Open Access Articles- Top Results for Conservative liberalism

Conservative liberalism

Not to be confused with Liberal conservatism or Libertarian conservatism.

Conservative liberalism is a variant of liberalism, combining liberal values and policies with conservative stances, or, more simply, representing the right wing of the liberal movement.[1]


Conservative liberalism is a more positive and less radical variant of classical liberalism.[2] Conservative liberal parties combine liberal policies with more traditional stances on social and ethical issues.[3]

Robert Kraynak of The New Criterion offers this view of conservative liberalism: "Instead of following progressive liberalism, conservative liberals draw upon pre-modern sources, such as classical philosophy (with its ideas of virtue, the common good, and natural rights), Christianity (with its ideas of natural law, the social nature of man, and original sin), and ancient institutions (such as common law, corporate bodies, and social hierarchies). This gives their liberalism a conservative foundation. It means following Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, St. Thomas Aquinas, and Edmund Burke rather than Locke or Kant; it usually includes a deep sympathy for the politics of the Greek polis, the Roman Republic, and Christian monarchies. But, as realists, conservative liberals acknowledge that classical and medieval politics cannot be restored in the modern world. And, as moralists, they see that the modern experiment in liberty and self-government has the positive effect of enhancing human dignity as well as providing an opening (even in the midst of mass culture) for transcendent longings for eternity. At its practical best, conservative liberalism promotes ordered liberty and establishes constitutional safeguards against tyranny.[4]

The roots of conservative liberalism are to be found at the beginning of the history of liberalism. Until the two world wars, in most European countries the political class was formed by conservative liberals, from Germany to Italy. The events such as World War I occurring after 1917 brought the more radical version of classical liberalism to a more conservative (i.e. more moderate) type of liberalism.[5] Conservative liberal parties have tended to develop in those European countries where there was no strong secular conservative party and where the separation of church and state was less of an issue. In those countries, where the conservative parties were Christian-democratic, this conservative brand of liberalism developed.[6][1]

In the European context conservative liberalism should not be confused with liberal conservatism,[7] which is a variant of conservatism combining conservatives views with liberal policies in regards to the economy, social, and ethical issues.[3]

Conservative-liberal parties worldwide

Current conservative-liberal parties

Parties with conservative-liberal factions

Historical conservative-liberal parties or parties with conservative-liberal factions

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l M. Gallagher, M. Laver and P. Mair, Representative Government in Europe, p. 221.
  2. ^ R.T. Allen, Beyond Liberalism, p. 2.
  3. ^ a b
  4. ^
  5. ^ R.T. Allen, Beyond Liberalism, p. 13.
  6. ^ a b Libéralisme conservateur - WikiPolitique
  7. ^ Peter Augustine Lawler, Liberal Conservatism, Not Conservative Liberalism
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q
  9. ^ Emil J. Kirchner (3 November 1988). Liberal Parties in Western Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-521-32394-9. 
  10. ^ Tom Lansford (8 April 2014). Political Handbook of the World 2014. SAGE Publications. p. 392. ISBN 978-1-4833-3327-4. 
  11. ^ European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity
  12. ^ Andeweg, R. and G. Irwin Politics and Governance in the Netherlands, Basingstoke (Palgrave) p.49
  13. ^ NSD, European Election Database, Netherlands
  14. ^ Rudy W Andeweg; Lieven De Winter; Patrick Dumont (5 April 2011). Government Formation. Taylor & Francis. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-134-23972-6. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 
  15. ^ Jochen Clasen; Daniel Clegg (27 October 2011). Regulating the Risk of Unemployment: National Adaptations to Post-Industrial Labour Markets in Europe. Oxford University Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-19-959229-6. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 
  16. ^ Hans Slomp (30 September 2011). Europe, A Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 459. ISBN 978-0-313-39182-8. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 
  17. ^ David Hanley (16 June 1998). CHRISTIAN DEMOCRACY IN EUROPE. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 67. ISBN 978-1-85567-382-3. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 
  18. ^ Ricky Van Oers; Eva Ersbøll; Dora Kostakopoulou; Theodora Kostakopoulou (30 June 2010). A Re-Definition of Belonging?: Language and Integration Tests in Europe. BRILL. p. 60. ISBN 978-90-04-17506-8. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 
  19. ^ Kongres Nowej Prawicy - Zarys programu
  20. ^ Siripan Nogsuan Sawasdee (2012), "Thailand", Political Parties and Democracy: Contemporary Western Europe and Asia (Palgrave Macmillan): 157 
  21. ^ a b c Peter Starke; Alexandra Kaasch; Franca Van Hooren (7 May 2013). The Welfare State as Crisis Manager: Explaining the Diversity of Policy Responses to Economic Crisis. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 191–. ISBN 978-1-137-31484-0. 
  22. ^ a b c d e f Hans Slomp (30 September 2011). Europe, A Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 465–. ISBN 978-0-313-39182-8. Retrieved 23 August 2013. 
  23. ^ Barbara Happe (2003). "Brazil". In Dirk Berg-Schlosser; Norbert Kersting. Poverty and Democracy: Self-Help and Political Participation in Third World Cities (Zed Books). p. 24. ISBN 978-1-84277-205-8  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  24. ^ Rudolf Andorka (January 1999). A Society Transformed: Hungary in Time-space Perspective. Central European University Press. p. 163. ISBN 978-963-9116-49-8. 
  25. ^ Krisztina Arató; Petr Kaniok (2009). Euroscepticism and European Integration. CPI/PSRC. p. 191. ISBN 978-953-7022-20-4. 
  26. ^ a b Dr Vít Hloušek; Dr Lubomír Kopecek (28 March 2013). Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 177. ISBN 978-1-4094-9977-0. 
  27. ^ NSD, European Election Database, Czech Republic
  28. ^ NSD, European Election Database, Finland
  29. ^ Jörg Arnold (2006). Criminal Law as a Reaction to System Crime: Policy for Dealing with the Past in European Transitions. Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes in Europe: Legacies and Lessons from the Twentieth Century (Berghahn Books). p. 410. ISBN 1-57181-641-0. 
  30. ^ NSD - European Election Database, Norway
  31. ^ Mart Laar. The Power of Freedom - Central and Eastern Europe after 1945. Unitas Foundation. p. 229. ISBN 978-9949-21-479-2. 
  32. ^ Joanna A. Gorska (10 July 2012). Dealing with a Juggernaut: Analyzing Poland's Policy toward Russia, 1989-2009. Lexington Books. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-7391-4534-0. 
  33. ^ Diamantino P. Machado (1991). The Structure of Portuguese Society: The Failure of Fascism. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-275-93784-3. 
  34. ^ Anna Bosco (13 September 2013). Party Change in Southern Europe. Routledge. p. 15–. ISBN 978-1-136-76777-7. 
  35. ^ Stephen White; Elena A. Korosteleva; John Löwenhardt (2005). Postcommunist Belarus. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-7425-3555-8. 
  36. ^ Tadeusz Buksiński (2009). Democracy in Western and Postcommunist Countries: Twenty Years After the Fall of Communism. Peter Lang. p. 240. ISBN 978-3-631-58543-6. 
  37. ^ a b c Carol Diane St Louis (2011). Negotiating Change: Approaches to and the Distributional Implications of Social Welfare and Economic Reform. Stanford University. p. 105. STANFORD:RW793BX2256. Retrieved 19 August 2012. 
  38. ^ Stanley G. Payne (1 January 1996). A History of Fascism, 1914–1945. University of Wisconsin Pres. pp. 163–. ISBN 978-0-299-14873-7. 
  39. ^ Helena Waddy (14 April 2010). Oberammergau in the Nazi Era: The Fate of a Catholic Village in Hitler's Germany. Oxford University Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-19-970779-9. 
  40. ^ Emiel Lamberts (1 January 1997). Christian Democracy in the European Union, 1945/1995: Proceedings of the Leuven Colloquium, 15-18 November 1995. Leuven University Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-90-6186-808-8. 
  41. ^ Jennifer Lees-Marshment (2 July 2009). Political Marketing: Principles and Applications. Routledge. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-134-08411-1. 
  42. ^ Jacques Rupnik; Jan Zielonka (8 November 2003). The Road to the European Union. Manchester University Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-7190-6597-2.