Cretan hieroglyphs are undeciphered hieroglyphs found on artefacts of early Bronze Age Crete, during the Minoan era. It predates Linear A by about a century, but continued to be used in parallel for most of their history.
In 1989, Jean-Pierre Olivier described the state of the Cretan hieroglyphs corpus as follows,
In short, our Corpus is composed of two distinct parts:
1. Seals and sealings (ca. 150 documents)
2. Other documents (mainly archival inscriptions) inscribed on clay (ca. 120 documents).
The seals and sealings represent about 307 distinct sign-groups, consisting all together of ± 832 signs. The other inscriptions represent about 274 distinct sign-groups, consisting all together of ± 723 signs.
More documents have been published since then, such as, for example, from the Petras deposit.
The known corpus has been edited in 1996 as CHIC (Olivier/Godard 1996), mainly excavated at four locations:
- "Quartier Mu" at Malia (MM II)
- the hieroglyphic deposit at Malia palace (MM III)
- the hieroglyphic deposit at Knossos (MM II or III)
- the Petras deposit (MM IIB): a hieroglyphic archive excavated starting in 1995. Definitive edition was published in 2010.
The corpus consists of:
- clay documents with incised inscriptions (CHIC H: 1-122)
- sealstone impressions (CHIC I: 123-179)
- sealstones (CHIC S: 180-314)
- the Malia altar stone
- the Phaistos Disk
- the Arkalochori Axe
- seal fragment HM 992, showing a single symbol, identical to Phaistos Disk glyph 21.
The relation of the last three items with the script of the main corpus is uncertain.
It has been suggested that there was an evolution of the hieroglyphs into the linear scripts. Also, some relations to Anatolian hieroglyphs have been suggested.
“The overlaps between the Cretan script and other scripts, such as the hieroglyphic scripts of Cyprus and the Hittite lands of Anatolia, may suggest ... that they all evolved from a common ancestor, a now-lost script perhaps originating in Syria.”
Symbol inventories have been compiled by Evans (1909), Meijer (1982), Olivier/Godart (1996). The known corpus has been edited in 1996 as CHIC (Olivier/Godard 1996), listing a total of 314 items (documents).
There are also 23 logograms representing four levels of numerals (units, tens, hundreds, thousands), numerical fractions, and two types of punctuation.
The sequence and the geographical spread of Cretan hieroglyphs, Linear A, and Linear B, the three overlapping, but distinct writing systems on Bronze Age Crete and the Greek mainland can be summarized as follows:
|Writing system||Geographical area||Time span[lower-alpha 1]|
|Cretan Hieroglyphic||Crete||c. 2100–1700 BC|
|Linear A||Aegean islands (Kea, Kythera, Melos, Thera), and Greek mainland (Laconia)||c. 2500–1450 BC|
|Linear B||Crete (Knossos), and mainland (Pylos, Mycenae, Thebes, Tiryns)||c. 1450–1200 BC|
- Beginning date refers to first attestations, the assumed origins of all scripts lie further back in the past.
- Yule 1981, 170-1
- Jean-Pierre Olivier, The Relationship between Inscriptions on Hieroglyphic Seals and those Written on Archival Documents (PDF file). in Palaima, Thomas G, ed., Aegean seals, sealings and administration. Université de Liège, Histoire de l'art et archéologie de la Grèce antique, 1990
- Metaxia Tsipopoulou & Erik Hallager, The Hieroglyphic Archive at Petras, Siteia (with contributions by Cesare D’Annibale & Dimitra Mylona). Download PDF file 60 MB Monographs of the Danish Institute at Athens, volume 9. The Danish Institute at Athens. Athens, 2010 ISBN 978-87-7934-293-4
- Margalit Finkelberg, Bronze Age Writing: Contacts between East and West. In E. H. Cline and D. Harris-Cline (eds.). The Aegean and the Orient in the Second Millennium. Proceedings of the 50th Anniversary Symposium, Cincinnati, 18–20 April 1997. Liège 1998. Aegeum 18 (1998) 265-272.
- Rodney Castleden, Minoans. Routledge, 2002 ISBN 1134880642 p.100
- Olivier, J.-P. (1986). "Cretan Writing in the Second Millennium B.C.". World Archaeology 17 (3): 377–389 (377f.). doi:10.1080/00438243.1986.9979977.
- "The Danube Script and Other Ancient Writing Systems:A Typology of Distinctive Features". Harald Haarmann. 2008.
- Olivier, J.-P. (1986), "Cretan Writing in the Second Millennium B.C.", World Archaeology 17 (3): 377–389, doi:10.1080/00438243.1986.9979977
- Yule, Paul (1981), Online Early Cretan Seals: A Study of Chronology. Marburger Studien zur Vor und Frühgeschichte (4), ISBN 3-8053-0490-0
- W. C. Brice, Notes on the Cretan Hieroglyphic Script: I. The Corpus. II. The Clay Bar from Malia, H20, Kadmos 29 (1990) 1-10.
- W. C. Brice, Cretan Hieroglyphs & Linear A, Kadmos 29 (1990) 171-2.
- W. C. Brice, Notes on the Cretan Hieroglyphic Script: III. The Inscriptions from Mallia Quarteir Mu. IV. The Clay Bar from Knossos, P116, Kadmos 30 (1991) 93-104.
- W. C. Brice, Notes on the Cretan Hieroglyphic Script, Kadmos 31 (1992), 21-24.
- J.-P. Olivier, L. Godard, in collaboration with J.-C. Poursat, Corpus Hieroglyphicarum Inscriptionum Cretae (CHIC), Études Crétoises 31, De Boccard, Paris 1996, ISBN 2-86958-082-7.
- G. A. Owens, The Common Origin of Cretan Hieroglyphs and Linear A, Kadmos 35:2 (1996), 105-110.
- G. A. Owens, An Introduction to «Cretan Hieroglyphs»: A Study of «Cretan Hieroglyphic» Inscriptions in English Museums (excluding the Ashmolean Museum Oxford), Cretan Studies VIII (2002), 179-184.
- I. Schoep, A New Cretan Hieroglyphic Inscription from Malia (MA/V Yb 03), Kadmos 34 (1995), 78-80.
- J. G. Younger, The Cretan Hieroglyphic Script: A Review Article, Minos 31-32 (1996–1997) 379-400.
- P. Yule, Early Cretan Seals: A Study of Chronology. Marburger Studien zur Vor und Frühgeschichte 4 (Mainz 1981), ISBN 3-8053-0490-0