Open Access Articles- Top Results for Cousin


For other uses, see Cousin (disambiguation).
"Cousins" redirects here. For other uses, see Cousins (disambiguation).

A cousin is a relative with whom a person shares one or more common ancestors. In the general sense, cousins are two or more generations away from any common ancestor, thus distinguishing a cousin from an ancestor, descendant, sibling, aunt, uncle, niece, or nephew. However in common parlance, "cousin" normally specifically means "first cousin".

Systems of "degrees" and "removals" are used in the English-speaking world to describe the exact relationship between two cousins (in the broad sense) and the ancestor they have in common. Various governmental entities have established systems for legal use that can more precisely specify kinships with common ancestors existing any number of generations in the past, though common usage often eliminates the degrees and removals and refers to people with common ancestry as simply "distant cousins" or "relatives".

Basic definitions

"First cousin once removed" redirects here. For the documentary film, see First Cousin Once Removed.

The ordinals in the terms "first cousins", "second cousins", "third cousins", refer to the number of generations to one's closest common ancestor.[1] The number of "G" words used to describe this ancestor will determine how close the relationship is. For example, having "Great-Great-Grandparents" in common would be third cousins.

When the cousins are not the same generation, they are described as "removed". In this case, the smaller number of generations to the common ancestor is used to determine the degree, and the difference in generations determines the number of times removed. Note that the ages of the cousins are irrelevant to the definition of the cousin relationship.

First cousins

The children of two siblings. First cousins have grandparents in common.

David and Emma are first cousins because they are non-siblings who share the same grandparents. Equals: first cousins.


Second cousins

The children of first cousins.[2] Second cousins share great grandparents.

Frank and Gloria are second cousins because they are non-first cousins who share great-grandparents. In other words Frank and Gloria's parents are cousins. Equals: first cousins 1 × adversed.


Third cousins

The grandchildren of two first cousins; also the children of two second cousins. Third cousins share great-great-grandparents.

Harry and Isabelle are third cousins because they are non-second cousins who share great-great-grandparents.

Scientists through multiple studies have established a substantial and consistent positive correlation between the kinship of couples and the number of children and grandchildren they have. The 2008 deCODE study results show that couples related at the level of third cousins have the greatest number of offspring. This study provides the most comprehensive answer yet to the longstanding question of how kinship affects fertility in humans.[3]

Equals: first cousins 2 × adversed.


First cousins once removed

Two people for whom a first cousin relationship is one generation removed.
The child of one's first cousin; also the first cousin of one's parent.

Frank and his father's first cousin, Emma, are first cousins once removed.

There exist numerous terms for first cousins once removed that describe the relationship more specifically:

  • for a male in the higher generation, "cousin-uncle" or "second uncle";
  • for a female in the higher generation, "cousin-aunt" or "second aunt";
  • for a male in the lower generation, "cousin-nephew" or "second nephew"; and
  • for a female in the lower generation, "cousin-niece" or "second niece".

First cousins twice removed

Two people for whom a first cousin relationship is two generations removed.
The grandchild of one's first cousin; also the first cousin of one's grandparent.

Harry and his grandfather's first cousin, Emma, are first cousins twice removed.

There exist numerous addition terms to describe the relationship of first cousin twice removed more specifically and accurately:

  • for a male in a higher generation: "2nd granduncle",
  • for a female in a higher generation: "2nd grandaunt",
  • for a male in a lower generation: "2nd grandnephew",
  • for a female in a lower generation: "2nd grandniece"

Second cousins once removed

Two people for whom a second cousin relationship is one generation removed.
The child of one's second cousin; also the second cousin of one's parent.

Harry and his father's second cousin, Gwen, are second cousins once removed.

There are more ways in which this type of relationship can be described more specifically:

  • for a male in a higher generation: "third uncle",
  • for a female in a higher generation: "third aunt",
  • for a male in a lower generation: "third nephew",
  • for a female in a lower generation" "third niece",

Additional terms

The following is a list of less common cousin terms.

Term Definition Examples Chart
Double cousin Double cousins arise when two siblings of one family mate with two siblings of another family. The resulting children are related to each other through both of their parents and are thus doubly related. Double first cousins share both sets of grandparents and have twice the degree of consanguinity of ordinary first cousins; genetically, they are as related as half-siblings. Double second cousins can arise in two ways: from two first-cousin relationships among their parents or from one double-first-cousin relationship between their parents. 1). Your father's brother marries your mother's sister. Their child is your double cousin.

2). In the diagram, David and Irene are double first cousins because each is related through their mother's family and also their father's family, the result of a brother and sister (Ben and Helen) having married another brother and sister (Hugh and Betty). For David and Irene, each has a mother who is an aunt by marriage of the other and a father who is an uncle by marriage of the other.

Half-cousin Half-cousins are the children of two half-siblings. David and Lilian are half cousins because their fathers (Ben and James) are half-brothers, their grandmother (Agatha) having remarried.
Step-cousin Step-cousins are either stepchildren of an individual's aunt or uncle or nieces and nephews of one's step-parent. David and Mary are step-cousins because David's uncle (Charles) has become Mary's stepfather as a result of Mary's mother (Corinda) having remarried.
Cousin-in-law A cousin-in-law is the spouse of an individual's cousin or the cousin of one's spouse. David and Eric are first cousins-in-law to each other because Eric's wife (Emma) is David's first cousin.
Maternal or paternal cousin A term that specifies whether one individual is a cousin of another through the mother's side of the family (maternal) or the father's side (paternal). If the relationship is not equally paternal for both or equally maternal for both, then the paternal cousin of one is the maternal cousin of the other. Emma and David are paternal first cousins (being related through their fathers). Emma is also Nicola's paternal first cousin (as related on Nicola's father's side), but Nicola is Emma's maternal first cousin (as related on Emma's mother's side). David and Nicola would only be related if they shared a common ancestor.

Kissing cousins are defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "relatives or friends with whom one is on close enough terms to greet with a kiss".[4]

Relationship charts

Cousin chart

A "cousin chart", or "table of consanguinity", is helpful in identifying the degree of cousin relationship between two people using their most recent common ancestor as the reference point. Cousinship between two people can be specifically described in degrees and removals by determining how close, generationally, the common ancestor is to each person.

If one person's → Grandparent Great-grandparent Great-great-grandparent Great-great-great-grandparent Great-great-great-great-grandparent
Is the other person's
Then they are ↘
Grandparent 1st cousins 1st cousins once removed 1st cousins twice removed 1st cousins thrice removed 1st cousins four times removed
Great-grandparent 1st cousins once removed 2nd cousins 2nd cousins once removed 2nd cousins twice removed 2nd cousins thrice removed
Great-great-grandparent 1st cousins twice removed 2nd cousins once removed 3rd cousins 3rd cousins once removed 3rd cousins twice removed
Great-great-great-grandparent 1st cousins thrice removed 2nd cousins twice removed 3rd cousins once removed 4th cousins 4th cousins once removed
Great-great-great-great-grandparent 1st cousins four times removed 2nd cousins thrice removed 3rd cousins twice removed 4th cousins once removed 5th cousins

Canon law relationship chart

Another visual chart used in determining the legal relationship between two people who share a common ancestor is based upon a diamond shape, usually referred to as a "canon law relationship chart".

The chart is used by placing the "common progenitor" (the most recent person from whom both people (A and B) are descended) in the top space in the diamond-shaped chart, and assigning a direction (arbitrarily, left or right) to each of the two people, A and B. Then follow the line down the outside edge of the chart for each of the two people until their respective relationship to the common ancestor is reached. Upon determining that place along the opposing outside edge for each person, their relationship is then determined by following the lines inward to the point of intersection. The information contained in the common "intersection" defines the relationship.

For a simple example, in the illustration to the right, if two siblings use the chart to determine their relationship, their common parent (either one, if there are two) is placed in the topmost position, and each child is assigned the space below and along the outside of the chart. Then, following the spaces inward, they would intersect in the "brother" diamond.[5] If their children want to determine their relationship, they would follow the path established by their parents but descend an additional step below along the outside of the chart (showing that they are grandchildren of the common progenitor); following their respective lines inward, they would come to rest in the space marked "1st cousin". In cases where one side descends the outside of the diamond further than the other side because of additional generations removed from the common progenitor, following the lines inward shows both the cousin rank (1st cousin, 2nd cousin) plus the number of times (generations) "removed".

In the example provided at the right, generations one (child) through ten (8th great-grandchild) from the common progenitor are provided; however, the format of the chart can easily be expanded to accommodate any number of generations needed to resolve the question of relationship.

Alternative definitions

Colloquial usage

In day to day speech, "cousin" is often used unmodified. Normally it means a first cousin, but some people use the term "cousin" to refer to cousins of all types, such as first, second, and third cousins, as well as cousins once or more times removed. Modifier terms such as "half-cousin" or "step-cousin" are rarely used in everyday speech.[citation needed]

Some people (erroneously) refer to a first cousin once removed as a "second cousin".

Extremely distant relations

Although use of the word "cousin" in this context is infrequent outside of evolution literature, any two individual organisms of any type, on Earth, are in fact very distant cousins by virtue of shared descent from a single cell in the Paleoarchean Era.[6][7]

See also

Notes and References

  1. ^ "Genetic And Quantitative Aspects Of Genealogy – Types Of Collateral Relationships". Retrieved 28 October 2014. 
  2. ^ Fitzhugh, Terrick V H (1988). The Dictionary of Genealogy (5th ed.). London: A & C Black. p. 81. ISBN 0-7136-4859-7. 
  3. ^ Science Daily: Third Cousins Have Greatest Number Of Offspring, Data From Iceland Shows. Date: February 8, 2008; Source: deCODE genetics.
  4. ^ kissing cousins Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved: 2012-11-22.
  5. ^ "Sibling" would be a more accurate label for this box. Also, read "son|daughter" for "son", and "nephew|niece" for "nephew".
  6. ^ Theobald, D. L. (2010), "A formal test of the theory of universal common ancestry", Nature 465 (7295): 219–22, Bibcode:2010Natur.465..219T, PMID 20463738, doi:10.1038/nature09014 
  7. ^ Hesman Saey, T. (14 May 2010). "All Modern Life on Earth Derived from Common Ancestor". Discovery News. 

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