Congenital rubella syndrome
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|Congenital rubella syndrome|
File:Cataracts due to Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) PHIL 4284 lores.jpg|
White pupils due to congenital cataract in a child with congenital rubella syndrome
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|NCI||Congenital rubella syndrome|
|Patient UK||Congenital rubella syndrome|
Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can occur in a developing fetus of a pregnant woman who has contracted rubella, usually in the first trimester. If infection occurs 0–28 days before conception, the infant has a 43% chance of being affected. If the infection occurs 0–12 weeks after conception, the chance increases to 51%. If the infection occurs 13–26 weeks after conception, the chance is 23% of the infant being affected by the disease. Infants are not generally affected if rubella is contracted during the third trimester, or 26–40 weeks after conception. Problems rarely occur when rubella is contracted by the mother after 20 weeks of gestation and continues to disseminate the virus after birth.
Signs and symptom
The classic triad for congenital rubella syndrome is:
- Sensorineural deafness (58% of patients)
- Eye abnormalities—especially retinopathy, cataract, and microphthalmia (43% of patients)
- Congenital heart disease—especially pulmonary artery stenosis and patent ductus arteriosus (50% of patients)
Other manifestations of CRS may include:
- Spleen, liver, or bone marrow problems (some of which may disappear shortly after birth)
- Intellectual disability
- Small head size (microcephaly)
- Eye defects
- Low birth weight
- Thrombocytopenic purpura
- Extramedullary hematopoiesis (presents as a characteristic blueberry muffin rash)
Children who have been exposed to rubella in the womb should also be watched closely as they age for any indication of:
- Developmental delay
- Autism spectrum disorders
- Growth retardation
- Learning disabilities
Vaccinating the majority of the population is effective at preventing congenital rubella syndrome.
- Atkinson, William (2011). Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (12 ed.). Public Health Foundation. pp. 301–323. ISBN 9780983263135. Retrieved Mar 2015.
- Sudharshan S, Ganesh SK, Biswas J (2010). "Current approach in the diagnosis and management of posterior uveitis". Indian J Ophthalmol 58 (1): 29. ISSN 0301-4738. PMID 20029144. doi:10.4103/0301-4738.58470.
- Oster ME, Riehle-Colarusso T, Correa A (January 2010). "An update on cardiovascular malformations in congenital rubella syndrome.". Clin Mol Teratol. 88 (1): 1–8. PMID 19697432. doi:10.1002/bdra.20621.
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