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Cosmic Cube

Cosmic Cube
Thanos holds the Cosmic Cube (the entity Death looks on in the background).
Interior artwork from Captain Marvel 28 (Sept. 1973).
Art by Jim Starlin.
Publication information
Publisher Marvel Comics
First appearance Tales of Suspense #79 (July 1966)
Created by Stan Lee
Jack Kirby
In story information
Type Mystic item/artifact
Element of stories featuring S.H.I.E.L.D., Red Skull, Thanos
Template:Comics infobox sec/addcat

The Cosmic Cube is the name of a fictional object that appears in the Marvel Universe. The concept was created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby and first appeared in Tales of Suspense #79 (July 1966).

Publication history

The first Cosmic Cube appeared in a story in Tales of Suspense #79–81 (July–Sept. 1966), established as a device created by A.I.M. and capable of transforming any wish into reality, irrespective of the consequences. The Cube was also a plot device in a story that introduced the character of the Super-Adaptoid in Tales of Suspense #82–84 (Oct.–Dec. 1966). The cube was also featured in a one-off story in the Avengers #40 (1967) being found and briefly wielded by Namor.

The Cube reappeared in Captain America #115–120 (July–Dec. 1969), and featured in an epic cosmic storyline that starred arch-villain Thanos in Daredevil #107 (Jan. 1974) and Captain Marvel #25–33 (March 1972–July 1974: bi-monthly). Retrieved after Thanos' defeat, this original cube featured in several Project Pegasus stories in Marvel Two-in-One #42–43 (Aug.–Sept. 1978), Marvel Two-in-One #57–58 (Dec. 1979–Jan. 1980), and Marvel Team-Up Annual #5 (1982).

The creation of a second cube was shown in Super-Villain Team-Up #16–17 (May 1979, June 1980) but this cube was initially powerless and did not gain any reality-altering ability until years after its creation.

A major element was added to the Cube's origin—that each is in fact an evolving sentient being—in Captain America Annual #7 (1983). The sentient Cube returned in Avengers #289–290 (March–April 1988) to end the threat of the Super-Adaptoid (itself originally empowered by a "shard" of a Cosmic Cube), and then in Fantastic Four #319 (Oct. 1988). This story revealed that the villain the Molecule Man had ties to the Cube and introduced a new character.

The limited series Infinity War #1–6 (June–Nov. 1992) and Infinity Crusade #1–6 (June–Nov. 1993) established that the items actually exist in a variety of geometric forms.

A third Cosmic Cube was created during the "Taking A.I.M." storyline that ran through Avengers vol. 1, #386–388 (May–July 1995) and Captain America vol. 2, #440–441 (June–July 1995). This unstable Cube has not been seen since it was sealed in a containment chamber at the conclusion of the storyline.

The previously powerless second Cosmic Cube finally gained an ability to alter reality in Captain America vol. 2, #445–448 (November, 1995–February, 1996) but it was unstable and exploded at the end of that storyline. The second cube's power reappeared in a storyline in Captain America vol. 3, #14–19 (Feb.–July 1999) during which its power was internalized within the Red Skull and then stolen by Korvac and taken to an alternate 31st Century Earth before being returned to the Red Skull on present-day Earth after which it was seemingly destroyed again by exposure to anti-matter energy.

Doctor Doom acquires the Cosmic Cube in the Fantastic Four limited-series The World's Greatest Comics Magazine (2001). Doom uses a time machine to get the Cube from the ocean floor into which it had dropped during a battle between the Red Skull and Captain America.

A Cube—together with 11 other items from Marvel and DC Comics continuity—was used once again as a plot device in intercompany crossover series JLA/Avengers #1–4 (Sept. 2003–April 2004: bi-monthly).

The cube also shows up in Captain America vol. 5. Aleksander Lukin wants the cube and is willing to trade the Red Skull for it. The Red Skull claims he does not have it, but has spies out looking for it. Five years later, the Skull is in New York City and is in possession of it. General Lukin sent the Winter Soldier to retrieve the cube from the Skull, and to kill him. The Skull transfers his mind into the body of Lukin through the powers of the Cube.[1]

A fragment of a Cube empowered a new character that featured in a single storyline in Marvel Team-Up vol. 3, #20–24 (July–Nov. 2006), and a Cube also appeared in Guardians of the Galaxy vol. 2, #19 (Dec. 2009). The item added a new aspect to the abilities of character the Absorbing Man in The Mighty Avengers #32–33 (Feb.–March 2010). A new Cosmic Cube was revealed in Avengers Assemble #5 (July 2012); it was revealed to be a working facsimile with more limited powers than the 'real thing'.[volume & issue needed]

Fictional history

The Cosmic Cubes are actually containment devices created by various civilizations throughout the Marvel Universe at various times, including the Skrulls (creators of the Cube that would eventually evolve into the Shaper of Worlds), and various other, unnamed civilizations (whose Cubes were gathered/stolen by unknown means by The Magus in the Infinity War story arc and The Goddess in the Infinity Crusade story arc). These matrices—which may or may not actually be shaped like a cube—are suffused with reality-warping energies of unknown composition that comes from the realm of the Beyonders.

Unknown to almost everyone in the Marvel Universe, including its creators, the nature of the mysterious energies are such that, after a sufficient but undefined period of time, the matrix will become self-aware and evolve into an independent, free-willed being still possessed of the original Cube's tremendous powers; the new being's overall personality is psychically imprinted with the beliefs, desires, and personalities of those who wielded it as a Cube (for example, the Shaper of Worlds, wielded for a long time by an insane and warlike Skrull Emperor, immediately destroyed a large portion of the galaxy that it was located in once it became sentient).

On Earth, the Cosmic Cube containment matrix was developed and created by a society of para-military scientists known as A.I.M. to further their ultimate goal of world conquest. The object is revealed to be so powerful that it drove MODOK (another A.I.M. creation who assisted with the formation of the Cube) insane. Master villain and former Nazi Red Skull obtains the device after taking control of the mind of the A.I.M agent holding it using a handheld device. Although apparently now all-powerful, the Skull became overconfident and was tricked and defeated by hero Captain America, who pretended to surrender and ask to be the Skull's slave, then knocked the Cube away, causing it to fall into the ocean.[2] It was found by Prince Namor after Hercules accidentally revealed it to him, but while battling the Avengers he lost contact with it, and it fell into the Earth. Mole Man found it, but threw it away not realizing its true value.[3] Later a shard of the Cube is also used by A.I.M. to power the android known as the Super-Adaptoid, who is sent in an unsuccessful attempt to kill Captain America.[4]

The Red Skull eventually retrieves the Cube and toys with Captain America, but Red Skull is defeated when A.I.M. uses an object called the "Catholite Block" to dissolve the cube.[5]

The Cube was eventually found (apparently having reformed) by Thanos[6] who, like the Red Skull, wishes to control the universe (this also attracts the amorous attention of the entity Death). Although opposed by superhero team the Avengers and the alien Kree warrior Captain Mar-Vell, Thanos becomes supreme when he wills the Cube to make him a part of—and therefore in control of—everything. Thanos discards the Cube, believing it to be drained of power, and is then stripped of the power by the dying superhero named Mar-Vell, who shatters the Cube and restores the universe.[7]

Brought to research installation Project: Pegasus, the Cube was stolen by villain and cult leader Victorius, and is used to create the being Jude the Entropic Man. Both are neutralized when in simultaneous contact with the Cube (and the creature the Man Thing).[8] The Cube is returned to Pegasus by Captain America and the Fantastic Four member the Thing where it eventually transforms the alien Wundarr into the entity the Aquarian.[9]

A second cube was created on the Island of Exiles by a team of scientists (including Arnim Zola) working for the Red Skull and the Hate-Monger. Planning to transfer his consciousness into the completed Cube, the Hate-Monger secretly arranged for a distraction in the form of a strike team from the spy organization S.H.I.E.L.D. attacking the island in an attempt to retrieve the cube. However, the Red Skull was aware of his plans and had kept secret the fact that the Cube project had succeeded only in creating a perfect prison but had failed to capture the mysterious, omnidimensional x-element which gives the cubes their reality-warping power. As a result, the Hate-Monger's mind was left trapped in a powerless cube in the Red Skull's possession.[10] This Cube was one of the trophies that the Red Skull kept in his home, Skull House.[11]

During a battle to stop A.I.M. from using the Cube once again, Captain America witnesses the Cube evolve into the entity called Kubik, which becomes a student of the Shaper of Worlds.[12] Kubik returns to Earth when attracted by an anomaly possessing a fraction of its power, revealed to be the robot the Super Adaptoid. The Adaptoid uses its abilities to "copy" Kubik's abilities and banishes the entity, intent on creating a race in its own image. The Adaptoid, however, is tricked into shutting down by Captain America. Kubik returns and then removes the sliver of the original Cosmic Cube from the Adaptoid that gave the robot its abilities.[13]

Kubik also battles the renegade entity the Beyonder, and reveals to the entity and former Fantastic Four villain the Molecule Man that they are in fact both parts of an incomplete Cube (officially ret-conning the Beyonder's powers as shown in Secret Wars in the process), and convinces them to merge their powers. This forms a new being called Kosmos, who becomes the pupil of Kubik.[14]

The character the Magus—an evil version of anti-hero Adam Warlock—acquires five Cosmic Cubes from neighboring universes, with each appearing in a different geometric form. The Magus uses mechanical aids to manipulate the Cubes, as their combined presence would quickly cause permanent brain damage. The character uses the Cubes to create an evil doppelganger of almost all of the Marvel heroes and then alters the universe, but is tricked and defeated when acquiring the Infinity Gauntlet, as the Reality Gem is revealed to be a fake, thus creating a gap in his powers.[15]

Although the Magus is defeated, Warlock's "good side"—the female Goddess—also appears and wishes to purge the universe of all evil. To do this the character collects 30 containment units, with each storing the power of a Cosmic Cube, and merges them into a "Cosmic Egg". Despite the fact that the Egg can fulfill the Goddess' wishes—although, unlike the Infinity Gauntlet, it has no power over the Soul—the character is defeated by Warlock and Thanos. During this time the two questioned Mephisto about the origins of the Cubes in exchange for giving a cube to Mephisto, but they were able to cheat the deal by giving Mephisto a drained Cube as he never specified that the Cube had to still be functional.[16]

A third Cosmic Cube was created by an Adaptoid-controlled faction of A.I.M. based on the island of Boca Caliente. This cube was unstable and its reality-warping ability began to leak out onto the surrounding island, creating Cube constructs of anybody that was in the thoughts of nearby people. An Avengers team attempted to stop the cube and the dying Captain America was willing to sacrifice himself to do so. In the end it was an Adaptoid who had been accompanying Captain America and had been impressed by his heroic nature who ended the threat by willingly transforming itself into a non-sentient containment chamber for the cube's energies.[17]

The second Cube was eventually recovered by the KubeKult, fanatical followers of the Hate-Monger, who spied upon the A.I.M. Adaptoids and discovered how to power it. Fearing how the Hate-Monger would punish him for his betrayal, the Red Skull allied himself with then-rogue S.H.I.E.L.D. agent Sharon Carter to kidnap the dying Captain America and restore him to health. Reluctantly working together, the trio invaded a KubeKult base to steal the erratically functioning Cube but the Red Skull seized it and willed Captain America to be drawn inside it into an artificial reality during World War II and Captain America and Bucky were on a mission to kill Hitler. The Red Skull believed that he would be able to wield the Cube's power only if Captain America killed Hitler's consciousness within the Cube. However, the Bucky within the Cube (actually a projection of Cap's own mind) revealed what was really going on and Captain America was able to will himself out of the Cube. Appearing before the Skull, Captain America threw his shield in such a way that it first severed the Skull's arm, causing him to drop the Cube, and then struck and shattered the cube itself, causing an explosion that seemingly destroyed both itself and the Red Skull.[18]

Months later, the Red Skull reappeared, now with the Cube's power internalized within his body. He was approached by the time-traveller Kang (actually the disguised cosmic entity Korvac) who told him that the reason he had failed to completely control the Cube's power in the past was because his knowledge of the universe was incomplete. At "Kang's" suggestion, the Skull willed the starship of Galactus to travel to Earth so he could drain it of the needed information. At the same time, Korvac (now disguised as Uatu the Watcher) appeared to Captain America and Sharon Carter and managed to convince them that the only way to prevent the Skull from becoming unstoppable was for Captain America to kill him during a brief moment of vulnerability. Captain America did so but as the Skull died his body released the Cube energy which flowed into "Uatu" who revealed his true identity and used his increased power to return to his alternate 31st Century Earth to conquer it. However, Captain America followed him and fought him repeatedly, with Korvac rebooting the 31st Century reality each time Captain America disturbed his perfectly ordered machine world. Eventually, Captain America managed to convince Korvac that the reason he was able to achieve anything at all against Korvac was due there being too much humanity left within Korvac when he acquired the Cube power. Accordingly, Korvac transported himself and Captain America back to just before the Skull died but this time Captain America did not strike the fatal blow. Vulnerable to the Skull's power, Korvac teleported himself, Captain America and Carter aboard the starship but the Skull soon found him and scattered Korvac across six dimensions. Soon afterwards, the Skull was tricked by Captain America into entering an anti-matter energy beam within the starship's engine room which separated the Cube energy from him. Before the energy dissipated, Captain America and the Skull were each able to use its wish-granting ability to save themselves and Carter from death.[19]

A Cosmic Cube was one of the twelve items of power sought by superhero teams the Avengers and the Justice League of America when they competed against each other in a game organized by entities Krona and the Grandmaster, during which Green Lantern Kyle Rayner was able to use the Cube as a substitute power source for his power ring when his usual battery had been stolen, Batman briefly attempting to use the Cube to end the game—having been filled in on its capabilities by Captain America—before Grandmaster took it from him.[20]

The Red Skull has finally created one by using pieces of the previous Cubes, and Aleksander Lukin wants it as much. The Red Skull is assassinated by the one person that Lukin was willing to trade for the Cube—the Winter Soldier. In the process of being assassinated, the Skull uses the Cube's power to transfer his mind into the body of Lukin for some time.[21]

A youth called Curtis Doyle becomes the hero Freedom Ring when he finds a fragment of the original Cube in the form of a ring, which allows the altering of reality in a very limited area. The character dies in battle saving Captain America, Spider-Man, Spider-Woman, and Wolverine from the villain Iron Maniac. The ring is later found by a friend of Doyle.[22]

The powerful entity D'Spayre attempted to enhance his power by using a Cosmic Cube to enhance his powers to draw on the grief of the general public in the aftermath of Captain America's assassination,[23] only for his use of the Cube to have an apparently unintended side-effect when it granted the 'wish' of those who wanted Captain America back by drawing the Invaders into the present. He was defeated in a confrontation with the New Avengers when Echo proved immune to his powers due to her deafness, allowing her to take the Cube from him. The Cube is then used by Paul Anslem, a World War II soldier who had traveled with the Invaders against his will. Anslem's intentions to save his friends, who had died during an assault on a Nazi stronghold, allows the Red Skull of the World War II era to gain power of that Earth. Anslem again regains control of the Cube with super-powered assistance and restores the timeline to what it should have been.[24]

A cube is also given to Guardians of the Galaxy member Star-Lord by time-traveling villain Kang the Conqueror to use against Adam Warlock's evil alter ego, the Magus.[25] However, Magus altered perception to make it seem like the cube's power was used up. Star-Lord used the cube's last bit of energy for real by subduing the reborn Thanos, rendering it a "cosmic paperweight".[26]

Absorbing Man becomes capable of assimilating the abilities of a fraction of a Cube. He is stopped by criminal mastermind Norman Osborn, who uses a magical sword (provided by the Asgardian god Loki) to neutralize the Absorbing Man's abilities.[27]

A new Cosmic Cube is later revealed to have been created by the U.S. government. It is stolen by members of the Zodiac at the behest of Thanos.[28] Thanos' plot is later foiled by the combined might of the Avengers and the Guardians of the Galaxy.[29]

Other versions

Ultimate Marvel

In the Ultimate Marvel imprint alternate universe title Ultimate Fantastic Four, Mister Fantastic builds a "cuboid volitional lattice" courtesy of a deliberate, subconscious suggestion from the Ultimate version of the Titan Thanos.[30] Another version of the Cube exists as a creation of A.I.M. under the employment of Red Skull, which they stole blueprints of from the Fantastic Four's recently abandoned Baxter Building.[31][32]

A version of the Cosmic Cube is seen in Project Pegasus alongside the Watcher and Infinity Gauntlet.[33]

In other media


File:Tesseract in the Avengers.PNG
The Tesseract as it appears in The Avengers
  • The Cosmic Cube appears in several films set in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, in which it is called the Tesseract (though in The Avengers, it is also referred to as the Cube).
    • A hypercube is seen in Howard Stark's notes (skimmed by Tony Stark) in Iron Man 2.[34]
    • The Tesseract is seen briefly in the film Thor. Erik Selvig is reading a book on Norse mythology with an illustration of Odin carrying the cube in his hand. In a post-credits scene, Nick Fury shows the Tesseract to Selvig, who asks what it is, to which Fury replies "unlimited power".
    • In the film Captain America: The First Avenger, the Tesseract is involved in Hydra's plan for world domination.[35] During World War II, Johann Schmidt captures the cube in Tønsberg, Norway, claiming that it is "the jewel of Odin's treasure room". Schmidt and Hydra head-scientist Arnim Zola harness the power of the Tesseract to power weapons to be used against the Allies. Captain America foils Schmidt's plan to use the Tesseract to launch an aerial attack on the United States in a highly advanced plane by damaging the conduits transferring the cube's power to the ship, and as Schmidt picks up the Tesseract, it sends him through a portal into space, before falling into the ocean below, where it is later found by Howard Stark.
    • The Tesseract is central to the plot in The Avengers.[36][37] Loki opens a portal from "the other side of the universe" and then steals the cube from S.H.I.E.L.D. custody at Project Pegasus. Loki pledges to give it to the Chitauri in exchange for leading their army in an invasion of Earth. While S.H.I.E.L.D. publicly states that it intends to use the cube as a clean energy source, Nick Fury later admits to the Avengers that they also intend to use it to create weapons to defend against extraterrestrial threats. With the assistance of a brainwashed Dr. Selvig, Loki uses the Tesseract to open a wormhole into space from Stark Tower, allowing the Chitauri fleet to invade Manhattan. After being freed from Loki's control, Selvig informs Black Widow that only Loki's scepter can deactivate the wormhole, and she does so, after Iron Man flies a nuclear missile into the Chitauri mothership on the other side, destroying it. Thor then takes the cube with him to Asgard.
    • In Thor: The Dark World, it is revealed that the Tesseract is an "Infinity Stone".[38]
    • In Guardians of the Galaxy, the Tesseract is briefly seen when the Collector explains the origins of the Infinity Stones.
    • In Avengers: Age of Ultron, the Tesseract is again briefly seen when Thor has a vision of the Infinity Stones, and it is shown that the Tesseract is in fact a container for one of the Stones.


  • In The Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes episode "Everything is Wonderful", it is revealed that A.I.M. is creating a Cosmic Cube for Hydra. Later, MODOK reveals that A.I.M.'s plan was to use the Cosmic Cube project as a smoke screen to swindle money out of Hydra. But when an A.I.M. scientist tells MODOK that the Cosmic Cube might be an unintended success, A.I.M. returns the money to Hydra intending to keep such a powerful weapon to themselves. This displeases Baron Strucker who is able to see through their lies about the project being a failure. A war for possession of the cube erupts between A.I.M. and Hydra in the subsequent episode "Hail Hydra" forcing the Avengers to become involved. The clash ends when Captain America and Baron Strucker seize the cube simultaneously and nothing appears to happen. But unknown to the heroes, the Cosmic Cube actually acts upon Captain America's desires and returns his deceased sidekick Bucky to life.
  • The Tesseract appears in the Avengers Assemble episode "By the Numbers." It ends up landing in the desert somewhere in the southwestern United States as the Avengers and the Cabal race to get to it first. Due to Red Skull changing the coordinates, the Cabal manages to claim the Tesseract. In the episode "Exodus", the Tessaract is used with iridium and tech from Hammer industries to create a portal generator, to allow the Cabal to conquer other worlds. Red Skull's plan was to lead his Cabal army briefly to the other worlds before vaporizing them with the machine. As Iron Man fired his unibeam at the Cube, it created a shockwave that knocked out most of the Cabal. When all seems well, Iron Skull infuse the Cube into his armor's power source, becoming what Iron Man calls the "Cosmic Skull". In the episode "The Final Showdown," Cosmic Skull uses the Tesseract's powers to attack various locations on Earth. With the Tesseract's powers, Cosmic Skull temporarily blinded Hawkeye, disabled Falcon's flight pack, increased Hulk's rage, and broke Captain America's shield. In order for the Avengers to fight Cosmic Skull and the Tesseract, Tony Stark had to convince the Cabal to help fight Cosmic Skull. When Black Widow and MODOK appeared, MODOK used his abilities to separate Red Skull from the Tesseract as Tony Stark regains the Iron Man armor that Red Skull stole from him. Red Skull and the Tesseract then disappear into a portal. At the end of the episode, Red Skull is seen giving the Tesseract to his master Thanos.

Video games

  • In Lego Marvel Super Heroes, Silver Surfer has a board made of "cosmic bricks" instead of just one cosmic cube. The cubes are collected throughout the game and many heroes race to get the bricks before the villains, mainly Doctor Doom and Loki. The Tesseract itself appears in the game, when Captain America, the Human Torch, Thor, and Wolverine have to go retrieve it. They succeed in recovering it, but while everyone is discussing how to deal with it, Wolverine takes the "glow cube" for himself and brings it to the X-Mansion, hoping to use it to locate Magneto. Magneto and the Brotherhood of Mutants then break in and take the Tesseract.


  • A flawed Cosmic Cube is the main plot device in Steven A. Roman's Chaos Engine novel series, with the object passing between super-villains Doctor Doom, Magneto, and the Red Skull, each of whom uses it to create his own unique version of a perfect world.[39]


  1. ^ Captain America vol. 6, #1–2
  2. ^ Tales of Suspense #79–81 (July–Sept. 1966)
  3. ^ Avengers vol.1, #40 (May, 1967)
  4. ^ Tales of Suspense #82–84 (Oct.–Dec. 1966)
  5. ^ Captain America #115–120 (July–Dec. 1969)
  6. ^ Daredevil #107 (Jan. 1974); Captain Marvel #28 (Sept. 1973)
  7. ^ Captain Marvel #25–33 (bi-monthly: March 1972–July 1974)
  8. ^ Marvel Two-in-One #42–43 (Aug.–Sept. 1978)
  9. ^ Marvel Two-in-One #57–58 (Dec. 1979–Jan. 1980)
  10. ^ Super-Villain Team-Up #16–17 (May 1979, June 1980)
  11. ^ Captain America vol. 2, #299 (November, 1984)
  12. ^ Captain America Annual #7 (1983)
  13. ^ Avengers #289–290 (March–April 1988)
  14. ^ Fantastic Four #319 (Oct. 1988)
  15. ^ Infinity War #1–6 (June–Nov. 1992)
  16. ^ Infinity Crusade #1–6 (June–Nov. 1993)
  17. ^ Avengers vol. 1, #386–388 (May–July 1995) and Captain America vol. 2, #440–441 (June–July 1995)
  18. ^ Captain America vol. 2, #445–448 (November 1995–February 1996)
  19. ^ Captain America vol. 3, #14–19 (Feb.–July 1999)
  20. ^ JLA/Avengers #1–4 (Sept. 2003–April 2004: bi-monthly)
  21. ^ Captain America vol. 5
  22. ^ Marvel Team-Up vol. 3, #20–24 (July–Nov. 2006)
  23. ^ Avengers/Invaders #7
  24. ^ Avengers/Invaders #1-12 (2009)
  25. ^ Guardians of the Galaxy vol. 2, #19 (Dec. 2009)
  26. ^ Guardians of the Galaxy vol. 2, #25
  27. ^ Mighty Avengers #32–33 (Feb.–March 2010)
  28. ^ Avengers Assemble #5-6
  29. ^ Avengers Assemble #7-8
  30. ^ Ultimate Fantastic Four #42 (May 2007)
  31. ^ Ultimate Avengers #1
  32. ^ Ultimate Avengers #5
  33. ^ Ultimate Origins #3 (2008)
  34. ^ Lussier, Germain (May 2, 2012). "Easter Egg: The Cosmic Cube Appears in 'Iron Man 2'". /Film. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 
  35. ^ Ames, Jeff (October 28, 2010). "More Images from Captain America: The First Avenger; First Look at Hugo Weaving and Stanley Tucci". Collider. Retrieved 2010-11-13. 
  36. ^ "New Avengers clip arrives online: watch now". Total Film. 10 April 2012. Retrieved 10 April 2012. 
  37. ^ Itzkoff, Dave (11 April 2012). "Joss Whedon on Assembling ‘The Avengers’". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 April 2012. 
  38. ^ Blackmon, Joe (November 8, 2013). "Thor: The Dark World After The Credits Detailed Explanation". Retrieved November 10, 2013. 
  39. ^ Roman, Steven A. (2004). X-Men: The Chaos Engine Trilogy. ISBN 0-7434-9774-0. 

External links