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Community-supported agriculture

File:Clagett Farm CSA Week 11.jpg
An example of a week's CSA share, including bell peppers, okra, tomatoes, beans, potatoes, garlic, eggplant, and squash.

Community-supported agriculture (CSA; sometimes known as community-shared agriculture) is an alternative, locally based economic model of agriculture and food distribution. A CSA also refers to a particular network or association of individuals who have pledged to support one or more local farms, with growers and consumers sharing the risks and benefits of food production. CSA members or subscribers pay at the onset of the growing season for a share of the anticipated harvest; once harvesting begins, they periodically receive shares of produce. In addition to produce, some CSA services may include additional farm products like honey, eggs, dairy, and meat. Some CSAs provide for contributions of labor in lieu of a portion of subscription costs.[1]

The term CSA is mostly used in the US and Canada, but a variety of similar production and economic sub-systems are in use worldwide.


The term Community-supported agriculture was coined in the north eastern United States in the 1980s, influenced by European biodynamic agriculture ideas formulated by Rudolf Steiner.[2] Two European farmers, Jan Vander Tuin from Switzerland and Trauger Groh from Germany, brought European biodynamic farming ideas to the United States in the mid-1980s.[2] Vander Tuin had co-founded a community-supported agricultural project named Topinambur located near Zurich, Switzerland. Coinage of the term "community-supported agriculture" stems from Vander Tuin.[3] This influence led to the separate and simultaneous creation of two CSAs in 1986. The CSA Garden at Great Barrington was created in Massachusetts by Jan Vander Tuin, Susan Witt, and Robyn Van En. The Temple-Wilton Community Farm was created in New Hampshire by Anthony Graham, Trauger Groh, and Lincoln Geiger.[2]

The CSA Garden at Great Barrington remained together until 1990 when many members left to form the Mahaiwe Harvest CSA. One of the original founders, Robyn Van En, became incredibly influential in the CSA movement in America and founded CSA North America in 1992.[2] The Temple-Wilton Community Garden was more successful and still operates as a CSA today. It became an important member of the Wilton community and it receives funding from state, federal, and local sources.[2]

A parallel model called teiki existed in Japan as early as the 1970s. Similarly, Dr. Booker T. Whately, a professor of agriculture in Alabama, advocated for Clientele Membership Clubs as early as the 1960s.[4]

Since the 1980s, community supported farms have been organized throughout North America — mainly in New England, the Northwest, the Pacific coast, the Upper-Midwest and Canada. North America now has at least 13,000 CSA farms of which 12,549 are in the US according to the US Department of Agriculture in 2007.[5] The rise of CSAs seems to be correlated with the increase in awareness of the environmental movement in the United States.Some examples of larger and well established CSAs in the US are Angelic Organics[6] and Roxbury Farm.[7] CSAs have even become popular in urban environments as proven by the New York City Coalition Against Hunger's own CSA program that maintains locations in all five boroughs of the city.[8] The largest subscription CSA with over 13,000 families is Farm Fresh To You in Capay Valley, California.[9] The Québec CSA network (17 years old in 2012) is one of the larger in the world. It is a unique system where a non-profit organization reach the customers for the farmers and provide these farmers with technical support. More than one hundred farms are part of this network. Some CSAs are used by farmers, such as Sugar Mountain Farm in Vermont, to finance improvements and new infrastructure.[10]

Since 2008, the international CSA network Urgenci has been coordinating dissemination and exchange programmes that have resulted in the creation of dozens of small-scale CSA in Central and Eastern Europe.

The CSA system

CSAs generally focus on the production of high quality foods for a local community, often using organic or biodynamic farming methods, and a shared risk membership–marketing structure. This kind of farming operates with a much greater degree of involvement of consumers and other stakeholders than usual — resulting in a stronger consumer-producer relationship.[11] The core design includes developing a cohesive consumer group that is willing to fund a whole season’s budget in order to get quality foods. The system has many variations on how the farm budget is supported by the consumers and how the producers then deliver the foods. CSA theory purports that the more a farm embraces whole-farm, whole-budget support, the more it can focus on quality and reduce the risk of food waste or


Community-supported agriculture farms in the United States today share three common characteristics: an emphasis on community and/or local produce, share or subscriptions sold prior to season, and weekly deliveries to members/subscribers. Though CSA operation varies from farm to farm and has evolved over time, these three characteristics have remained constant.[12] The functioning of a CSA also relies on four practical arrangements: for farmers to know the needs of a community, for consumers to have the opportunity to express to farmers what their needs and financial limitations are, for commitments between farmers and consumers to be consciously established, and for farmers needs to be recognized.[13]

From this base, four main types of CSAs have been developed:

  • Farmer managed: A farmer sets up and maintains a CSA, recruits subscribers, and controls management of the CSA.
  • Shareholder/subscriber: Local residents set up a CSA and hire a farmer to grow crops, shareholders/subscribers control most management.
  • Farmer cooperative: Multiple farmers develop a CSA program
  • Farmer-shareholder cooperative: Farmers and local residents set up and cooperatively manage a CSA.[14]

In most original CSAs, a core group of members existed. This core group of members helped to make decisions about and run the CSA including marketing, distribution, administrative, and community organization functions. CSAs with a core group of members are most profitable and successful. However, in 1999, 72 percent of CSAs did not have a core group of members. CSAs with a core group of members operate more successfully as a farmer-shareholder cooperative and CSAs without a group of core members rely much more on subscriptions and run most prominently as shareholder/subscriber CSAs.[15]


Community-supported agriculture in America was influenced by the ideas of Rudolf Steiner, an Austrian philosopher. He developed the concepts of anthroposophy and biodynamic agriculture. The Temple-Wilton Community Farm used his ideas to develop three main goals of CSAs:

  • New forms of property ownership: the idea that land should be held in common by a community through a legal trust, which leases the land to farmers
  • New forms of cooperation: the idea that a network of human relationships should replace the traditional system of employers and employees
  • New forms of economy: that the economy should not be based on increasing profit, but should be based on the actual needs of the people and land involved in an enterprise[2]

As CSAs have increased in both number and size since they were first developed, they have also change ideologically. While original CSAs and some more current CSAs are still philosophically oriented, most CSAs today are commercially oriented and community-supported agriculture is predominantly seen as a beneficial marketing strategy.[2] This has led to three ideologically based types of CSAs. The first type is instrumental, the CSA is considered a market in the traditional sense, instead of an alternative form of economy and relationship. The second type is functional; there is a relationship of solidarity between the farmer and the subscribers, but this extends mostly to social functions, not managerial or administrative functions. This is the most common type of CSA. The final type is collaborative; this is the closest to the original aims of CSAs where the relationship between the farmer and the subscribers is seen as a partnership.[16]

Distribution and marketing methods

Shares of a CSA originally and predominantly consist of produce. In more recent years, shares have diversified and include non-produce products including eggs, meat, flowers, honey, dairy and soaps.[12] Share prices vary from CSA to CSA. Shares are sold as full shares, which feed 2 through 5 people, and half shares, which feed 1 through 3 people. Prices range from $200 to $500. Full shares are sold at a median of $400 and half shares are sold at a median of $250.[17] Share prices are mostly determined by overhead costs of production, but are also determined by share prices of other CSAs, variable costs of production, market forces, and income level of the community.[12] Many CSAs have payment plans and low-income options.

Shares are distributed in several different ways. Shares are most often distributed weekly. Most CSAs allow share pick up at the farm. Shares are also distributed through regional drop off, direct home or office drop off, farmers markets, and community center/ church drop off.[12] For example the new "Farmie Markets" of upstate NY [18] take orders online and have a number of farmers who send that week's orders to a central point in a limited region, for distribution by the organizers.

CSAs market their farms and shares in different ways. CSAs employ different channels of marketing to diversify their sales efforts and increase subscriptions. CSAs use local farmers markets, restaurants, on-farm retail, wholesale to natural food stores, and wholesale to local groceries in addition to their CSAs to market shares. One problem that CSAs encounter is over-production. So, CSAs often sell their produce and products in ways other than shares. Often, CSA farms also sell their products at local farmers markets. Excess products are sometimes also given to foods banks.[12]

CSAs around the world

The term CSA is mostly used in the USA but a variety of similar production and economic sub-systems are in use worldwide:

All these different models are represented in the international network, Urgenci, under the terminology of local and solidarity-based partnerships between producers and consumers. Some of them have been documented in Urgenci's newsletter, Teikei. The Romanian, Croatian and Bulgarian models were directly implemented as a result of Urgenci's dissemination programmes.

Orti Solidali (Italy)

Orti Solidali (meaning Solidarity Gardens) is an example of a CSA project in Italy; the reasons for participating are mostly ethical. Participants' commitment to sustainable, local produce protect the development of the network from mainstream market forces, allowing it to develop independently and flourish. Key to its success are shared ethical and environmental values, as well as the nature of the relationships that are formed, which help to shape and constitute this protective environment. Orti Solidali uses a sustainable agronomic method for food production and supplies locally sourced produce while providing revenue and fair working conditions for the producers. With one of the aims being the reduction of economic growth, also known as degrowth, the objective is to transition to a new economic system based on environmental protection and social equity.[19]

See also


  1. ^ DeMuth, Suzanne (September 1993). "Defining Community Supported Agriculture". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 28 February 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "History of Community Supported Agriculture, Part 1" (2005), Rosdale Institute, accessed 05-15-2013.
  3. ^ "Community Supported Agriculture" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  4. ^
  5. ^ "USDA 2007 Agricultural Census Table 44" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  6. ^ Honeybrook Organic Farm
  7. ^ Roxbury Roxbury Farm
  8. ^ Farm-fresh project[dead link]
  9. ^ Mark Anderson (22 August 2010). Capay farm, distributor buys West Sac warehouse. Sacramento Business Journal
  10. ^ "Chapter 8: The “Multi-Year CSA” Financing Model Farm Case Study: Sugar Mountain Farm, West Topsham, Vt.". The Guide to Financing the Community Supported Farm-Ways for Farms to Acquire Capital from Communities (PDF). University of Vermont Extension-UVM Center for Sustainable Agriculture. 2012. pp. 43–45. Retrieved 2015-05-05. 
  11. ^ Committee on Twenty-First Century Systems Agriculture, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division on Earth and Life Sciences (2010). Toward Sustainable Agricultural Systems in the 21st Century. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. ISBN 9780309148962. 
  12. ^ a b c d e 2009 Survey of Community Supported Agriculture Producers, University of Kentucky, accessed 05-15-2013.
  13. ^ "Community Supported Agriculture", The Center for Social Research. Accessed 05-15-2013.
  14. ^ "Community Supported Agriculture", Technotes: Office of Community Development, US Department of Agriculture, accessed 05-15-2013.
  15. ^ [1] "CSA Across the Nation" Center for Integrated Agricultural Services. Accessed 05-22-2013
  16. ^ "Devon Acres CSA: local struggles in a global food system" (2008), retrieved 04-11-2013.
  17. ^ [2]"Community Supported Agriculture Entering the 21st Century". Accessed 23 May 2013.
  18. ^ "Farmie Markets of Upstate NY". 
  19. ^ Agricultural Innovation: Sustaining What Agriculture? For What European Bio-Economy? page 26 of the CREPE report

Additional reading

External links