Colonel // (abbreviated Col., Col or COL and pronounced similarly to "kernel") is a senior military officer rank below the general officer ranks. However, in some small military forces, such as those of Iceland or the Vatican, colonel is the highest rank. It is also used in some police forces and paramilitary organizations.
- 1 History and origins
- 2 Colonel and equivalent ranks by country
- 2.1 Colonel in individual military forces
- 2.2 Gallery
- 3 Colonel as highest ranking officer
- 4 Other uses of colonel ranks
- 5 See also
- 6 References
History and origins
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2012)|
The word "colonel" derives from the same root as the word "column" (Italian: colonna) and means "of a column", and, by implication, "commander of a column". The word "colonel" is therefore linked to the word "column" in a similar way that "brigadier" is linked to "brigade", although in English this relationship is not immediately obvious. By the end of the late medieval period, a group of "companies" was referred to as a "column" of an army.
Since the word is believed to derive from sixteenth century Italian, it was presumably first used by Italian city states in that century. The first use of colonel as a rank in a national army was in the French "National Legions" (Légions nationales) created by King Francis I by his decree of 1534. Building on the military reforms of Louis XII's decree of 1509, he modernized the organization of the French royal army. Each colonel commanded a legion with a theoretical strength of six thousand men.
With the shift from primarily mercenary to primarily national armies in the course of the seventeenth century, a colonel (normally a member of the aristocracy) became a holder (German Inhaber) or proprietor of a military contract with a sovereign. The colonel purchased the regimental contract — the right to hold the regiment — from the previous holder of that right or directly from the sovereign when a new regiment was formed or an incumbent was killed.
The rank of colonel was further used by the Spanish tercios in the 16th and 17th centuries. Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, nicknamed 'the Great Captain', divided his armies in 'coronelías' or colonelcies, each led by a 'coronel' or colonel. The modern English pronunciation of the word is due to the first variant. The use of 'colonel' became more widespread as the tercios led by commanders of many nationalities fought all over Europe.
As the office of colonel became an established practice, the colonel became the senior captain in a group of companies that were all sworn to observe his personal authority — to be ruled or regimented by him. This regiment, or governance, was to some extent embodied in a contract and set of written rules, also referred to as the colonel's regiment or standing regulation(s). By extension, the group of companies subject to a colonel's regiment (in the foregoing sense) came to be referred to as his regiment (in the modern sense) as well.
In French usage of this period, the senior colonel in the army or, in a field force, the senior military contractor, was the colonel general and, in the absence of the sovereign or his designate, the colonel general might serve as the commander of a force. The position, however, was primarily contractual and it became progressively more of a functionless sinecure. (The head of a single regiment or demi-brigade would be called a 'mestre de camp' or, after the Revolution, a 'chef de brigade'.)
By the late 19th century, colonel was a professional military rank though still held typically by an officer in command of a regiment or equivalent unit. Along with other ranks, it has become progressively more a matter of ranked duties, qualifications and experience and of corresponding titles and pay scale than of functional office in a particular organization.
As European military influence expanded throughout the world, the rank of colonel became adopted by nearly every nation (albeit under a variety of names).
With the rise of communism, some of the large communist militaries saw fit to expand the colonel rank into several grades, resulting in the unique senior colonel rank, which was found and is still used in such nations as China and North Korea.
In many modern armies, the 'regiment' has more importance as a ceremonial unit or a focus of members' loyalty than as an actual battle formation. Troops tend to be deployed in 'battalions' (commanded by a lieutenant colonel) as a more convenient size of military unit and, as such, colonels have tended to have a higher profile in specialist and command roles than as actual commanders of regiments. However, in Commonwealth armies, the position of the colonel as the figurehead of a regiment is maintained in the honorary role of "colonel-in-chief", usually held by a member of the royal family, the nobility, or a retired senior military officer. The colonel-in-chief wears a colonel's uniform and encourages the members of the regiment, but takes no active part in the actual command structure or in any operational duties.
Colonel and equivalent ranks by country
Colonel in individual military forces
The following articles deal with the rank of colonel as it is used in various national militaries.
North and South American equivalent ranks
- Colonel (Canada) : 23x15px Canada
- Colonel (United States) : 23x15px United States
- Coronel: 23x15px Brazil and Hispanic America
European equivalent ranks
- Colonel or Kolonel (23x15px Albania ,23x15px Armenia: Gndapet (գնդապետ), 23x15px Belgium, 23x15px France, 23x15px Estonia, 23x15px Netherlands, 23x15px United Kingdom – see also Colonel (United Kingdom) – and 23x16px Switzerland), Colonnello (23x15px Italy and 23x16px Switzerland), Coirnéal (23x15px Ireland) and Coronel (23x15px Portugal and 23x15px Spain)
- Eversti or Överste (23x15px Finland and 23x15px Sweden), Oberst (23x15px Austria, 23x15px Denmark, 23x15px Germany, 23x15px Norway and 23x16px Switzerland) and Ofursti (Template:Country data Iceland)
- Ezredes (23x15px Hungary – literally means "leader of a thousand" (i.e. of a regiment))
- Syntagmatarchis (Συνταγματάρχης) (23x15px Greece).
Since the 16th century, the rank of regimental commander was adopted by several Central and Eastern European armies, most notably the forces of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Cossacks and then Muscovy. In countries with Slavic languages, the exact name of the rank maintains a variety of spellings, all descendant from the Old Slavonic word plk or polk meaning unit of standing army (see The Tale of Igor's Campaign), and include the following:
- Plukovník: 23x15px Czech Republic and 23x15px Slovakia
- Polkovnik or Polkovnyk: 23x15px Bulgaria, 23x15px Russia, 23x15px Slovenia, 23x15px Macedonia and 23x15px Ukraine
- Pukovnik: 23x15px Bosnia and Herzegovina, 23x15px Croatia and 23x15px Serbia
- Pulkininkas: 23x15px Lithuania
- Pułkownik: 23x15px Poland.
There are two common Arab ranks relevant to the English word "colonel":
- The Arabic for "colonel", linguistically, is عميد (ʿamīd / ʿameed), which is from the same root as عمود (ʿamood) meaning "column". ʿamīd and ʿamood both come from the root ʿ-m-d, column in the sense of "pillar" (عَمَد). This relationship is comparable to the linguistic link between "colonel" and "column". In terms of equivalence, the Arabic colonel, ʿamīd, is conventionally considered to be equivalent to the Commonwealth rank of brigadier.
- It is the rank of عقيد (ʿaqīd / ʿaqeed), which is conventionally considered equivalent to the Commonwealth rank of colonel. The word ʿaqīd is linked to عقد (ʿaqad), meaning a contract, covenant or pact. In its original literal meaning, ʿaqīd means a man who has entered into a contract, pact or covenant.
In addition, a non-Arab colonel is often referred to as "koulounil" (كولونيل). In the Ottoman Empire, the Ottoman ranks miralay and qaimaqam were formerly used instead of the current Arab ranks ʿamīd and ʿaqīd.
Asian equivalent ranks
- 23x15px Afghanistan: Dagarwal (دګروال)
- 23x15px Bangladesh: Colonel (কর্নেল)
- 23x15px Cambodia: Lok Vorakseni Ek (លោកវរសេនីយ៍ឯក)
- 23x15px China: Shang Hsiao
- 23x15px Georgia: Polkovniki (პოლკოვნიკი)
- Template:Country data India: Colonel (India)
- Template:Country data Iran: Sarhang (سرهنگ)
- Template:Country data Israel: Aluf Mishne (אלוף משנה)
- File:Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal: Colonel (महा सेनानी)
- Template:Country data North Korea: Sangchwa
- 23x15px Philippines: Lakan
- Template:Country data South Korea: Taeryong
- 23x15px Taiwan：Shang Hsiao
- 23x15px Thailand Nai Phan (TH: นายพัน) Chief of 1,000
- Phan Ek (TH: พันเอก) First of 1,000: Colonel
- Phan Tho (TH: พันโท) Second of 1,000: Lieutenant colonel
- 23x15px Pakistan: Colonel (Pakistan)
- 23x15px Viet Nam: Đại tá
Turkish and Ottoman ranks
The Ottomans used a rank of "column chief", which was "kol ağa", from kol (column in Turkish) and ağa (chief in Turkish). However, in authority, this was more equivalent to a European major. The Ottoman army rank of "lieutenant governor" (kaymakam) was equivalent in authority to a European colonel. Kol ağa is no longer used.
The word for a regiment, alay, can also mean a procession, or be loosely translated as a column of men. Alay was in the Ottoman army rank miralay ("regimental emir") and the Ottoman gendarmerie rank alaybeyi ("regimental bey"). These Ottoman ranks were equivalent to European brigade commanders.
The modern Turkish Army uses the rank of albay as its colonel rank (NATO rank OF-5). This is a contraction of the older Turkish word alaybeyi.
African equivalent ranks
- Colonel (23x15px Central African Republic, 23x15px Ghana, 23x15px Guinea, 23x15px Ivory Coast, Template:Country data Kenya, 23x15px Liberia, 23x15px Mali, 23x15px Nigeria, 23x15px Senegal, 23x15px South Africa, 23x15px Zambia) and Coronel (23x15px Angola, 23x15px Cape Verde, 23x15px Equatorial Guinea, 23x15px Guinea-Bissau, 23x15px Mozambique and 23x15px São Tomé and Príncipe)
- Aqid (عقيد) (23x15px Libya, 23x15px Morocco, 23x15px Tunisia and 23x15px Sudan)
- Rank insignia of coronel of the Colombian Army.svg
- Eversti kauluslaatta.svg
Germany (Oberst) Bundeswehr
- Colonel of the Indian Army.svg
- Sarhang 1.png
Iran (Sarhang, سرهنگ)
- IDF aluf mishne.svg
- Colonel Pak Army.jpg
- Rank insignia of pułkownik of the Army of Poland.svg
- 18 - Coronel.svg
Saudi Arabian Army
- RAF A F5Col since 2010par.svg
(Polkovnik / Полковник)
- SL-Army-OF5 Colonel.PNG
- Thai army O5.png
- US-O6 insignia shaded.svg
- Union Army colonel rank insignia.png
(April 1861 to May 1865)
- US Army O6 shoulderboard rotated.svg
(September 1959 to October 2014)
Air force colonels
- BE-Air Force-OF5.svg
- Coronel fab.gif
- CDN-Air Force-Colonel (OF5)-2015.svg
- Fach cav.gif
- RDAF Col.svg
- French Air Force-colonel.svg
- 16- سرهنگ--IRIAF.png
Iran (Sarhang, سرهنگ)
- IAF aluf mishne.svg
Israel (Aluf Mishne)
- Rank insignia of pułkownik of the Air Force of Poland.svg
- Cor t.jpg
Royal Saudi Air Force
- US-O6 insignia shaded.svg
- US Air Force O6 shoulderboard rotated.svg
- US Marine O6 shoulderboard.svg
Colonel as highest ranking officer
Some military forces have a colonel as their highest-ranking officer, with no 'general' ranks, and no superior authority (except, perhaps, the head of state as a titular commander-in-chief) other than the respective national government. Examples include the following (arranged alphabetically by country name):
- Antigua and Barbuda (170 personnel)
- Costa Rica (about 8,000 personnel)
- Iceland (100 personnel, employed only for peacekeeping duties)
- Libya (commands all the Armed Forces - Muammar Gaddafi until 2011)
- Monaco (two branches, with a total of about 250 personnel)
- Suriname (1,800 personnel)
- Vatican City State (135 personnel - the Swiss Guard)
|Template:Country data Iceland||23x15px Monaco||23x16px Vatican City|
|Colonel CCP|| Colonel CSP|
Other uses of colonel ranks
The term colonel is also used as a title for auctioneers in the United States; there are a variety of theories or folk etymologies to explain the use of the term. One of these is the claim that during the American Civil War goods seized by armies were sold at auction by the colonel of the division.
Kentucky colonel is the highest title of honor bestowed by the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Commissions for Kentucky colonels are given by the Governor and the Secretary of State to individuals in recognition of noteworthy accomplishments and outstanding service to a community, state or the nation. The sitting governor of the Commonwealth of Kentucky bestows the honor of a colonel's Commission, by issuance of letters patent.
The rank of Colonel is also used by some military police forces such as Military Police (Brazil), the Carabineros de Chile and the French National Gendarmerie. The Police of Russia, being a paramilitary organization, also uses this rank.
- Insignia PM O1.PNG
- Col gd.svg
French Nationale Gendarmerie (Colonel)
- Russian police colonel.png
Russian MVD Police (Polkovnik)
- Los tercios españoles. La batalla de Pavía at militar.org.ua (in Spanish, unspecified authorship)
- How Did "Colonel" Become "Ker-nul"?
- See this list of colonel-in-chief appointments held by HRH The Prince of Wales.
- A webpage by a Scottish regiment concerning their colonel-in-chief.
- Doyle, Robert A.; Baska, Steve (November 2002), "History of Auctions: From ancient Rome to todays high-tech auctions", Auctioneer, archived from the original on May 17, 2008, retrieved 2008-06-22[dead link]
- Keegan, John; & Wheatcroft, Andrew (1996). Who's Who in Military History: From 1453 to the Present Day. London: Routledge.
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