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Dan Gertler

Dan Gertler
Born December 1973 (age 42)
Nationality Israeli
Occupation Businessman
Years active 1996–present
Net worth 11px US$ 2.5 billion (2014)[1]
Title President, DGI (Dan Gertler International) Group of Companies
Term 1996–present
Predecessor Founder
Successor Incumbent
Relatives Moshe Schnitzer (grandfather)

Dan Gertler (born December 1973) is an Israeli businessman and the founder and President of the DGI (Dan Gertler International) Group of Companies. He has large interests in diamonds and copper mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), formerly Zaire, the largest country in sub-Saharan Africa. He has also invested in iron ore, gold, cobalt, agriculture, banking and oil.[2]

Since the 2000s offshore companies associated with Dan Gertler, a friend of Augustin Katumba Mwanke, purchased mining projects directly from the Congolese government. This move has been seen as controversial by some. Gertler denies any wrongdoing and asserts that he is helping the Congolese people by providing jobs, schools and other basic supplies.

In 2013 Dan Gertler was one of seventeen billionaires from Israel who was listed in 670th place on the Forbes list of billionaires with a fortunes of $2.2 billion. His partner in Global Enterprises Corporate (GEC), mining magnate Beny Steinmetz, ranked in 316th place a fortune of $4.1 billion.[3]

Background

Dan Gertler was born in December 1973. He is a grandson of Moshe Schnitzer, first President and co-founder of the Israeli Diamond Exchange in 1947,[2] who won the Israel Prize in 2004. His family was traditionally involved in cutting and merchandising diamonds. While growing up, Gertler spent as much time as he could learning about the diamond trade from his father and grandfather. As soon as he had completed his 3-year mandatory service in the Israeli Defense Forces he opened his own diamond business.[4]

Gertler founded the Dan Gertler International (DGI) group of companies in 1996.[5] The Yedioth Aharonoth weekend supplement on 19 September 1999 asserted that in 1997 Gertler had been involved in financing a program to buy diamonds in Liberia and Sierra Leone in exchange for military training and arms deliveries. The plan fell apart due to the chaotic political changes and military events in Sierra Leone at that time.[6] [7] Gertler was also involved in trading in Russia and Guinea.[6]

International Monetary Fund: Mining Controversy

In December 2012 the International Monetary Fund stopped a US$500m (£310m) loan to the Congo because of irregularities in the way company controlled by Dan Gertler acquired minerals from Joseph Kabila's government. In the same week Katash-founded mining company Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation (ENRC), Gertler's biggest partner in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, severed its relationship with him.[8]

In September 2011 the International Monetary Fund asked for explanations from Sodimico and Gecamines, both state owned mining companies, concerning sales of assets below market value and without publicity. At the time, the IMF was providing loans to the DRC worth $561 million to improve the economy. Gecamines had sold its 20% share of the Mutanda project to Rowny Assets. This company, registered in the British Virgin Islands, was said to be "associated" with Gertler. The share was worth an estimated $600 million, but was sold for $137 million.[9] Analysts criticized lack of transparency in the disposal of key assets by Gecamines, which the government was preparing for sale to private investors.[10]

In December 2012, it was reported that Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation (ENRC) had spent $550m buying itself out of a DRC copper-mining partnership with Gertler, who has been accused of making the majority of his $2.5bn fortune from "looting Congo at the expense of its people".[1]

Dan Gertler's companies

In April 2013, Gertler sold one of his Congo-based oil companies, Nessergy Ltd, for a reported $150 million. The value of the sale amounted to 300 times more than the original purchase price for the mineral rights. Advocacy group Global Witness criticized the deal for a perceived lack of transparency on the part of Gertler and the Congolese government.[11][12]

Fleurette Group and Fleurette Properties

Fleurette Properties, is a Gibraltar-based company which has at least "60 holding companies in offshore havens such as the Virgin Islands" through which Dan Gertler controls concessions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo[2] Fleurette Group refers to the group of companies with respect to which Fleurette Properties is either the direct or indirect shareholder.[13] The Fleurette Group has owned the Kansuki concession since 2006.[13]

Gertler Family Trust

In 2007 Gertler’s family trust was the major shareholder of Prairie International Ltd. which "owns Tremalt Ltd which owns 80% of Savannah Mining, the holder of the other half of copper and cobalt operation Mukondo as well as concessions C17 and C18 in the mineral-rich Katanga province", Democratic Republic of the Congo[14]

Camrose Resources Ltd > Africo > Kalukundi Mine

  • Gentler Family Trust > Camrose Resources Ltd > Africo (2008) > Kalukundi

In June 2010 the Financial Post of Canada reported that Highwind Properties, a company registered in the British Virgin Islands, now owned the Kolwezi project. The newspaper, citing unnamed sources, linked the company to Dan Gertler.[15] In August 2010 ENRC, a company listed in London with most of its operations in Kazakhstan, said it was buying indirect control of the Kolwezi licence from Dan Gertler.[16] ENRC was buying 50.5% of Camrose from Gertler. Camrose's key asset was a 70% interest in the Kolwezi project.[17] The Kolwezi property was sold to Gertler for $20 million. He in turn sold 50.5% of Camrose to ENRC for $175 million. In April 2011 a British MP called for an investigation of the transaction under the Bribery Act.[18]

Camrose's other assets included a "64% stake in Canada listed Africo Resources which held a 75% interest in Kalukundi exploitation licence as well as 56% indirect interest in Comide Sprl, which held the exploitation licence for Mashitu, Pangalume and Kii tenements."[19]

According to an article in the Mail and Guardian (Wood et al. 2012) [20] Camrose acquired a controlling stake in Africo through a simultaneous, complex and clever set of transactions from 2007-2008. Located in the south-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo's copper belt, the lucrative Kalukundi concession owned by Congolese company Swanmines, which was part-owned by Canadian miner Africo Resources, had a potential of high copper and cobalt yields. In April 2007 Africo was preparing to purchase enough shares to become the majority shareholder of Kalukundi when a third party entered into litigation claiming prior ownership. Dan Getler offered to help through his connections with Democratic Republic of Congo's President, President Joseph Kabila. Gertler purchased the third party company and resold it to Africo. In July 2008, the Getler company, Camrose Resources, purchased Africo shares worth about $100-million. Camrose then held 63% controlling stake in Africo. Camrose had paid for Africo through a loan from an offshore British Virgin Islands-registered company called Vipar, an affiliate of Africa Management Limited (Wood et al. 2012)."[20]

In 2007 Africa Management Limited was created as a joint venture between South African housing minister Tokyo Sexwale's "investment vehicle Mvelaphanda Holdings, its associate company Palladino Holdings, and Och-Ziff Capital Management, a $30-billion New York hedge fund (Wood et al 2012)."[20] The hedge fund Och-Ziff Capital Management Gertler's Camrose $150-million via Africa Management and Vipar. In this way Sexwale and associates aided Gertler in selling Kalukundi, "grabbed" by a third party, back to its original owner (Wood et al. 2012)."[20]

Highwind Group 2010

  • Gertler Family Trust > Camrose Resources Ltd > Highwind Group (2010)

In September 2009 the DRC government revoked the license of Canadian mining First Quantum Minerals to operate the Kolwezi copper tailings project. First Quantum appealed the decision. The CEO Philip Pascal said "the activities on the legal side come from a small and very influential group of individuals in the Congo and don't necessarily mirror the sentiments of a number of other authorities".[15] Later the government also expropriated the Frontier and Lonshi mines from First Quantum. In March 2011 the state-owned Sodimico sold its 30% stake in these two mines for $30 million to two companies registered in the British Virgin Islands. The total estimated value of the mines was over $1.6 billion.[9]

August 2010, Camrose, acquired British Virgin Island-based Highwind Group.[21]

Camrose Resources Ltd, a Gertler family trust company, purchased s 62.5% share of Africo Resources in 2008. In February, 2009 Africo confirmed that it had the go ahead from the DRC government for 75%-owned Kalukundi project.[22]

In 2009 Vancouver, Canada-based through Dan Gertler's newly formed British Virgin Island-based company, Highwinds old ENRC 50.5% of Kolwezi Mine Tailings (KWT) a "multi-billion dollar copper and cobalt tailings reprocessing facility" [19] that had been expropriated in 2009 by the DRC from Vancouver, Canada-based through Dan Gertler's newly formed British Virgin Island-based company, Highwinds.[23]

Prairie International Ltd. 2007 Mukondo, Kanaga Copper Belt

  • Gentler Family Trust > Prairie International Ltd. > Tremalt Ltd > Savannah Mining

Miningmx reported in November 2007 that natural resources investor Dan Gertler’s Prairie International Ltd. and CAMEC had created a Joint Venture Vehicle in the Mukondo, a Katanga Province copper and cobalt project, with concessions held by the state-owned Gecamines. "Tremalt will be transferred into the joint venture vehicle."[14]

Billy Rautenbach, another Zimbabwe businessman, had formerly owned Boss Mining. In a February 2006 deal, Rautenbach had gained about 17% of the CAMEC shares when CAMEC bought Boss.[24] Gertler and CAMEC made plans to combine the Mukondo assets into a new holding company. Billy Rautenbach would be excluded from ownership in the new company due to the hostile relations that had developed between him and the DRC government.[14]

Prairie International and CAMEC signed the MOU to complete the deal in November 2007.[25] In February 2008 the two companies announced that the Mukondo Mountain operations had restarted.[26]

Tremalt Ltd 2006 Mukondo Mine, Kanaga Copper Belt

Gertler’s Family Trust > Prairie International Ltd > Tremalt Ltd > Mukondo Mine

In June 2006 Gertler bought Tremalt, which had a half share in the Mukondo Mine for about $60m from the Zimbabwean businessman John Bredenkamp.[24]

In 2007 Tremalt was owned by Prairie International Ltd, of which Dan Gertler’s family trust was a major shareholder. Tremalt owned 80% of Savannah Mining, which held concessions C17 and C18 in Katanga Province and 50% of the Mukondo project. The other 50% of Mukonda was held by Boss Mining, which in turn was 80% owned by Central African Mining & Exploration Company (CAMEC).[14]

Boss Mining had rented and operated Bredenkamp's half of Mukondo. Gertler terminated this arrangement.[27]

DEM Mining 2006 - Cobalt and Copper in Katanga Copper Belt

In April 2006 Gertler's DGI took a major stake in DEM Mining. a cobalt-copper mining and services company based in Katanga.[27]

Global Enterprises Corporate (GEC) 2004- Katanga Copper Belt

  • Gentler Family Trust > Global Enterprises Corporate (GEC) > Nikanor

Global Enterprises Corporate (GEC) founded in March 2004 by Dan Gertler International DGI in partnership with Beny Steinmetz Global. In May 2004 GEC signed a preliminary agreement with the state-owned Gécamines, finalized in September that year, to rehabilitate and operate the Kananga and Tilwezembe copper mines. The deal was ratified by presidential decree.

A World Bank report (2007) reviewed The Democratic Republic of Congo's three biggest mining contracts finding that the 2005 deals including one with Global Enterprises Company, a company co-owned by Dan Getler, were approved with "a complete lack of transparency (Mahtani January 3, 2007)".[27][28] [29]

Nikanor Plc Copper

  • Gertler Family Trust > Catela Global > Anvil Trust

In February 2007, 22% of the Nikanor Mining company was owned by the Gertner Family Trust and 14% by Dan Gertler.[30] Gertler and Steinmetz placed Global Enterprises Corporate (GEC)'s 75% share in KOV into Nikanor Plc., registered in the Isle of Man. Nikanor's stock was listed on the LSE's Alternative Investment Market in London in July 2006. The IPO raised $400 million, and Nikanor's market capitalization reached $1.5 billion.[27] In January 2008 Katanga Mining acquired Nikanor PLC for $452m.[29]

In a 2011 article by Reuters journalists described Glencore as the biggest company you never heard of. The article described how Glencore and Dan Gertler partnered in Nikanor from 2007 until its final merger with Katanga Mining.[31]

In June 2007, "Glencore and partner Dan Gertler, an Israeli mining magnate, paid £300 million for a quarter-stake in mining company Nikanor, which was seeking to revive derelict copper mines next to Katanga Mining's properties. That deal gave Glencore exclusive rights to sell all Nikanor's output -- an "offtake" agreement.... [Then, o]n Christmas Eve 2008, ... [having] lost 97 percent of its market value over the previous six months ... in the depths of the global financial crisis and ... running out of cash, Katanga accepted a lifeline it could not refuse. Glencore wanted control. For about US$500 million in a convertible loan and rights issue, Katanga agreed to issue more than a billion new shares and hand what would become a stake of 74 percent to Glencore. ... [By early 2011], with copper prices regularly setting records above US$10,000 a ton, Katanga's stock market value [had reached] nearly US$3.2 billion.... [Since the Glencore acquisition], Katanga ... is reaping the benefit of the surging markets and its wealthy, powerful owner. After losing US$108 million in 2009, it posted an annual profit of US$265 million in 2010."
[31]

Catela Global

  • Gertler Family Trust > Catela Global > Anvil Trust

In July 2008 Anvil Mining announced that it was selling about C$296 million worth of shares worth to Catala Global in a private placement. Catela Global, a company owned by Dan Gertler's family trust, would own around 25% of Anvil on completion of the deal.[32] Although RBC Capital Markets analyst Cailey Barker speculated that Anvil would use the cash infusion for acquisitions, the company insisted it would remain focused on completing its Kinsevere Stage II project.[33] In August 2008 the amount to be paid was lowered to about C$237 million due to "the significant deterioration in market conditions for resource companies".[34]

Emerald Star Enterprises Limited BVI 2009 SMKK

Emerald Star Enterprises Limited, a company controlled by Gertler's Family Trust, was incorporated October 29, 2009 in the British Virgin Islands. December 21, 2009 Emerald Star Enterprises Limited sold an option to buy the remaining 50 percent stake of Société Minière de Kabolela et de Kipese SPRL, (a company formed by Melkior Resources Inc, and Gecamines that holds the rights to develop the Kabolela cobalt - copper deposit) to Katash-founded mining company Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation (ENRC) who already owned 50 percent. The other 50 percent actually belonged to state-woned Gecamines. In February 2010 Emerald Star Enterprises Limited actually purchased Gecamines 50 percent for $15 million and sold these shares to Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation (ENRC) for $50 million. Emerald Star Enterprises Limited paid $15 million, and sold for $75 million making a 500 percent return.[2]

Rowny Assets Limited BVI- 2011 Mutanda Mine, Katanga Copper Belt

Rowny Assets Limited is one of the offshore firms owned by Gertler's family as described in the 1,637-page initial Glencore public offering (IPO) prospectus.[35] Gecamines had sold its 20% share of the Mutanda project to Rowny Assets. This company, registered in the British Virgin Islands, was said to be "associated" with Gertler. The share was worth an estimated $600 million, but was sold for $137 million.[9]

Rowny Assets Limited was in Glencore’s May 4, 2011 listing prospectus, Rowny Assets Limited an entity associated with Gertler recently acquired a 20% interest in Mutanda from Gecamines.[36]

Biko Invest Corporation BVI 2011

Biko Invest Corporation BVI linked to Dan Gertler was incorporated February 23, 2011 in the British Virgin Islands. Biko Invest Corporation BVI also linked with Gertler bought a quarter of Kansuki Sprl from Gecamines in 2011.[36]

Gertler Family Foundation

Co-founded in 2004 by Dan Gertler and the Gertler Family Trust, the Gertler Family Foundation (GFF)[37][38] is a philanthropic organization that focuses on development initiatives in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Its main activities include healthcare programs, emergency assistance,[39] education programs and improvements to infrastructure. The Gertler Family Foundation operates in Kinshasa, Katanga, Kasaï-Oriental, Orientale, Maniema, and Sud Kivu within the DRC. To date, over $120 million has been utilized to build schools,[40] hospitals,[41][42] primary health clinics and to provide educational support, including textbooks, scholarships for higher education and academic resources, in disadvantaged areas. The GFF also invests in outreach and education programs for at-risk youth in major cities in the DRC.

Dan Gertler International (DGI)

The DGI Group of Companies ("DGI") was founded by Dan Gertler in 1992.

International Diamond Industries-Congo (IDI-Congo)

Through his friendship with the young Joseph Kabila, Dan Gertler was introduced to the father, the President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Laurent Kabila in 2000.[2] Gertler became increasingly close to President Joseph Kabila, and was invited to Kabila's wedding in 2006.[43]) According to a report in "Rough & Polished" Gertler paid $20 million to Kabila for a monopoly on exporting Congo diamonds.[5] By 2009 DGI group was one of the largest wholesale distributors of rough and polished diamonds in the world. The group spans mining, manufacturing and sales.[5]

From September 2000 through April 2001 Gertler had a diamond export monopoly in the country. He ran a "comptoir" in the Democratic Republic of Congo and International Diamond Industries-Congo (IDI-Congo) affiliate of the Israeli firm IDI-Diamonds Industry. "A report on an inquiry carried out by the mines auditing service at the behest of the secretary general at the mines ministry, was harshly critical of the International Diamond Industries-Congo (IDI-Congo) company which won an 18-month contract giving them sole right to buy "all diamonds produced in territory under the control of the Congolese Government." International Diamond Industries-Congo (IDI-Congo) got 70 percent of the profits and the Congolese Government received 30 percent. This included the state diamond producer, La Société Minière de Bakwanga (MIBA) and all diamonds sold by private businesses. The deal was intended as a means to "regulate and certify the origins of its diamonds under new UN requirements intended to weed out blood diamonds" and diamond smuggling.[44]

Even with International Diamond Industries-Congo (IDI-Congo) monopoly offering below-market prices for diamonds, the Democratic Republic of Congo received a greater percentage of diamond revenues than before the monopoly was in place.[45] An indirect consequence of the monopoly's below-market prices for diamonds, was the increase in diamond smuggling through Brazzaville.[45] After Laurent-Désiré Kabila died in January 2001, Gertler briefly lost influence in the Congo, but soon managed to reestablish a relationship with his son and successor Joseph Kabila.[5] In April 2001 President Joseph Kabila’s new government revoked IDI’s monopoly. DRC’s discontent diamond producers shut out of the IDI monopoly were unhappy with the monopoly. The International Monetary Fund was encouraging the country to liberalize the diamond industry. Tam's Harvard paper described how the IDI deal was haunted by allegations that of arrangements for the Israelis to train Congolese security forces in brutal techniques, as they had under Mobutu Sese Seko and that IDI was buying diamonds from UNITA. By paying below the market price IDI was encouraging smuggling into the Republic of Congo (Brazzaville) (Tam 2002 p. 10).[45]

Emaxon Finance International Inc and the Diamond Industry (2001-)

  • Dan Gertler International (DGI) > Emaxon Finance International Inc

After gaining experience with purchasing and marketing artisanally mined diamonds from the DRC, Gertler started negotiations to establish a partnership with the Societé Minière de Bakwanga (MIBA), a state-controlled diamond mine operator.[4]

In April 2002 Emaxon Finance Corp, an unknown newly created (2001) Canadian subsidiary of the Dan Gertler International (DGI), secretly signed a contract through which he gained a four-year right to market 88% of the state-owned Societe Miniere de Bakwanga, MIBA's, rough-diamond production, about a quarter of the DRC's legitimate diamond exports at around 600,000 carats a month. Emaxon also had a 5 percent discount on its purchase of MIBA diamonds which were usually sold in the free market to the highest bidder. Emaxon lent MIBA $15 million to modernize its mining equipment.[46]

In 2001 Emaxon Finance International Inc was established in Canada as a subsidiary of the Dan Gertler International (DGI) [47] International Development Research Centre reported that following the IPIS publication and according to the Quebec trade register, Dan Gertler and his company, Dan Gertler Diamonds (page 5),[48] run Emaxon.

[49]

Congo Diamond Trade Allegations

There were allegations that Gertler's $20 million deal with Kabila a reciprocal agreement to arrange arms shipments from Israel to the DRC.[5] but In 2001 the Israeli journalists Ron Ben-Yishai of Yediot Aharonot argued that any involvement in an arms deal was highly unlikely after the fiasco in Sierra Leone. It is clear that the DRC President, Laurent-Désiré Kabila, needed the money to fund his government's struggle against rebels in the Second Congo War, which lasted from 1998 to 2003, with millions of people dying. Any assistance that Gertler could provide in arranging for arms and training by Israel would have been welcome.[6]

Dan Gertler's Partnerships

Dan Gertler is a partner with Glencore International Plc., the largest company in Switzerland and the world's largest commodities trading company.[50][51][52] One of their mines is Mutanda.[2]

A 2011 article by Reuters journalists described Glencore as he biggest company you never heard of. The article described how Glencore and Dan Gertler partnered in Nikanor from 2007 until its final merger with Katanga Mining.[31]

In June 2007, Glencore and partner Dan Gertler, an Israeli mining magnate, paid £300 million for a quarter-stake in mining company Nikanor, which was seeking to revive derelict copper mines next to Katanga Mining's properties. That deal gave Glencore exclusive rights to sell all Nikanor's output -- an "offtake" agreement.... [Then, o]n Christmas Eve 2008, ... [having] lost 97 percent of its market value over the previous six months ... in the depths of the global financial crisis and ... running out of cash, Katanga accepted a lifeline it could not refuse. [Glencore] wanted control. For about US$500 million in a convertible loan and rights issue, Katanga agreed to issue more than a billion new shares and hand what would become a stake of 74 percent to Glencore. ... [By early 2011], with copper prices regularly setting records above US$10,000 a ton, Katanga's stock market value [had reached] nearly US$3.2 billion.... [Since the Glencore acquisition], Katanga ... is reaping the benefit of the surging markets and its wealthy, powerful owner. After losing US$108 million in 2009, it posted an annual profit of US$265 million in 2010.
[31]

In the course of the Congo events, Nikanor was merged into Katanga in late 2007 in a transaction valued at US$3.3 billion.[53]

External links

  • "DR Congo's diamond deal". London, UK: BBC. 5 September 2000. 
  • Barry Sergeant (6 May 2007). "Copper/cobalt bull elephants square up in the DRC". Mining Newsletter (United Nations). Retrieved 2011-11-14. 
  • Stiftung, Heinrich Boll (5 November 2010). "Dan Gertler". Money to Metal. Retrieved 2011-11-16. 
  • Melman, Yossi; Asaf Carmel (24 March 2005). "Diamond in the Rough". Israel: Haaretz.  This lengthy and detailed article traces Dan Gertler's rise in the diamond industry from 2000 when he first met with the former President Laurent Kabila and made a $20 million purchase for an exclusive monopoly to all the country's diamond exports through Gertler newly established International Diamond Industry Congo (IDI), a branch of DGI, in Congo.
  • [54]
  • Kavanagh, Michael J.; Wild, Franz (Sep 28, 2011). "IMF Asks Congo for Explanation on State Mining Assets Sale". Bloomberg Business Week. Retrieved 2011-11-16. 
  • Hill, Matthew (30 June 2010). "Pressure mounts on DRC over mine-rights controversy". Mining weekly. Retrieved 2011-11-16. 
  • "Have African-based Diamond Monopolies Been Effective?". Central Africa Minerals and Arms Research Bulletin (International Peace Information Service (IPIS)) (2). 18 June 2001. Retrieved 2011-11-17. 
  • "Gertler, Dan (DGI Group)". Rough and Polished. 03.12.2009. Retrieved 2011-11-15.  Check date values in: |date= (help) This one page biography was translated from the original in Russian.
  • Seccombe, Allan (7 Nov 2007). "CAMEC enters new JV to house DRC assets". [MiningMX http://www.miningmx.com]. South Africa. Retrieved 2011-11-14.  This one-page article details the 2007 Joint Venture on the Mukondo copper and cobalt project, concessions held by the state-owned Gecamines resulting in the formation of a new company with CAMEC and natural resources investor Dan Gertler’s Prairie International Ltd. Miningmx, provides high quality news with the best African mining investment news. This reliable source provides information on Prairie owns Tremalt Ltd, which owns 80% of Savannah Mining, the holder of the other half of Mukondo as well as concessions C17 and C18 in the mineral-rich Katanga province. Tremalt will be transferred into the joint venture vehicle.
  • "Sifting Through A Dark Business". Newsweek. Dec 7, 2003. Retrieved 2011-11-15.  This one-page article describes Dan Gertler diamond activities through Emaxon Finance related to the 2001 Kimberley Process, Victor Kasongo head of the diamond regulatory body, the Democratic Republic of the Congo's Center for Evaluation, Expertise and Certification and the Societe Miniere de Bakwanga, (MIBA), the state-owned diamond company that accounts for about one quarter of Congo's legitimate exports.

[24] [27]

See also

Mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Copper mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Notes

References

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  2. ^ a b c d e f Michael J. Kavanagh; Franz Wild; Jonathan Ferziger (January 2013). "Gertler Earns Billion". Bloomberg Markets. pp. 66–76. 
  3. ^ Globe Correspondent (4 March 2013). "17 Israelis make 'Forbes' 2013 billionaires list". Jerusalem Post. 
  4. ^ a b "Dan Gertler's Biography". Spoke. Carnegie-Mellon University. Retrieved 23 March 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "Gertler, Dan (DGI Group)". Rough and Polished: Information and Analytics on Diamond and Jewellery Markets. 3 December 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-15. 
  6. ^ a b c "Have African-based Diamond Monopolies Been Effective?". Central Africa Minerals and Arms Research Bulletin (International Peace Information Service (IPIS)) (2). 18 June 2001. Retrieved 2011-11-17. 
  7. ^ Nicole Gaouette (February 21, 2002). "Inside Israel's diamond trade: a family affair". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
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  18. ^ Russell Lynch and Jim Armitage (8 Apr 2011). "MP calls for Fraud Office probe of ENRC under Bribery Act". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 2011-11-16. 
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  29. ^ a b "History". Katanga Mining. Retrieved 2011-11-16. 
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  36. ^ a b "Gecamines sale of Congo copper assets may undermine share offer". Steel Guru. 14 Jul 2011. 
  37. ^ "Gertler Family Foundation - Who We Are". www.gertlerfamilyfoundation.org. Retrieved 2015-05-27. 
  38. ^ "Congo-Kinshasa: Gertler Family Foundation Finishes Hospice Renovation". PR Newswire (New York). Retrieved 2015-05-27. 
  39. ^ "Gertler Family Foundation Provides Emergency Humanitarian Assistance to Congolese Expelled from the Republic of Congo". PassFail.com. Retrieved 2015-05-27. 
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