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Dayananda Saraswati (Arsha Vidya)

This article is about the founder of the Arsha Vidya Gurukulam. For other uses, see Swami Dayananda (disambiguation).
Swami Dayananda Saraswati
Born Natarajan Gopala Iyer
(1930-08-15) 15 August 1930 (age 85)
Thiruvarur district of Tamil Nadu
Nationality Indian
Founder of Arsha Vidya Gurukulam
Guru Chinmayananda Saraswati
Philosophy Advaita Vedanta

Swami Dayananda Saraswati (born 15 August 1930)[1] is a monk of the Hindu monastic order and a renowned traditional teacher of Advaita Vedanta, and founder of the Arsha Vidya Gurukulam.


Early life

Swamiji was born as Natarajan in Manjakudi – Thiruvarur district of Tamil Nadu on 15 August 1930 to Shri. Gopala Iyer and Smt. Valambal. He was the eldest of four sons. His early schooling was done in the District Board School at Kodavasal.[2] His father's death when he was eight, meant Natarajan had to shoulder a significant portion of family responsibility along with his education. After the completion of his education, Natarajan came to Chennai (erstwhile Madras) for earning a livelihood. Natarajan worked as a journalist for the weekly magazine Dharmika Hindu (run by T. K. Jagannathacharya) and also for erstwhile Volkart Brothers (now Voltas Limited) for sometime. He also decided to be a fighter pilot at one point and joined the Indian Air Force, but left after six months as he felt suffocated by the regimentation there.[2][3]

Involvement with Chinmaya Mission

Natarajan became interested in Vedanta (Vedanta known also as Upanishad, is a positional name for the wisdom contained in the end portion of the Vedas, the most ancient body of scriptural and religious knowledge known to humankind) after listening to the public talks of Swami Chinmayananda in the years 1952–53. He became actively involved with the then newly formed Chinmaya Mission in various roles and he was made its Secretary within the first year of its inception. He attended the Sanskrit classes of P.S. Subramania Iyer, a retired Professor of English. It was Iyer who introduced the mode of chanting the Gita verses that is still followed by Chinmaya Mission, Arsha Vidya Centres and others as well.[4][5][6]

Swami Chinmayananda instructed Natarajan to set up Chinmaya Mission's Madurai branch which Natarajan was able to fulfill. In 1955 Natarajan accompanied Swami Chinmayananda to Uttarakasi and helped him in the preparation of a Gita manuscript for publication. In Uttarakasi, he met Swami Chinmayananda's Guru, Swami Tapovanam Maharaj, who advised him, 'You have a duty to yourself which is also important. Stay here. Do japa, meditate and study.' Natarajan could not take up that offer at that point in time. However, he promised Swami Tapovanam Maharaj that he would be able to come after one year and he did. Natarajan returned to Madras and took up the editorship of 'Tyagi,' a fortnightly magazine of Chinmaya Mission. Upon the advice of Swami Chinmayananda, Natarajan shifted to Bangalore in 1956 and continued to edit Tyagi which was also moved to Bangalore. During his stay there, Natarajan joined the Sanskrit College in Chamrajpet and had the privilege of studying one on one with Prof. Veeraraghavachariar.[2]


In 1961, with the permission of Swami Chinmayananda, Natarajan went to study under Swami Pranavananda at Gudivada (near Vijayawada) to clarify many of his doubts on Vedanta and self-enquiry. The stay with Swami Pranavananda helped Natarajan learn one thing clearly – that Vedanta is a pramana (means of knowledge) to know the truth of the Self. In Natarajan's own words,

I saw the Swami giving direct knowledge to the people he was teaching. This resolved all my conflicts. My problems with Vedanta had been my mistaken notion that it was a system.[2]

This critical shift in his vision about Vedanta impelled Natarajan to once again study the sastra with Sankara's commentaries. In 1962 he was given Sannyasa by Swami Chinmayananda and was given the name Swami Dayananda Saraswati.[3] In 1963 he went to Mumbai, (erstwhile Bombay) to the newly inaugurated Sandeepany Sadhanalaya of Chinmaya Mission, where he undertook the responsibility of editing the magazine of the mission Tapovan Prasad. In addition, Swami Dayananda taught chanting of the Bhagavad Gita and the Upanishads to the students of Sandeepany.

In November 1963 Swami Dayananda undertook a study-pilgrimage to Rishikesh and stayed in a grass hut in Purani Jhadi. He spent three years there, studying Brahma Sutras under Swami Tarananda Giri at the Kailash Ashram.[7]

Public talks

Around 1967, due to the declining health of Swami Chinmayananda, the Mission approached Swami Dayananda to give public talks and lectures. Accordingly, between 1967 and 1970, Swami Dayananda travelled to different towns and cities in India spreading the teachings of Gita and the Upanishads.

In 1971, Swami Dayananda agreed to conduct a long-term study program at Sandeepany and formulated a curriculum that would systematically unfold the vision of Vedanta. Between 1972 and 1979, Swami Dayananda conducted two three-year residential Vedanta courses in Mumbai. In his words, 'At Sandeepany the teaching is traditional and rigorous. What would take a Sadhu in the Himalayas nine years to learn, the students at Sandeepany learned in two-and-half years.'[2][3]

Arsha Vidya Gurukulam

At the request of students in the US, in 1979 Swami Dayananda established a three-year study program at Sandeepany West, in Piercy, California. In 1982 he returned to India and continued to spread the message of the Upanishads through public talks and lectures. Responding to the request of students, devotees and disciples, Swami Dayananda established the Arsha Vidya Gurukulam at Saylorsburg, Pennsylvania in 1986 wherein a three-year residential course was completed in 1990.[8][9]

Arsha Vidya Centers


Swami Dayananda along with his students has taught ten three-year programs (eight in India and two in the United States) and many of his students from these programs are now teaching all over India and abroad. More than two-hundred of his Sannyasi-disciples are teaching Vedanta and Paninian grammar around the world.[8][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]


As a teacher of Vedanta, Swami Dayananda has established four traditional teaching centres and many more across the globe through his students with a primary focus on teaching Vedanta, Sanskrit and related disciplines. These traditional teaching centres carry the banner 'Arsha Vidya' or 'Arsha Vijnana', i.e. Knowledge of the Rishis. The word 'Arsha' has also been used by many of Swami Dayananda's students in naming their facilities to mark their lineage.

The four Arsha Vidya teaching centres that Swami Dayananda has established are:

  • Arsha Vidya Peetam, Swami Dayananda Ashram, Rishikesh 249201, Uttaranchal, India[17]
  • Arsha Vidya Gurukulam, Saylorsburg, P.O. Box 1059, PA 18353, USA[18]
  • Arsha Vidya Gurukulam, Anaikatti, Coimbatore – 641108, Tamil Nadu, India[19]
  • Arsha Vijnana Gurukulam, Amaravathi Road, Nagpur, Maharashtra, 410 033, India[20]

These residential centres conduct long-term courses, 1–2-week camps, weekend study programs and family camps throughout the year and the subjects taught include the major Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita, several secondary texts of Vedanta and the Brahma Sutras. The study includes also the Sanskrit commentary of Sankara on these texts. Along with these studies, the Sanskrit language is also taught with Paninian grammar. The Gurukulams also conduct sessions of daily meditation and satsangas.[21] Additionally camps are conducted for teaching Yoga, Indian Classical Music, Ayurveda, Jyotisha and allied disciplines.

The teaching centres founded by Swami Dayananda offer Indians and non-Indians, Hindus and non-Hindus, men and women alike, an opportunity to study the profound knowledge of Vedanta. The teaching centres conduct outreach programs to reach out to the public at large. At present there are at least sixty centres[22][23][24] in India and abroad that carry on the tradition of Vedantic teaching under the banner of Arsha Vidya.


Well-known students include Anantanand Rambachan, Professor of Religion at St. Olaf College, Minnesota, USA., and Michael Comans, former faculty member in the Department of Indian Studies at the University of Sydney.[25][note 1]

Other organisations

All India Movement for Seva

In addition to teaching, Dayananda has initiated and supported various philanthropic efforts. He founded the All India Movement for Seva (AIM for Seva) in 2000 as an initiative of the Hindu Dharma Acharya Sabha, an apex body of Hindu religious heads of the various sampradayas which itself was convened by Dayananda's co-ordinating efforts.[26]

Inter-religious dialogue

Dayananda has promoted several inter-religious dialogues.[9] He has participated in Hindu-Jewish conferences facilitated by the World Council of Religious Leaders under that organisations “Religion One on One” initiative.[citation needed] He has also participated in two Hindu-Buddhist summits. The first one organised by the Global Peace Initiative of Women, was held in Phnom Penh, Cambodia in 2009 and the second one was organised in Colombo, Sri Lanka in 2010.[citation needed]

Restoration of Temple Practices and Worship

Dayananda has promoted the preservation of ancient cultures and religious and spiritual practices of India that have survived several millennia, yet struggle in modern times due to lack of support. He has started several Veda pathasalas (Centers of learning of Vedas) for the preservation of Vedas and Agamas to prevent their rapid extinction due to a lack of infrastructure for learning.[27]

Dayananda also founded the Dharma Rakshana Samiti,[28] a body to protect the Vedic heritage,to preserve the native spiritual culture of India inherited from the rishis and to raise the awareness among Hindus of their Vedic heritage.[27]

Publications: Books, CDs and DVDs

Many of Swami Dayananda Saraswati's lectures, talks and discourses have been published in the form of books. These books deal with Vedantic teachings and their applicability to various situations in life. Many of his teachings are also available in audio and video formats. A non-exhaustive list of his books follows.[29]

Bhagavad Gita Home Study Program

The Bhagavad Gita Home Study (BGHS) Course designed by Swami Dayananda presents the teaching of Bhagavad Gita.[30] and in many other countries including Argentina, Australia, Brazil India, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore and the United Kingdom.

List of Books Authored by Swami Dayananda

(in alphabetical order)

  1. Action and Reaction
  2. Bhagavadgita Home Study (His magnum opus running into 3000 pages, now in 4th Edition)
  3. Can We? (Essays: 6)
  4. Compositions
  5. Conversion Is Violence
  6. Crisis Management
  7. Danam (Essays: 4)
  8. Dialogues With Swami Dayananda
  9. Discourses on Important Topics
  10. Discovering Love
  11. Do all Religions have the same goal? (Essays: 1)
  12. Eight Significant Verses of Bhagavad Gita
  13. Exploring Vedanta (Sraddha- Bhakti-dhyana-yogad avaihi & Atmanam ced vijaniyat)
  14. Freedom
  15. Freedom from Sadness
  16. Friendship (The Essence of Vedic Marriage)
  17. Gurupurnima (Essays: 3)
  18. In the Vision of Vedanta
  19. Insights
  20. Introduction to Vedanta – Understanding The Fundamental Problem
  21. Japa
  22. Kenopanisad
  23. Knowledge and Action – The Two Fold Commitment
  24. Living Intelligently
  25. Living Versus Getting On
  26. Mahavakya Vichara
  27. Mandukya Upanishad
  28. Moments with Krishna (Essays: 7)
  29. Morning Meditation Prayers
  30. Mundakopanisad – (2 Vol. Set) Bhasya and Tika unfolded
  31. Need for Cognitive Change
  32. Need for Personal Reorganisation
  33. Om Namo Bhagavate Vasudevaya
  34. Personal Re-engineering in Management
  35. Personnel Management
  36. Prayer Guide
  37. Problem Is You, The Solution Is You, The
  38. Public Talks-2: Discovering Love & Successful Living
  39. Purnamadah Purnamidam
  40. Purpose of Prayer, The
  41. Ramayana
  42. Satyam and Mithya
  43. Self-Knowledge
  44. Sri Rudram
  45. Stressfree Living
  46. Successful Living
  47. Surrender and Freedom
  48. Talks and Essays (Vol.I)
  49. Talks and Essays (Vol.II) of
  50. Talks on "Who Am I ?"
  51. Talks on Meditation
  52. Talks on Sri Rudram
  53. Tattvabodha
  54. Teaching of the Bhagavad Gita, The
  55. Teaching Tradition of Advaita Vedanta
  56. Ten Essential Verses of Bhagavad Gita
  57. Understanding Between Parents and Children
  58. Value of Values, The
  59. Vedanta 24 x 7
  60. Vedic View and Way of Life
  61. Visnusahasranama (with translation and commentary)
  62. Vivekacudamani (Talks on 108 Selected Verses)
  63. Wedding Ceremony Based on Hindu Concepts
  64. What is Meditation? Meditation Series: 2
  65. What You Love Is The Pleased Self
  66. Yoga of Objectivity
  67. You Are the Whole

See also


  1. ^ See also Advaitapratibodhah, "Awakening to nonduality," a short treatise in classical style by Michael Comans.


  1. ^ Dialogues with Swami Dayananda, Sri Gangadhareswar Trust, 1988
  2. ^ a b c d e Swami Dayananda Saraswati: His Life and Work. Arsha Vidya Newsletter, pp. 13–16, Arsha Vidya Gurukulam, Anaikatti, Coimbatore. August 2009 [1].
  3. ^ a b c Glimpses of Swami Dayananda Saraswati's life. Arsha Adhyayan Kendra, Bhuj, Gujarat, INDIA. Video commemorating Swami Dayananda's 7 December 2008 visit to Bhuj on YouTube
  4. ^ "Gita Chanting by Swami Brahmananda". Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  5. ^ "Gita Chanting by Swami Paramarthananda". 23 December 2009. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  6. ^ "Swami Sandeep Chaitanya's Gita Yagnam". 20 December 2007. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  7. ^
  8. ^ a b Dayananda Saraswati; Mala Mukherjee; Padma Narasimhan (1990). Swami Dayananda Saraswati: The traditional teacher of Brahma vidya. Chennai, India: T.T. Maps & Publications. ISBN 81 7053 103 9. 
  9. ^ a b Sheela Balaji (2011). Swami Dayananda Saraswati (Contributions & Writings). Chennai, India: Arsha Vidya Research and Publication Trust. ISBN 978 93 80049 46 5. 
  10. ^ Saraswati, Swami Dayananda (2010). Handbook of Arsha Vidya Sanyasi Disciples. Anaikatti, Coimbatore, India: Sruti Seva Trust. 
  11. ^ "Arsha Vidya Teachers". 
  12. ^ "Adhyatma Vidya Mandir". 
  13. ^ "Vedanta Vidyarthi Sangha". 
  14. ^ "Arsha Bodha Center". 
  15. ^ "Arsha Vidya Center". 
  16. ^ "Vidyamandir-Brazil". 
  17. ^ "". Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  18. ^ "". Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  19. ^ "". Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  20. ^ "". Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  21. ^ "Friends of AVG at Saylorsburg". 
  22. ^ "Disciples Website". 
  23. ^ "Swamini Vilasananda, Argentina". 
  24. ^ "Br.Chetana, Tokyo, Japan". 
  25. ^ Sri Vasudevacharya (previously Dr Michael Comans)
  26. ^ "All India Movement for Seva". 
  27. ^ a b Swaminathan, V (15 August 2010). "An interview with Pujya Swami Dayananda Saraswati". Arsha Vidya Gurukulam, 24th Anniversary Souvenir: 23–48. 
  28. ^ "". 2 September 2010. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  29. ^ "Arsha Vidya Gurukulam Bookstore". 
  30. ^ "Bhagavad Gita Home Study Groups". 

External links

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