1803 Wilhelm Mülhens entered into a contract with an unrelated person from Italy named Carlo Francesco Farina who granted him the right to use his family name and Mühlens opened a small factory at Cologne's Glockengasse. In later years and after various court battles his grandson Ferdinand Mülhens had to abandon the name Farina for the company and their product. He decided to use the house number given to the factory at Glockengasse during French occupation in the early 19th century, 4711. Today, original Eau de Cologne is still produced in Cologne by both the Farina family, currently in the eighth generation, and by Mäurer & Wirtz who bought the 4711 brand in 2006.
The Cologne carnival is one of the largest street festivals in Europe. In Cologne, the carnival season officially starts on 11 November at 11 minutes past 11 a.m. with the proclamation of the new Carnival Season, and continues until Ash Wednesday. However, the so-called "Tolle Tage" (crazy days) don't start until Weiberfastnacht (Women's Carnival) or, in dialect, Wieverfastelovend, the Thursday before Ash Wednesday, which is the beginning of the street carnival. Zülpicher Strasse and its surroundings, Neumarkt square, Heumarkt and all bars and pubs in the city are crowded with people in costumes dancing and drinking in the streets. Hundreds of thousands of visitors flock to Cologne during this time. Generally, around a million people celebrate in the streets on the Thursday before Ash Wednesday.
Rivalry with Düsseldorf
Cologne and Düsseldorf have a "fierce regional rivalry", which includes carnival parades, football, and beer. People in Cologne prefer Kölsch while people in Düsseldorf prefer Alt. Waiters and patrons will "scorn" and make a "mockery" of people who order Alt beer in Cologne and Kölsch in Düsseldorf. The rivalry has been described as a "love–hate relationship".
- Farina Fragrance Museum – birthplace of Eau de Cologne
- Römisch-Germanisches Museum (Roman-Germanic Museum) – ancient Roman and Germanic culture
- Wallraf-Richartz Museum – European painting from the 13th to the early 20th century
- Museum Ludwig – modern art
- Museum Schnütgen – medieval art
- Museum für Angewandte Kunst – applied art
- Kolumba Kunstmuseum des Erzbistums Köln (art museum of the Archbishopric of Cologne) – modern art museum built around medieval ruins, completed 2007
- Cathedral Treasury "Domschatzkammer" – historic underground vaults of the Cathedral
- EL-DE Haus, – former local headquarters of the Gestapo houses a museum documenting Nazi rule in Cologne with a special focus on the persecution of political dissenters and minorities
- German Sports and Olympic Museum – exhibitions about sports from antiquity until the present
- Imhoff-Schokoladenmuseum – Chocolate Museum
- Forum for Internet Technology in Contemporary Art – collections of Internet-based art, corporate part of (NewMediaArtProjectNetwork):cologne, the experimental platform for art and New Media
- Flora und Botanischer Garten Köln, the city's formal park and main botanical garden
- Forstbotanischer Garten Köln, an arboretum and woodland botanical garden
Music fairs and festivals
In addition, Cologne is enjoying a thriving Christmas Market Weihnachtsmarkt presence with several locations in the city.
As the largest city in the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region, Cologne benefits from a large market structure. In competition for location factors with Düsseldorf, the economy of Cologne is primarily based on insurance and media industries, while the city is also an important cultural and research centre and home to a number of corporate headquarters.
Among the largest media companies based in Cologne are Westdeutscher Rundfunk, RTL Television (with subsidiaries), n-tv, Deutschlandradio, Brainpool TV and publishing houses like J. P. Bachem, Taschen, Tandem Verlag, and M. DuMont Schauberg. Several clusters of media, arts and communications agencies, TV production studios, and state agencies work partly with private and government funded cultural institutions. Among the insurance companies based in Cologne are Central, DEVK, DKV, Generali Deutschland, Gothaer, HDI Gerling and national headquarters of AXA Insurance and Zurich Financial Services.
The German flag carrier Lufthansa and its subsidiary Lufthansa CityLine have their main corporate headquarters in Cologne. The largest employer in Cologne is Ford Europe, which has its European headquarters and a factory in Niehl (Ford-Werke GmbH). Toyota Motorsport GmbH (TMG), Toyota's official motorsports team, responsible for Toyota rally cars, and then Formula One cars, has headquarters and workshops in Cologne. Other large companies based in Cologne include the REWE Group, TÜV Rheinland, Deutz AG and a number of Kölsch breweries. Cologne has the country's highest density of pubs per capita. The largest three Kölsch breweries are Reissdorf, Gaffel, and Früh.
|brewery||established||annual output in hectolitre|
|Gaffel Becker & Co||1908||500,000|
|Cölner Hofbräu Früh||1904||440,000|
Historically, Cologne has always been an important trade city, with land, air, and sea connections. The city has five Rhine ports, the second largest inland port in Germany and one of the largest in Europe. Cologne-Bonn Airport is the second largest freight terminal in Germany. Today, the Cologne trade fair (Koelnmesse) ranks as a major European trade fair location with over 50 trade fairs and other large cultural and sports events. In 2008 Cologne had 4.31 million overnight accommodations booked and 2.38 million arrivals. Cologne's largest daily newspaper is the Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger.
Road building had been a major issue in the 1920s under the leadership of mayor Konrad Adenauer. The first German limited access road was constructed after 1929 between Cologne and Bonn. Today, this is the Bundesautobahn 555. In 1965, Cologne became the first German city to be fully encircled by a freeway belt. Roughly at the same time a downtown bypass freeway (Stadtautobahn) was planned, but only partially put into effect, due to opposition by environmental groups. The completed section became Bundesstraße ("Federal Road") B 55a which begins at the Zoobrücke ("Zoo Bridge") and meets with A 4 and A 3 at the interchange Cologne East. Nevertheless, it is referred to as Stadtautobahn by most locals. In contrast to this the Nord-Süd-Fahrt ("North-South-Drive") was actually completed, a new four/six-lane downtown thoroughfare, which had already been anticipated by planners like Fritz Schumacher in the 1920s. The last section south of Ebertplatz was completed in 1972.
In 2005, the first stretch of an eight-lane freeway in North Rhine-Westphalia was opened to traffic on Bundesautobahn 3, part of the eastern section of the Cologne Beltway between the interchanges Cologne East and Heumar.
Compared to other German cities, Cologne has a traffic layout that is not very bicycle-friendly. It has repeatedly ranked among the worst in an independent evaluation conducted by the Allgemeiner Deutscher Fahrrad-Club. In 2014 it ranked 36th out of 39 German cities with a population greater than 200,000.
Cologne has a railway service with Deutsche Bahn InterCity and ICE-trains stopping at Köln Hauptbahnhof (Cologne Main Station), Köln Messe/Deutz and Cologne/Bonn Airport. ICE and TGV Thalys high-speed trains link Cologne with Amsterdam, Brussels (in 1h47, 6 departures/day) and Paris (in 3h14, 6 departures/day). There are frequent ICE trains to other German cities, including Frankfurt am Main and Berlin. ICE Trains to London via the Channel Tunnel were to be planned for 2013. Channel Tunnel liberalisation is now not expected until 2014 and maybe a Deutsche Bahn service in 2015 if the rolling stock meets the revised requirements of Eurotunnel.
The Cologne Stadtbahn operated by Kölner Verkehrsbetriebe (KVB) is an extensive light rail system that is partially underground and serves Cologne and a number of neighbouring cities. It evolved of the tram system. Nearby Bonn is linked by both the Stadtbahn and main line railway trains, and occasional recreational boats on the Rhine. Düsseldorf is also linked by S-Bahn trains which are operated by Deutsche Bahn.
Häfen und Güterverkehr Köln (Ports and Goods traffic Cologne, HGK) is one of the largest operators for inland ports in Germany. Ports include Köln-Deutz, Köln-Godorf, and Köln-Niehl I and II. Köln-Düsseldorfer offers Rhine river cruises along the entire Rhine.
Cologne's international airport is Cologne/Bonn Airport (CGN). It is also called Konrad Adenauer Airport after Germany's first post-war Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, who was born in the city and was mayor of Cologne from 1917 until 1933. The airport is shared with the neighbouring city of Bonn. Cologne is headquarters to the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). The airport is also the main hub of the airline Germanwings.
Cologne is home to numerous universities and colleges, and host to some 72,000 students. Its oldest university, the University of Cologne (originally founded in 1388) is the largest university in Germany, as the Cologne University of Applied Sciences is the largest university of Applied Sciences in the country. The Cologne University of Music and Dance is the largest conservatory in Europe. Foreigners can have German lessons in the VHS (Adult Education Centre).
Former colleges include:
Within Germany, Cologne is known as an important media centre. Several radio and television stations, including Westdeutscher Rundfunk (WDR), RTL and VOX, have their headquarters in the city. Film and TV production is also important. The city is "Germany's capital of TV crime stories". A third of all German TV productions are produced in the Cologne region. Furthermore, the city hosts the Cologne Comedy Festival, which is considered to be the largest comedy festival in mainland Europe.
Cologne hosts 1. FC Köln, who play in the Bundesliga. They play their home matches in RheinEnergieStadion which also hosted 5 matches of the 2006 FIFA World Cup. The International Olympic Committee and Internationale Vereinigung Sport- und Freizeiteinrichtungen e.V. gave RheinEnergieStadion a bronze medal for "being one of the best sporting venues in the world". Cologne also hosts FC Viktoria Köln 1904 and SC Fortuna Köln, who play in the Regionalliga West (fourth division) respectively the 3. Liga (third division).
Several horse races per year are held at Cologne-Weidenpesch Racecourse since 1897, the annual Cologne Marathon was started in 1997. From 2002 to 2009, the Panasonic Toyota Racing Formula One team was based in the Marsdorf suburb, at the Toyota Motorsport GmbH facility.
Cologne is considered "the secret golf capital of Germany". The first golf club in North Rhine-Westphalia was founded in Cologne in 1906. The city offers the most options and top events in Germany.
The city has hosted several athletic events which includes the 2005 FIFA Confederations Cup, 2006 FIFA World Cup, 2007 World Men's Handball Championship, 2010 IIHF World Championship and 2010 Gay Games.
Notable people, whose roots can be found in Cologne:
- Konrad Adenauer (1876–1967), politician, mayor of Cologne (1917–33, 1945) and first West German Federal Chancellor
- Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa (1486–1535), alchemist, occultist, and author of Three Books of Occult Philosophy
- Agrippina the Younger (15–59), Roman Empress (wife of Emperor Claudius) and mother of Emperor Nero
- Heinrich Birnbaum (1403–73), a Catholic monk
- Heinrich Boigk (1912–2003) Knights Cross winner
- Robert Blum (1807–48), politician and martyr of the 19th century democratic movement in Germany
- Heinrich Böll (1917–85), writer and winner of the Nobel prize for literature in 1972
- Max Bruch (1838–1920) composer
- Álex Calatrava (born 1973), Spanish professional tennis player
- Heribert Calleen (born 1924), sculptor
- Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck (born 1973), Academy Award-winning director and screenwriter
- Max Ernst (1891–1976), artist
- Angela Gossow (born 1974), former lead vocalist of Swedish melodic death metal band Arch Enemy
- Britta Heidemann (born 1982), épée fencer and Olympic medalist
- de:Trude Herr (1927–91), actress and singer
- de:Stefanie Höner (born 1969), actress
- Udo Kier (born 1944), actor
- Lukas Podolski (born 1985), German footballer
- Jutta Kleinschmidt (born 1962), off-road automotive racing competitor
- Werner Klemperer (1920–2000), Emmy Award-winning comedy actor
- Erich Klibansky (1900–1942), Jewish headmaster and teacher
- Adolf Kober (1870–1958), Jewish rabbi and medievalist
- Gaby Köster (born 1961), German actress and comedian
- Hildegard Krekel (1952–2013), actress
- de:Lotti Krekel (born 1941), actress and singer
- Uwe Krupp (born 1965), professional (ice) hockey player
- Heinz Kühn (1912–92), Minister-President of North Rhine-Westphalia (1966–78)
- Heiner Lauterbach (1953), actor
- Julia Leischik (born 1970), German editor-in-chief, television presenter and television producer.
- Ottmar Liebert (born 1961), musician
- de:Mariele Millowitsch (born 1955), actress
- de:Peter Millowitsch (born 1949), actor, playwright and theatre director
- Willy Millowitsch (1909–1999), actor, playwright and theatre director
- Wolfgang Niedecken (born 1951), singer, musician, artist and bandleader of BAP
- Theodore of Corsica (1694–1756), briefly King Theodore of Corsica
- Jacques Offenbach (1819–80), composer
- de:Willi Ostermann (1876–1936) composer
- Nikolaus Otto (1832–1891) inventor, 4 cycle internal combustion engine
- Kim Petras (born 1992), singer
- Frederik Prausnitz (1920–2004), American conductor and teacher
- Christa Päffgen a.k.a. Nico (1938–1988), model, actress, singer, and songwriter in Velvet Underground and Warhol Superstar
- Hedwig Potthast (1912–1997), secretary and mistress of Heinrich Himmler
- Stefan Raab (born 1966), German entertainer and host of Eurovision Song Contest 2011
- Jürgen Rüttgers (born 1951), Minister-President of North Rhine-Westphalia (2005–2010)
- Jürgen Fritz (born 1953), musician and composer
- Markus Stockhausen (born 1957), musician and composer
- Wolfgang von Trips (1928–61), Formula One racing driver
- Joost van den Vondel (1587–1679), Dutch poet and playwright
- Moshe Wallach (1866–1957), founder and director of Shaare Zedek Hospital, Jerusalem
- Robert Weimar (1932–2013), legal scientist and psychologist
- de:Christoph Watrin (born 1988), singer, US5
- Carl Wyland (1886–1972), German blacksmith
- List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
- Stadtwerke Köln, the municipal infrastructure company, operator of the city's railways, ports, and utilities.
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- Joseph P. Huffman, Family, Commerce, and Religion in London and Cologne (1998) covers from 1000 to 1300.
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- "Festung Köln". Retrieved 1 April 2011.
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- "Weimarer Wahlen". Web.archive.org. 11 February 2008. Archived from the original on 11 February 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2009.
- "Voting results 1919–1933 Cologne-Aachen". Wahlen-in-deutschland.de. Retrieved 8 August 2010.
- koelnarchitektur (15 July 2003). "on the reconstruction of Cologne". Koelnarchitektur.de. Retrieved 24 July 2009.
- Tourtellot, Arthur B. et al. Life's Picture History of World War II, p. 237. Time Incorporated, New York, 1950.
- Kirsten Serup-Bilfeld, Zwischen Dom und Davidstern. Jüdisches Leben in Köln von den Anfängen bis heute. Köln 2001, page 193
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- van Tilburg, C. (2007). Traffic and Congestion in the Roman Empire. Taylor & Francis. p. 42. ISBN 9781134129751. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
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