The contrasting and categorisation of emotions describes how emotions are thought to relate to each other. Various recent proposals of such groupings are described in the following sections.
Contrasting basic emotions
The following table, based on a wide review of current theories, identifies and contrasts the fundamental emotions according to a set of definite criteria. The three key criteria used include: 1) mental experiences that have a strongly motivating subjective quality like pleasure or pain; 2) mental experiences that are in response to some event or object that is either real or imagined; 3) mental experiences that motivate particular kinds of behaviour. The combination of these attributes distinguish the emotions from sensations, feelings and moods.
| Kind of Emotion
|| Positive Emotions
|| Negative Emotions
| Related to Object Properties
|| Interest, curiosity
|| Alarm, panic
| Attraction, desire, admiration
|| Aversion, disgust, revulsion
| Surprise, amusement
|| Indifference, familiarity, habituation
| Future Appraisal
|| Gratitude, thankfulness
|| Anger, rage
| Joy, elation, triumph, jubilation
|| Sorrow, grief
|| Frustration, disappointment, dreadfulness
|| Pride in achievement, self-confidence, sociability
|| Embarrassment, shame, guilt, remorse
HUMAINE's proposal for EARL (Emotion Annotation and Representation Language)
The emotion annotation and representation language (EARL) proposed by the Human-Machine Interaction Network on Emotion (HUMAINE) classifies 48 emotions.
Parrott's emotions by groups
A tree-structured list of emotions was described in Shaver et al. (1987), and also featured in Parrott (2001).
Plutchik's wheel of emotions
Robert Plutchik created a wheel of emotions in 1980 which consisted of eight basic emotions and eight advanced emotions each composed of two basic ones.
- ↑ Robinson, D. L. (2009). "Brain function, mental experience and personality" 64. The Netherlands Journal of Psychology. pp. 152–167.
- ↑ "HUMAINE Emotion Annotation and Representation Language". Emotion-research.net. Retrieved June 30, 2006.
- ↑ Shaver, P., Schwartz, J., Kirson, D., & O'connor, C. (1987). Emotion knowledge: further exploration of a prototype approach. Journal of personality and social psychology, 52(6), 1061.
- ↑ "Basic Emotions". Changingminds.org. Retrieved 2015-02-26.
- ↑ Parrott, W. (2001), "Emotions in Social Psychology", Psychology Press, Philadelphia.
- ↑ Plutchik, R. "The Nature of Emotions". American Scientist. Retrieved 14 April 2011.