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Creaky voice

Creaky voice
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In linguistics, creaky voice (sometimes called laryngealisation, pulse phonation, vocal fry, or glottal fry), is a special kind of phonation[1][2] in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact. They vibrate irregularly at 20–50 pulses per second, about two octaves below the frequency of normal voicing, and the airflow through the glottis is very slow. However, although creaky voice may occur with very low pitch, as at the end of a long intonation unit, it can occur with any pitch.

A slight degree of laryngealisation, occurring in some Korean consonants for example, is called "stiff voice". The Danish prosodic feature stød is an example of a form of laryngealisation that has a phonemic function. Creaky voice has been reported to be prevalent in American English as spoken in the Pacific Northwest of the United States.[3][4] However, it has also been reported that use of creaky voice has been spreading among women across the United States.[5][6][7]

Some languages, such as Jalapa Mazatec, use creaky voice as a linguistically significant marker; that is, the presence or absence of creaky voice can change the meaning of a word.[8]

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, creaky voice of a phone is represented by a diacritical tilde Template:Unichar, for example [d̰].


  1. ^ Titze, I. R. (2008). "The Human Instrument". Scientific American 298 (1): 94–101. PMID 18225701. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0108-94. 
  2. ^ Titze, I. R. (1994). Principles of Voice Production. Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-717893-3. 
  3. ^ Paulson, T. (2005-05-26). "A Northwest dialect? That's 'Goofy,' some say". SeattlePI. 
  4. ^ Banse, T. (2005-07-22). "Pacific Northwest Dialect Spoken Here". 
  5. ^ Yuasa, I. P. (2010). "Creaky Voice: A New Feminine Voice Quality for Young Urban-Oriented Upwardly Mobile American Women?". American Speech 85 (3): 315–337. doi:10.1215/00031283-2010-018. 
  6. ^ Wolk, L.; Abdelli-Beruhe, N. B.; Slavin, D. (2012). "Habitual Use of Vocal Fry in Young Adult Female Speakers". Journal of Voice 26 (3): e111–e116. PMID 21917418. doi:10.1016/j.jvoice.2011.04.007. 
  7. ^
  8. ^ Ashby, M.; Maidment, J. A. (2005). Introducing Phonetic Science. Cambridge University Press. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-521-00496-1. Retrieved 2012-06-30. 

Further reading

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