Adverts

Open Access Articles- Top Results for Democracy Index

Democracy Index

File:EIU Democracy Index 2014 green and red.png
The Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy index map for 2014.
Greener colours represent more democratic countries.

  Insufficient information, not rated

The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit, that measures the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are United Nations member states. The index is based on 60 indicators grouped in five different categories measuring pluralism, civil liberties, and political culture. In addition to a numeric score and a ranking, the index categorizes countries as one of four regime types full democracies, flawed democracies, hybrid regimes and authoritarian regimes.

The index was first produced for 2006, with updates for 2008, 2010 and the following years since then.

Methodology

As described in the report,[1] the democracy index is a weighted average based on the answers of 60 questions, each one with either two or three permitted alternative answers. Most answers are "experts' assessments"; the report does not indicate what kinds of experts, nor their number, nor whether the experts are employees of the Economist Intelligence Unit or independent scholars, nor the nationalities of the experts. Some answers are provided by public-opinion surveys from the respective countries. In the case of countries for which survey results are missing, survey results for similar countries and expert assessments are used in order to fill in gaps.

The questions are distributed in the five categories: electoral process and pluralism, civil liberties, functioning of government, political participation, and political culture. Each answer is translated to a mark, either 0 or 1, or for the three-answer alternative questions, 0.5. With the exceptions mentioned below, the sums are added within each category, multiplied by ten, and divided by the total number of questions within the category. There are a few modifying dependencies, which are explained much more precisely than the main rule procedures. In a few cases, an answer yielding zero for one question voids another question; e.g., if the elections for the national legislature and head of government are not considered free (question 1), then the next question, "Are elections... fair?" is not considered, but automatically marked zero. Likewise, there are a few questions considered so important that a low score on them yields a penalty on the total score sum for their respective categories, namely:

  1. "Whether national elections are free and fair";
  2. "The security of voters";
  3. "The influence of foreign powers on government";
  4. "The capability of the civil servants to implement policies".

The five category indices, which are listed in the report, are then averaged to find the democracy index for a given country. Finally, the democracy index, rounded to one decimal, decides the regime type classification of the country.

The report discusses other indices of democracy, as defined e.g. by Freedom House, and argues for some of the choices made by the team from the Economist Intelligence Unit. In this comparison, a higher emphasis has been put on the public opinion and attitudes, as measured by public surveys, but on the other hand, economic living standard has not been weighted as one criterion of democracy (as seemingly some other investigators have done).[2][3]

The report is widely cited in the international press as well as in peer reviewed academic journals.[4]

Changes from 2010 to 2011 and 2012

According to the issue of the index for 2012, Norway scored a total of 9.93 on a scale from zero to ten, keeping the first place position it has held since 2010, when it replaced Sweden as the highest-ranked country in the index. North Korea scored the lowest with 1.08, remaining at the bottom in 167th place, the same as in 2010 and 2011.[1]

There was no significant improvement or regression in democracy between 2011 and 2012. In 2012 the index score stayed the same for 73 out of 167 countries, improved for 54 countries, and declined for 40. Libya experienced the biggest increase of any country in its score in 2012. Average regional scores in 2012 were very similar to scores in 2011. An exception is the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) where the average score increased by more than a tenth of a point, from 3.62 to 3.73 and three countries moved from authoritarian to hybrid regimes (Egypt, Libya, Morocco).[1]

The Democracy Index for 2011 highlighted the impact of the Arab Spring and the greater effects it might have, as well as the impact of the global financial crisis in 2008–09 on politics throughout most of Europe. The Democracy Index score was lower in 2011 than in 2010 in 48 countries out of the 167 that are covered. It was higher in 41 ranked countries, and it stayed the same in 78.[5]

In nine countries there was a change in regime type between 2010 and 2011; in four of these there was regression. Russia was downgraded from a hybrid regime to an authoritarian regime, which the report attributes to concerns over the December 4 legislative election and Vladimir Putin's decision to run again in the 2012 presidential election. Portugal was also downgraded to the flawed democracy category, attributed to the effects of the global financial crisis. Tunisia, Mauritania, Egypt, and Niger were all upgraded to hybrid regimes, and Zambia moved up to the flawed democracy category.[5]

Democracy index by regime type

The following table gives the number and percentage of countries and the percentage of the world population for each regime type in 2014:[6]

Type of regime Scores Number of countries  % of countries  % of world population
Full democracies 8.0 to 10 24 14.4 12.5
Flawed democracies 6.0 to 7.9 52 31.1 35.5
Hybrid regimes 4.0 to 5.9 39 23.4 14.4
Authoritarian regimes   0 to 3.9 52 31.1 37.6

World population refers to the total population of the 167 countries that are covered. Since this survey excludes only a few countries, this is nearly equal to the entire actual estimated world population in 2010.

Democracy index by region

The following table gives the index average by world region, and the number of covered countries in 2014. Note that some regional groups (e.g., the 'Eastern Europe') are very heterogeneous and composed of full democracies as well as authoritarian regimes:

Rank Region Countries 2006[3] 2008[7] 2010[8] 2011[5] 2012[1] 2013[9] 2014[6]
1 North America 2 8.64 8.64 8.63 8.59 8.59 8.59 8.59
2 Western Europe 21 8.60 8.61 8.45 8.40 8.44 8.41 8.41
3 Latin America and the Caribbean 24 6.37 6.43 6.37 6.35 6.36 6.38 6.36
4 Asia and Australasia 28 5.44 5.58 5.53 5.51 5.56 5.61 5.70
5 Central and Eastern Europe 28 5.76 5.67 5.55 5.50 5.51 5.53 5.58
6 Sub-Saharan Africa 44 4.24 4.28 4.23 4.32 4.33 4.36 4.34
7 Middle East and North Africa 20 3.54 3.48 3.52 3.62 3.73 3.68 3.65
  World 167 5.52 5.55 5.46 5.49 5.52 5.53 5.55

Democracy index by country (2014)

Listing by country is available on the Economist web site;[10] for by-country tables in Wikipedia using similar measures, see List of freedom indices.

Rank Country Score Category
1 23x15px Norway 9.93 Full democracy
2 23x15px Sweden 9.73 Full democracy
3 Template:Country data Iceland 9.58 Full democracy
4 23x15px New Zealand 9.26 Full democracy
5 23x15px Denmark 9.11 Full democracy
6 23x16px  Switzerland 9.09 Full democracy
7 23x15px Canada 9.08 Full democracy
8 23x15px Finland 9.03 Full democracy
9 23x15px Australia 9.01 Full democracy
10 23x15px Netherlands 8.92 Full democracy
11 23x15px Luxembourg 8.88 Full democracy
12 23x15px Ireland 8.72 Full democracy
13 23x15px Germany 8.64 Full democracy
14 23x15px Austria 8.54 Full democracy
15 23x15px Malta 8.39 Full democracy
16 23x15px United Kingdom 8.31 Full democracy
17 23x15px Uruguay 8.17 Full democracy
17 23x15px Mauritius 8.17 Full democracy
19 23x15px United States 8.11 Full democracy
20 Template:Country data Japan 8.08 Full democracy
21 Template:Country data South Korea 8.06 Full democracy
22 23x15px Spain 8.05 Full democracy
23 23x15px France 8.04 Full democracy
24 23x15px Costa Rica 8.03 Full democracy
25 23x15px Czech Republic 7.94 Flawed democracy
26 23x15px Belgium 7.93 Flawed democracy
27 Template:Country data India 7.92 Flawed democracy
28 23x15px Botswana 7.87 Flawed democracy
29 23x15px Italy 7.85 Flawed democracy
30 23x15px South Africa 7.82 Flawed democracy
31 23x15px Cape Verde 7.81 Flawed democracy
32 23x15px Chile 7.80 Flawed democracy
33 23x15px Portugal 7.79 Flawed democracy
34 23x15px Estonia 7.74 Flawed democracy
35 23x15px Taiwan 7.65 Flawed democracy
36 Template:Country data Israel 7.63 Flawed democracy
37 23x15px Slovenia 7.57 Flawed democracy
38 23x15px Lithuania 7.54 Flawed democracy
39 23x15px Latvia 7.48 Flawed democracy
40 23x15px Poland 7.47 Flawed democracy
41 23x15px Greece 7.45 Flawed democracy
42 23x15px Cyprus 7.40 Flawed democracy
43 Template:Country data Jamaica 7.39 Flawed democracy
44 23x15px Brazil 7.38 Flawed democracy
45 23x15px Slovakia 7.35 Flawed democracy
46 23x15px Timor-Leste 7.24 Flawed democracy
47 23x15px Panama 7.08 Flawed democracy
48 23x15px Trinidad & Tobago 6.99 Flawed democracy
49 Template:Country data Indonesia 6.95 Flawed democracy
50 23x15px Croatia 6.93 Flawed democracy
51 23x15px Hungary 6.90 Flawed democracy
52 23x15px Argentina 6.84 Flawed democracy
53 23x15px Suriname 6.77 Flawed democracy
53 23x15px Philippines 6.77 Flawed democracy
55 23x15px Bulgaria 6.73 Flawed democracy
56 23x15px Serbia 6.71 Flawed democracy
57 23x15px Romania 6.68 Flawed democracy
57 23x15px Mexico 6.68 Flawed democracy
59 23x15px Dominican Republic 6.67 Flawed democracy
60 23x15px Lesotho 6.66 Flawed democracy
61 23x15px Mongolia 6.62 Flawed democracy
62 23x15px Colombia 6.55 Flawed democracy
63 23x15px Peru 6.54 Flawed democracy
64 23x15px El Salvador 6.53 Flawed democracy
65 23x15px Malaysia 6.49 Flawed democracy
66 Template:Country data Hong Kong 6.46 Flawed democracy
67 23x15px Zambia 6.39 Flawed democracy
68 23x15px Ghana 6.33 Flawed democracy
69 23x15px Moldova 6.32 Flawed democracy
70 23x15px Tunisia 6.31 Flawed democracy
71 23x15px Paraguay 6.26 Flawed democracy
72 23x15px Macedonia 6.25 Flawed democracy
73 23x15px Namibia 6.24 Flawed democracy
74 23x15px Senegal 6.15 Flawed democracy
75 23x15px Papua New Guinea 6.03 Flawed democracy
75 23x15px Singapore 6.03 Flawed democracy
77 23x15px Montenegro 5.94 Hybrid regime
78 23x15px Guyana 5.91 Hybrid regime
79 23x15px Ecuador 5.87 Hybrid regime
80 Template:Country data Honduras 5.84 Hybrid regime
81 23x15px Georgia 5.82 Hybrid regime
82 23x15px Guatemala 5.81 Hybrid regime
83 23x15px Bolivia 5.79 Hybrid regime
83 23x15px Mali 5.79 Hybrid regime
85 23x15px Bangladesh 5.78 Hybrid regime
86 23x15px Tanzania 5.77 Hybrid regime
87 23x15px Sri Lanka 5.69 Hybrid regime
88 23x15px Albania 5.67 Hybrid regime
89 23x15px Malawi 5.66 Hybrid regime
90 23x15px Benin 5.65 Hybrid regime
91 23x15px Fiji 5.61 Hybrid regime
92 23x15px Ukraine 5.42 Hybrid regime
93 23x15px Thailand 5.39 Hybrid regime
94 23x15px Nicaragua 5.32 Hybrid regime
95 Template:Country data Kyrgyzstan 5.24 Hybrid regime
96 23x15px Uganda 5.22 Hybrid regime
97 Template:Country data Kenya 5.13 Hybrid regime
98 23x15px Turkey 5.12 Hybrid regime
98 23x15px Lebanon 5.12 Hybrid regime
100 23x15px Venezuela 5.07 Hybrid regime
101 23x15px Liberia 4.95 Hybrid regime
102 23x15px Bhutan 4.87 Hybrid regime
103 23x15px Bosnia & Herzegovina 4.78 Hybrid regime
103 23x15px Cambodia 4.78 Hybrid regime
105 File:Flag of Nepal.svg   Nepal 4.77 Hybrid regime
106 23x15px Palestinian Authority 4.72 Hybrid regime
107 23x15px Mozambique 4.66 Hybrid regime
108 23x15px Pakistan 4.64 Hybrid regime
109 23x15px Sierra Leone 4.56 Hybrid regime
110 23x15px Madagascar 4.42 Hybrid regime
111 Template:Country data Iraq 4.23 Hybrid regime
112 23x15px Mauritania 4.17 Hybrid regime
113 23x15px Armenia 4.13 Hybrid regime
114 23x15px Burkina Faso 4.09 Hybrid regime
115 23x15px Niger 4.02 Hybrid regime
116 23x15px Morocco 4.00 Authoritarian regime
117 23x15px Algeria 3.83 Authoritarian regime
118 Template:Country data Haiti 3.82 Authoritarian regime
119 23x15px Libya 3.80 Authoritarian regime
120 Template:Country data Kuwait 3.78 Authoritarian regime
121 Template:Country data Jordan 3.76 Authoritarian regime
121 23x15px Gabon 3.76 Authoritarian regime
121 23x15px Nigeria 3.76 Authoritarian regime
124 23x15px Ethiopia 3.72 Authoritarian regime
125 23x15px Belarus 3.69 Authoritarian regime
126 23x15px Côte d'Ivoire 3.53 Authoritarian regime
127 23x15px Cuba 3.52 Authoritarian regime
127 23x15px Comoros 3.52 Authoritarian regime
129 23x15px Togo 3.45 Authoritarian regime
130 23x15px Vietnam 3.41 Authoritarian regime
130 23x15px Cameroon 3.41 Authoritarian regime
132 23x15px Russia 3.39 Authoritarian regime
133 23x15px Angola 3.35 Authoritarian regime
134 23x15px Burundi 3.33 Authoritarian regime
135 23x15px Rwanda 3.25 Authoritarian regime
136 23x15px Qatar 3.18 Authoritarian regime
137 Template:Country data Kazakhstan 3.17 Authoritarian regime
138 23x15px Egypt 3.16 Authoritarian regime
139 23x15px Oman 3.15 Authoritarian regime
140 23x15px Swaziland 3.09 Authoritarian regime
141 23x15px Burma 3.05 Authoritarian regime
141 23x15px The Gambia 3.05 Authoritarian regime
143 23x15px Guinea 3.01 Authoritarian regime
144 23x15px China 3.00 Authoritarian regime
145 23x15px Djibouti 2.99 Authoritarian regime
146 23x15px Republic of the Congo 2.89 Authoritarian regime
147 23x15px Bahrain 2.87 Authoritarian regime
148 23x15px Azerbaijan 2.83 Authoritarian regime
149 23x15px Yemen 2.79 Authoritarian regime
150 23x15px Zimbabwe 2.78 Authoritarian regime
151 23x15px Afghanistan 2.77 Authoritarian regime
152 23x15px United Arab Emirates 2.64 Authoritarian regime
153 23x15px Sudan 2.54 Authoritarian regime
154 23x15px Uzbekistan 2.45 Authoritarian regime
155 23x15px Eritrea 2.44 Authoritarian regime
156 23x15px Tajikistan 2.37 Authoritarian regime
157 23x15px Laos 2.21 Authoritarian regime
158 Template:Country data Iran 1.98 Authoritarian regime
159 23x15px Guinea-Bissau 1.93 Authoritarian regime
160 23x15px Turkmenistan 1.83 Authoritarian regime
161 23x15px Saudi Arabia 1.82 Authoritarian regime
162 23x15px Democratic Republic of the Congo 1.75 Authoritarian regime
163 23x15px Syria 1.74 Authoritarian regime
164 23x15px Equatorial Guinea 1.66 Authoritarian regime
165 23x15px Chad 1.50 Authoritarian regime
166 23x15px Central African Republic 1.49 Authoritarian regime
167 Template:Country data North Korea 1.08 Authoritarian regime

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Democracy index 2012: Democracy at a standstill" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2014. 
  2. ^ "Democracy index 2010". Blog. Direct Democracy UK. December 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2011. [dead link]
  3. ^ a b Laza Kekic, director, country forecasting services (15 November 2006). "The Economist Intelligence Unit’s index of democracy" (PDF). The World in 2007. Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 13 June 2011. 
  4. ^ e.g., "Inside the Authoritarian State: More State Than Nation: Lukashenko's Belarus", Dzmitry Yuran, Natalie Manayeva, and Oleg Manaev, Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 65, No. 1 (Fall/Winter 2011), page 93.
  5. ^ a b c "Democracy index 2011: Democracy under stress". Economist Intelligence Unit. 14 December 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2011. 
  6. ^ a b The EIU Democracy Index for the year 2014, Democracy Index 2014.
  7. ^ "Index of Democracy 2008" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 21 October 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2011. 
  8. ^ "Democracy Index 2010: Democracy in retreat" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 6 December 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2011. 
  9. ^ Democracy Index 2013, Democracy Index 2013, Democracy in limbo.
  10. ^ http://pages.eiu.com/rs/eiu2/images/Democracy-Index-2012.pdf

External links