|Republic of Dagestan|
Республика Дагестан (Russian)</th></tr>
|— Republic —</th></tr>|
|Federal district</th>||North Caucasian</tr>|
|Economic region</th>||North Caucasus</tr>|
|Established</th>||January 20, 1921</tr>|
|Government (as of January 2013)</th></tr>|
|- Head</th>||Ramazan Abdulatipov</tr>|
|- Legislature</th>||People's Assembly</tr>|
|Area (as of the 2002 Census)</tr>|
|- Total</th>||Script error: No such module "convert".</tr>|
|Population (2010 Census)</tr>|
|- Density</th>||Script error: No such module "convert".</tr>|
|Time zone(s)</th>||MSK (UTC+03:00)</tr>|
|Official languages</th>||Russian; Aghul, Avar, Azerbaijani, Chechen, Dargwa, Kumyk, Lezgian, Lak, Nogai, Rutul, Tabasaran, Tat, Tsakhur</tr>|
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (January 2011)|
The oldest records about the region refer to the state of Caucasian Albania in the south, with its capital at Derbent and other important centers at Chola, Toprakh Qala, and Urtseki. The northern parts were held by a confederation of Dagestani tribes. In the first few centuries AD, Caucasian Albania continued to rule over what is present day Azerbaijan and mountains of Dagestan. It was fought over in Antiquity by Roman Empire and the Sassanid Persians and converted to Christianity early on.
In the 5th century AD, the Samian peregrinations took place from Ukraine to this land, they returned to their natal country by 150 BC. The Sassanids gained the upper hand and constructed a strong citadel at Derbent, known henceforward as the Caspian Gates, while the northern part of Dagestan was overrun by the Huns, followed by the Caucasian Avars. It is not clear whether the latter were instrumental in the rise of the Christian kingdom in the Central Dagestan highlands. Known as Sarir, this Avar-dominated state maintained a precarious existence in the shadow of Khazaria and the Caliphate until the ninth century, when it managed to assert its supremacy in the region.
In 664, the Persians were succeeded in Derbent by the Arabs, who in the 8th century repeatedly clashed with the Khazars. Although the local population rose against the Arabs of Derbent in 905 and 913, Islam was eventually adopted in urban centers, such as Samandar and Kubachi (Zerechgeran), from where it steadily penetrated into the highlands. By the 15th century, Albanian Christianity had died away, leaving a 10th-century church at Datuna as the sole monument to its existence.
Due to Muslim pressure and internal disunity, Sarir disintegrated in the early 12th century, giving way to the Khanate of Avaristan, a long-lived Muslim state that braved the devastating Mongol invasions of 1222 and 1239, followed by Tamerlane's raid in 1389.
As Mongolian authority gradually eroded, new centers of power emerged in Kaitagi and Tarki. In the early 16th century the Persians (under the Safavids) reconsolidated their rule over the region, which would, intermittently, last till the early 19th century. In the 16th and 17th centuries, legal traditions were codified and mountainous communities (djamaats) obtained a considerable degree of autonomy, while the Kumyk potentates (shamhals) asked for the Tsar's protection following the Russo-Persian War (1651–53), despite a Russian loss. The Russians intensified their hold in the region in the 18th century, when Peter the Great annexed maritime Dagestan in the course of the Russo-Persian War (1722–23). Although the territories were returned to Persia in 1735, the next bout of hostilities resulted in the Russian capture of Derbent in 1796. However, the Russians were again forced to retreat from the entire Caucasus following internal governmental problems, making Persia recapture the territory again.
The 18th century also saw the resurgence of the Khanate of Avaristan, which even managed to repulse the attacks of Nadir Shah of Persia and impose tribute on Shirvan and Georgia. In 1803 the khanate voluntarily submitted to Russian authority, but it took Persia a decade to recognize all of Dagestan as the Russian possession (Treaty of Gulistan).
The Russian administration, however, disappointed and embittered the highlanders. The institution of heavy taxation, coupled with the expropriation of estates and the construction of fortresses (including Makhachkala), electrified highlanders into rising under the aegis of the Muslim Imamate of Dagestan, led by Ghazi Mohammed (1828–32), Gamzat-bek (1832–34) and Shamil (1834–59). This Caucasian War raged until 1864, when Shamil was captured and the Khanate of Avaristan was abolished.
Dagestan and Chechnya profited from the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78), to rise together against Imperial Russia for the last time (Chechnya rose again various times throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries). 21 December 1917 Ingushetia, Chechnya, and Dagestan declared independence from Russia and formed a single state "United Mountain Dwellers of the North Caucasus" (also known as Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus) which was recognized by major world powers. The capital of the new state was moved to Temir-Khan-Shura (Dagestan) The first prime minister of the state was elected Tapa Chermoyev a Chechen prominent statesman, second prime minister was elected an Ingush statesman Vassan-Girey Dzhabagiev who also was the author of the Constitution of the land in 1917, in 1920 he was reelected for the third term. In 1921 Russians attack and occupy the country and forcefully join in to the Soviet state. Caucasian war for independence continues the government goes into exile. After the Bolshevik Revolution, Ottoman armies occupied Azerbaijan and Dagestan and the region became part of the short-lived Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus. After more than three years of fighting White movement and local nationalists, the Bolsheviks achieved victory and the Dagestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed on January 20, 1921. Nevertheless, Stalin's industrialization largely bypassed Dagestan and the economy stagnated, making the republic the poorest region in Russia.
As with its neighbors Georgia, Azerbaijan and Chechnya, Dagestan developed a renewed nationalist movement in the late 1980s. Dagestani nationalism, however, rested on very unstable foundations, as the republic was (and is) extremely multiethnic, with many of its regions being recent additions, and even the existence of a unified Dagestan was relatively new with little historical context (previously, Avaria had been a separate entity, and most areas were completely unrelated to any sort of centralizing government). Dagestan's new elite, composed overwhelmingly of Avars, Dargins and Russians founded and consolidated its power. To this day, Dagestan is a very troubled region. There are various underground Wahhabist/Islamist movements (some more moderate than others, there was also a constitutional Islamizationist party before it was banned), originating as early as the late 80s.
Dagestan's poor population, often displeased with the "official" clergy (who they deem as government puppets, either of the Dagestani government or of Russia), is occasionally drawn to these groups as a form or reaction against the government (not in the least because of the unifying power of the common Muslim religion in a highly multiethnic area paired with the promises of the Islamists to "end inequality, patriarchalism and corruptions of the true faith" paired with their occasional assistance to poor communities). However, attraction to Islamism varies between sectors of the population. People from Southern Dagestan, poorer people, people with a lower education level and people from certain ethnicities are more inclined to support Islamist tendencies. Whilst people from Northern Dagestan, Russians (who are not Muslim), Turkic peoples (who are often highly syncretic in their practice and often drawn instead to Turkic nationalism as a revolt against the authorities), more wealthy people, people from the hundred-or-so "governmental families", people with a higher education, and groups who are officially "not-native" to Dagestan (Russians, Azerbaijanis, Chechens, etc., regardless of actual nativeness they are not "titular groups") are less inclined. Separatism is also prominent: various groups resent the dominance of Dargins, Avars and Russians in government and revolt against this by calling Dagestan an artificial nation and demanding higher self-determination (i.e. secessionism). This is most noticeable among the Kumyks.
In 1999, a group of Muslim fundamentalists from Chechnya, led by warlords Shamil Basayev and Ibn Al-Khattab, launched a military invasion of Dagestan, with the aim of creating an "independent Islamic State of Dagestan". Although Basayev and Khattab had expected that they would be welcomed as liberators, the Dagestanis instead saw them as occupiers and unwelcome religious fanatics, and the initial resistance against the invasion was provided by the Dagestani police, spontaneous militias and villagers. Once Russian military help arrived, the invaders were beaten and driven back to Chechnya. As a retaliation, Russian forces subsequently reinvaded Chechnya later that year.
Violence in the Republic literally exploded from the beginning of 2010 to the end of 2012. This upsurge led many people to claim that Dagestan was about to enter into a situation of sectarian civil war. Dagestan became the epicenter of violence in the North Caucasus with Makhachkala, Kaspiisk, Derbent, Khasavyurt, Kizlyar, Sergokala, Untsukul, and Tsumada all becoming hotbeds of militant activities.
The Constitution of Dagestan was adopted on July 10, 2003. According to it, the highest executive authority lies with the State Council, comprising representatives of fourteen ethnicities. The members of the State Council are appointed by the Constitutional Assembly of Dagestan for a term of four years. The State Council appoints the members of the Government.
Formerly, the Chairman of the State Council was the highest executive post in the republic, held by Magomedali Magomedovich Magomedov until 2006. On February 20, 2006, the People's Assembly passed a resolution terminating this post and disbanding the State Council. Russian President Vladimir Putin offered the People's Assembly the candidature of Mukhu Aliyev for the newly established post of the President of the Republic of Dagestan. The nomination was accepted by the People's Assembly, and Mukhu Aliyev became the first President of the republic. On 20 February 2010 Aliyev was replaced by Magomedsalam Magomedov. The current Head of the republic is Ramazan Abdulatipov (acting until 2013, following the resignation of Magomedov).
Because its mountainous terrain impedes travel and communication, Dagestan is unusually ethnically diverse, and still largely tribal. It is Russia's most heterogeneous republic. Unlike most other parts of Russia, Dagestan's population is rapidly growing.
|Average population (x 1000)||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1000)||Crude death rate (per 1000)||Natural change (per 1000)||Fertility rates|
The people of Dagestan include a large variety of ethnicities. According to the 2010 Census, Northeast Caucasians (including Avars, Dargins, Lezgins, Laks and Tabasarans) make up almost 75% of the population of Dagestan. Turkic peoples, Kumyks, Azerbaijanis and Nogais make up 21%, and Russians 3,6%. Other ethnicities each account for less than 0.4% of the total population.
|1926 Census||1939 Census||1959 Census||1970 Census||1979 Census||1989 Census||2002 Census||2010 Census1|
|1 18,430 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.|
The indigenous ethnicities of Dagestan in bold.
There are also 40 or so tiny groups such as the Hinukh, numbering 439, or the Akhvakhs, who are members of a complex family of indigenous Caucasians. Notable are also the Hunzib or Khunzal people who live in only four towns in the interior.
More than 30 local languages are commonly spoken, most belonging to the Northeast Caucasian language family. Russian became the principal lingua franca in Dagestan during the 20th century; prior to that, beginning in the 18th century, it had been Classical Arabic. The northern Avar dialect of Khunzakh has also served as a lingua franca in central Dagestan.
According to a 2012 official survey 83% of the population of Dagestan adheres to Islam, 2.4% to the Russian Orthodox Church, 2% to Caucasian Neopaganism, 1% are non-denominational Christians. In addition, 9% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 2% is atheist and 0.6% follows other religions or did not answer to the question.
Dagestanis are largely Sunni Muslims, of the Shafii rites, that has been in place for centuries. On the Caspian coast, particularly in and around the port city of Derbent, the population (primarily made of the Azerbaijanis) is Shia.
A relatively large number of native Tati speaking Jews, designated by the Soviet state censuses as the "Mountain Jews" were also present in this same coastal areas, but since 1991 and the collapse of the Soviet Union they have migrated to Israel and the United States. These were an extension of much larger Jewish community across the border in Azerbaijan (districts of Quba and Shamakhi).
The appearance of Sufi mysticism in Dagestan dates back to the 14th century. The two Sufi tariqas that spread in the North Caucasus were the Naqshbandiya and the Qadiriya. The mystic Tariqas preached tolerance and coexistence between the diverse people in the region. The Communist total intolerance for any religion after the Communist Revolution of 1917 also suppressed the Sufi movements. Shaykh Said Afandi al-Chirkawi is prominent scholar, spiritual leader and murshid of Naqshbandi and Shadhili tariqahs in Dagestan.
The number of Christians among the non-Slavic indigenous population is very low, with estimates between 2,000 and 2,500. Most of these are Pentecostal Christians from the Lak ethnicity. The largest congregation is Osanna Evangelical Christian Church (Pentecostal) in Makhachkala, with more than 1,000 members.
The major industries in Dagestan include oil production, engineering, chemicals, machine building, textile manufacturing, food processing, and the timber. Oil deposits are located in the narrow coastal region. The Dagestani oil is of high quality, and is delivered to other regions. Dagestan's natural gas production goes mostly to satisfy local needs. Agriculture is varied and includes grain-farming, viticulture and wine-making, sheep-farming, and dairying. The engineering and metalworking industries own 20% of the republic's industrial production assets and employ 25% of all industrial workers. Dagestan's hydroelectric power industry is developing rapidly. There are five power plants on the Sulak River providing hydroelectric power. It has been estimated that Dagestan's total potential hydroelectric power resources are 4.4 billion kW. Dagestan has a well-developed transportation system. Railways connect the capital Makhachkala to Moscow, Astrakhan, and the Azerbaijani capital, Baku. The Moscow-Baku highway also passes through Dagestan, and there are air links with major cities.
Conditions for economic development are favorable in Dagestan, but – as of 2006 – the republic's low starting level for a successful transition to market relations, in addition to rampant corruption, has made the region highly dependent on its underground economy and the subsidies coming from the central Russian government. Corruption in Dagestan is more severe than in other regions of the former Soviet Union, and is coupled with a flourishing black market and clan-based economic system.
In 2011 Rostelecom started implementation of WDM-based equipment on the backbone network for data transmission in the Republic of Dagestan. Due to WDM introduction the fiber-optic communication lines bandwidth increased to 2.5 Gbit/s. Rostelecom invested about 48 million rubles in the project.
Since 2000, Dagestan has been the venue of a low-level guerrilla war, bleeding over from Chechnya; the fighting has claimed the lives of hundreds of federal servicemen and officials—mostly members of local police forces—as well as many Dagestani national rebels and civilians.
More recently, among other incidents:
- On May 15, 2008, two MVD officers were killed and one police officer heavily wounded during an ambush on their vehicle in Gubden.
- On September 8, 2008, Abdul Madzhid and several rebels were killed in an ambush by Russian special forces.
- On October 21, 2008, rebels ambushed a Russian military truck, killing five soldiers and wounding nine others.
- On January 6, 2010, a suicide bomber attempted to blow up a police station in Makhachkala, killing six officers and wounding 14 others.
- On March 31, 2010, 12 people were killed and 18 wounded by two suicide bombings in the town of Kizlyar outside the offices of the local interior ministry and the FSB security agency. The second bomb went off twenty minutes after the first, as a crowd had gathered. In the early hours of the next morning two people died as a bomb went off in their car, apparently prematurely, near the village of Toturbiikala.
- On July 15, 2010, Pastor Artur Suleimanov, a Muslim convert to Christianity, was murdered by a gunman. The pastor was killed in his car as he was leaving the Hosanna House of Prayer in Makhachkala, Dagestan in the North Caucasus region, according to a religious persecution watchdog group, Voice of the Martyrs, report. Pastor Suleimanov's church is one of the largest Protestant churches in Dagestan. Christians in the Russian Republic of Dagestan, which borders Chechnya, face harassment and intimidation from various groups. Pastor Suleimanov's life had been threatened on several previous occasions.
- On September 23, 2011, Magomed Murtuzaliyev, a high-level law enforcement official, was shot and killed by gunmen.
- On September 28, 2011, 7 civilians and a police officer were killed by a car bomb in the village of Hajjalmakhi.
- On May 4, 2012, 12 people were killed in two separate explosions on the outskirts of Makhachkala, capital of Russia's Dagestan region.
- On August 28, 2012, Sheikh Said Afandi, an influential 75-year-old Sufi cleric, was killed along with six others in a suicide bombing. Afandi, a Sufi Muslim, opposed violent jihad in Dagestan.
- Avshalumov Hizgil Davidovich (1913–2001) – Soviet novelist, poet, playwright. Wrote in Mountain Jews (Juhuri) and Russian languages.
- Aliyeva Fazu Gamzatovna (b. 1932) – Avar poet, folk poet of Dagestan (1969).
- Askerkhanov Rashid Pashaevich (1920–1987) – cardiologist, Doctor of Medical Sciences, corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (1974).
- Amirkhanov Habibullah Ibragimovic – Soviet physicist, member of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1970), Chairman of the Presidium of the Dagestan branch of the USSR (1950), academician of the Academy of Sciences (since 1949)
- Esai Baschkin (1877–1946) – Born Esai Bashkin at Timir-Chan-Schura, now Buinaksk Dagestan. Descendant of Pyotr Bagration. Family operated major shipping line operating from Makhachkala Dagestan. Joined Russian Army 1896 and participated in the Italo-Ethiopian War. Taken POW by British Forces, escaped to Russian lines and promoted commander of a cavalry unit assigned to the Imperial Guard. In 1903, accepted position in Russian Arms Ministry as logistics officer assigned to the City of Rostov. In 1905 befriended German Artillery Officer Oskar von Niedermeyer, who convinced Bashkin to spy for Germany. Over the course of several years, Bashkin started a network of spies who would provide the German High Command with vital Russian military plans. In 1916 upon the Russian Revolution, the High Command moved Bashkin and his family to Berlin under official protection where he was able to maintain his spy network. Bashkin changed name to Baschkin and accepted employment with Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft (AEG). Bashkin Emigrated with his family to New York USA in 1939.
- Gadzhiyev Khairutdin Efendievich (b. 1920) – a physician, MD, professor, founder of the Dagestan school therapists
- Gamzatov Rasul Gamzatovich (1923–2003) – Avar poet, writer, political activist.
- Izgiyayev Sergey Davidovich (1922–1972) – Mountain Jew Soviet poet, playwright and translator.
- Izrailov Tankho Selimovic (1917–1981) – dancer, choreographer, People's Artist of the USSR (1978)
- Meilanov Vazif Sirazhutdinovich (b. 1940) – Soviet dissident and political prisoner, political activist.
- Mishiev Yagutil Israelovich (b. 1927) – Honored Teacher of the Republic of Dagestan and the Russian Federation, publicist, author of books about the history of Derbent.
- Mushailov Mushail Khanukhovich (1941–2007) – a painter, a member of the USSR Union of Artists and Israel.
- Puterbrot Eduard Moiseevich (1940–1993) – Dagestan artist and member of the USSR Union of Artists.
- Solomonov Albert Romanovich (b. 1973) – Israeli football coach.
- Tsvaygenbaum Israel Iosifovich (b. 1961) – Russian-American artist.
- Yagudaev Anatoliy Mikhaylovich (b. 1935) – sculptor, Member of the USSR, Honored Artist of Dagestan, Honored Artist of Russia.
- Abdulkhakim Ismailov (1916–2010), World War II soldier
- Buvaisar Saitiev (b. March 11, 1975 in Khasavyurt, Dagestan ASSR) – Russia's freestyle wrestler, three-time Olympic champion, six-time world champion, six-time European champion, five-time Russian champion, seven-time winner of the tournament Krasnoyarsk Ivan Yarygin winner Goodwill Games will. Honored Master of Sports of Russia (1995).
- Adam Saitiev (December 12, 1977, Khasavyurt, Dagestan ASSR) – Russia's freestyle wrestler, a Chechen, Russian Master of sports of international class, Honored Master of Sports of Russia (2000), three-time champion of Russia (1999, 2000, 2002), three-time champion Europe (1999, 2000, 2006), two-time world champion (1999, 2002), Olympic champion (2000).
- Mavlet Batirov Alavdinovich (December 12, 1983, Khasavyurt, Dagestan ASSR, USSR) – Russian wrestler, two-time Olympic champion (2004 and 2008). A native of Dagestan, an ethnic Avar.
- Kuramagomed Kuramagomedov (b. 1978), freestyle wrestler who competed for Russia in the 2000 Summer Olympics, and won a world title in 1997
- Khabib Nurmagomedov – UFC fighter in the lightweight division
- Rustam Khabilov – UFC fighter in the lightweight division
- Ali Bagautinov – UFC fighter in the flyweight division
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- List of clashes in the North Caucasus
- Music of Dagestan
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- The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
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- Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
- According to Article 11 of the Constitution of Dagestan, the official languages of the republic include "Russian and the languages of the peoples of Dagestan"
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- "Sheikh Murdered Over Religious Split Say Analysts | Russia | RIA Novosti". En.rian.ru. 30 August 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
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- В. М. Солнцев и др., ed. (2000). Письменные языки мира: Российская Федерация. Социолингвистическая энциклопедия. (in Russian). Москва: Российская Академия Наук. Институт языкознания. проект №99-04-16158.
- 10 июля 2003 г. «Конституция Республики Дагестан», в ред. Закона №45 от 7 октября 2008 г. (July 10, 2003 Constitution of the Republic of Dagestan, as amended by the Law #45 of October 7, 2008. ).
- Invalid language code. Official governmental website of Dagestan
- Egbert Wesselink (1998). "Dagestan (Daghestan): Comprehensive Report". Caspian.net. Archived from the original on 5 October 2001. Retrieved January 15, 2012.
- Dagestan in Iranica Encyclopaedia
- History of Islam in Russia
- "The North Caucasus," Russian Analytical Digest No. 22 (5 June 2007)
- BBC Country Report on Dagestan
- University of Texas maps of the Dagestan region
- Radio Free Europe discusses religious tension in Dagestan
- ISN Case Study: The North Caucasus on the Brink (August 2006)
- Articles on Dagestan, reports from research, photos
- Dagestan in Pictures Invalid language code.
- Daghestan's Kaitag Embroideries – and Henri Matisse?
- Invalid language code. Dagestan Republic News Portal
- Catholic Haidak in the Holy Roman Empire (rus)
- Kaziev, Shapi. Imam Shamil. "Molodaya Gvardiya" publishers. Moscow, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2010
- Kaziev, Shapi. Akhoulgo. Caucasian War of 19th century. The historical novel. "Epoch", Publishing house. Makhachkala, 2008. ISBN 978-5-98390-047-9
- Kaziev, Shapi. Caucasian highlanders. Everyday life of the Caucasian highlanders. 19th century (In the co-authorship with I.Karpeev). "Molodaya Gvardiy" publishers. Moscow, 2003. ISBN 5-235-02585-7
- Kaziev, Shapi. Crash of tyrant. Nadir Shah (Крах тирана). The historical novel about Nadir Shah. "Epoch", Publishing house. Makhachkala, 2009. ISBN 978-5-98390-066-0