Open Access Articles- Top Results for Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

Developer(s) Department of Biological Sciences at North Carolina State University and the Department of Bioinformatics, MDI Biological Laboratory.
Development status Active
Available in English
Type Bioinformatics, data analysis

The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) is a public website and research tool that curates scientific data describing relationships between chemicals/drugs, genes/proteins, diseases, taxa, phenotypes, GO annotations, pathways, and interaction modules.[1][2][3][4]

The database is maintained by the Department of Biological Sciences at North Carolina State University and the Department of Bioinformatics at the MDI Biological Laboratory.

CTD was launched on the web on November 12, 2004.

Goals and objectives

One of the primary goals of CTD is to advance the understanding of the effects of environmental chemicals on human health.

The etiology of many chronic diseases involves interactions between environmental factors and genes that modulate important physiological processes. Chemicals are an important component of the environment. Conditions such as asthma, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, immunodeficiency, and Parkinson's disease are known to be influenced by the environment; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these correlations are not well understood. CTD may help resolve these mechanisms.

Core data

CTD is a unique resource where biocurators[5][6] read the scientific literature and manually curate four types of core data:

  • Chemical-gene interactions
  • Chemical-disease associations
  • Gene-disease associations
  • Chemical-phenotype associations

Data integration

By integrating the above three data sets, CTD automatically constructs putative chemical-gene-phenotype-disease networks to illuminate molecular mechanisms underlying environmentally-influenced diseases.

These inferred relationships are statistically scored and ranked and can be used by scientists and computational biologists to generate and verify testable hypotheses about toxicogenomic mechanisms and how they relate to human health.

Users can search CTD to explore scientific data for chemicals, genes, diseases, or interactions between any of these three concepts. Currently, CTD integrates toxicogenomic data for vertebrates and invertebrates.

CTD integrates data from or hyperlinks to these databases:

CTD Publications

The most up-to-date extensive list of peer-reviewed scientific articles about CTD is available from their Publications page


  1. ^ Mattingly CJ, Rosenstein MC, Colby GT, Forrest JN, Boyer JL (Sep 2006). "The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD): A Resource for Comparative Toxicological Studies". J Exp Zoolog. Part a Comp Exp Biol. 305 (9): 689–92. PMC 1586110. PMID 16902965. doi:10.1002/jez.a.307. 
  2. ^ Mattingly CJ, Rosenstein MC, Davis AP, Colby GT, Forrest JN, Boyer JL (Aug 2006). "The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD): A Cross-Species Resource for Building Chemical-Gene Interaction Networks". Toxicol. Sci. 92 (2): 587–95. PMC 1586111. PMID 16675512. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfl008. 
  3. ^ Mattingly CJ, Colby GT, Rosenstein MC, Forrest JN, Boyer JL (2004). "Promoting comparative molecular studies in environmental health research: an overview of the comparative toxicogenomics database (CTD)". Pharmacogenomics J. 4 (1): 5–8. PMID 14735110. doi:10.1038/sj.tpj.6500225. 
  4. ^ Mattingly CJ, Colby GT, Forrest JN, Boyer JL (May 2003). "The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD)". Environ Health Perspect. 111 (6): 793–5. PMC 1241500. PMID 12760826. doi:10.1289/ehp.6028. 
  5. ^ Bourne PE, McEntyre J (Oct 2006). "Biocurators: Contributors to the World of Science". PLoS Comput Biol. 2 (10): e142. PMC 1626157. PMID 17411327. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.0020142. 
  6. ^ Salimi N, Vita R (Oct 2006). "The Biocurator: Connecting and Enhancing Scientific Data". PLoS Comput Biol. 2 (10): e125. PMC 1626147. PMID 17069454. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.0020125. 

External links