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Dichloromethane

"Di-clo" redirects here. For the anti-inflammatory drug trade named Diclo, see Diclofenac.
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Dichloromethane

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IUPAC name
Dichloromethane
Other names
Methylene chloride, methylene dichloride, Solmethine, Narkotil, Solaesthin, Di-clo, Freon 30, R-30, DCM, UN 1593, MDC
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75-09-2 7pxY ChEBI CHEBI:15767 7pxY ChEMBL ChEMBL45967 7pxY ChemSpider 6104 7pxY EC number 200-838-9 Jmol-3D images Image KEGG D02330 7pxY PubChem Template:Chembox PubChem/format RTECS number PA8050000 Template:Chembox UNII colspan=2 style="background:#f8eaba; border-top:2px solid transparent; border-bottom:2px solid transparent; text-align:center;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
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CH2Cl2 Molar mass Lua error in Module:Math at line 495: attempt to index field 'ParserFunctions' (a nil value). g·mol−1 Appearance Colorless liquid Odor chloroform-like[1] Density 1.3266 g/cm3 (20 °C)[2] Melting point Script error: No such module "convert". Boiling point Script error: No such module "convert".
decomposes at 720 °C[3]
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at 760 mmHg[5] 25.6 g/L (15 °C)
17.5 g/L (25 °C)
15.8 g/L (30 °C)
5.2 g/L (60 °C)[3] Solubility Miscible in ethyl acetate, alcohol, hexanes, benzene, CCl4, diethyl ether, CHCl3 Vapor pressure 0.13 kPa (−70.5 °C)
2 kPa (−40 °C)
19.3 kPa (0 °C)
57.3 kPa (25 °C)[4]
79.99 kPa (35 °C)[3] 3.25 L·atm/mol[5] 1.4244 (20 ºC)[6][5] Viscosity 0.43 cP (20 °C)[5]
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102.3 J/mol·K[4] 174.5 J/mol·K[4] -124.3 kJ/mol[4] 473.21 kJ/mol[4] colspan=2 style="background:#f8eaba; border-top:2px solid transparent; border-bottom:2px solid transparent; text-align:center;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
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GHS pictograms The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)The health hazard pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)[6] GHS signal word Warning H315, H319, H335, H336, H351, H373[6] P261, P281, P305+351+338[6] EU classification Harmful Xn
Carc. Cat. 2B R-phrases R36/37/38, R40, R67 S-phrases S23, S24/25, S36/37 Eye hazard Irritant NFPA 704

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1
2
0
Flash point Script error: No such module "convert". [3] Script error: No such module "convert". Explosive limits 13%-23%[1] 1.25 g/kg (rats, oral)
2 g/kg (rabbits, oral)[3] 24,929 ppm (rat, 30 min)
14,400 ppm (mouse, 7 hr)[8] US health exposure limits (NIOSH):

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Thermodynamic
data

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Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Dichloromethane (DCM, or methylene chloride) is an organic compound with the formula CH2Cl2. This colorless, volatile liquid with a moderately sweet aroma is widely used as a solvent. Although it is not miscible with water, it is miscible with many organic solvents.[9] One of the most well-known applications of dichloromethane is in the drinking bird heat engine.

Occurrence

Natural sources of dichloromethane include oceanic sources, macroalgae, wetlands, and volcanoes.[10] However, the majority of dichloromethane in the environment is the result of industrial emissions.[10]

Production

DCM is produced by treating either chloromethane or methane with chlorine gas at 400–500 °C. At these temperatures, both methane and chloromethane undergo a series of reactions producing progressively more chlorinated products. In this way, an estimated 400,000 tons were produced in the US, Europe, and Japan in 1993.[9]

CH4 + Cl2CH3Cl + HCl
CH3Cl + Cl2 → CH2Cl2 + HCl
CH2Cl2 + Cl2CHCl3 + HCl
CHCl3 + Cl2CCl4 + HCl

The output of these processes is a mixture of chloromethane, dichloromethane, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride. These compounds are separated by distillation.

DCM was first prepared in 1839 by the French chemist Henri Victor Regnault (1810–1878), who isolated it from a mixture of chloromethane and chlorine that had been exposed to sunlight.[11]

Uses

DCM's volatility and ability to dissolve a wide range of organic compounds makes it a useful solvent for many chemical processes.[9]

It is widely used as a paint stripper and a degreaser.[12] In the food industry, it has been used to decaffeinate coffee and tea as well as to prepare extracts of hops and other flavorings.[13] Its volatility has led to its use as an aerosol spray propellant and as a blowing agent for polyurethane foams.

Specialized uses

File:Dichloromethane near IR spectrum.png
Near IR absorption spectrum of dichloromethane showing complicated overlapping overtones of mid IR absorption features.

The chemical compound's low boiling point allows the chemical to function in a heat engine that can extract mechanical energy from small temperature differences. An example of a DCM heat engine is the drinking bird. The toy works at room temperature.

DCM chemically welds certain plastics. For example, it is used to seal the casing of electric meters. Often sold as a main component of plastic welding adhesives, it is also used extensively by model building hobbyists for joining plastic components together. It is commonly referred to as "Di-clo."

It is used in the garment printing industry for removal of heat-sealed garment transfers, and its volatility is exploited in novelty items: bubble lights and jukebox displays.

DCM is used in the material testing field of civil engineering; specifically it is used during the testing of bituminous materials as a solvent to separate the binder from the aggregate of an asphalt or macadam to allow the testing of the materials.[14]

Toxicity

DCM is the least toxic of the simple chlorohydrocarbons, but it is not without health risks, as its high volatility makes it an acute inhalation hazard.[15][16] It can also be absorbed through the skin.[1][12]

Symptoms of acute overexposure to dichloromethane via inhalation include difficulty concentrating, dizziness, fatigue, nausea, headaches, numbness, weakness, and irritation of the upper respiratory tract and eyes. More severe consequences can include suffocation, loss of consciousness, coma, and death.[12][1]

DCM is also metabolized by the body to carbon monoxide potentially leading to carbon monoxide poisoning.[17] Acute exposure by inhalation has resulted in optic neuropathy[18] and hepatitis.[19] Prolonged skin contact can result in DCM dissolving some of the fatty tissues in skin, resulting in skin irritation or chemical burns.[20]

It may be carcinogenic, as it has been linked to cancer of the lungs, liver, and pancreas in laboratory animals.[21] Other animal studies showed breast cancer and salivary gland cancer. Research is not yet clear as to what levels may be carcinogenic.[12][1] DCM crosses the placenta. Fetal toxicity in women who are exposed to it during pregnancy, however, has not been proven.[22] In animal experiments, it was fetotoxic at doses that were maternally toxic but no teratogenic effects were seen.[21]

In people with pre-existing heart problems, exposure to DCM can cause abnormal heart rhythms and/or heart attacks, sometimes without any other symptoms of overexposure.[12] People with existing liver, nervous system, or skin problems may worsen after exposure to methylene chloride.[7]

Regulation

In many countries, products containing DCM must carry labels warning of its health risks.

In February 2013, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health warned that at least 14 bathtub refinishers have died since 2000 from DCM exposure. These workers had been working alone, in poorly ventilated bathrooms, with inadequate or no respiratory protection, and no training about the hazards of DCM.[7][12][23] OSHA has since then issued a DCM standard.[24] In the European Union, the European Parliament voted in 2009 to ban the use of DCM in paint-strippers for consumers and many professionals.[25] The ban took effect in December 2010.[26]

In Europe, the Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limit Values (SCOEL) recommends for DCM an occupational exposure limit (8 h time-weighted average) of 100 ppm and a short-term exposure limit (15 min) of 200 ppm.[27]

Concerns about its health effects have led to a search for alternatives in many of these applications.[9][28]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0414". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 
  2. ^ Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 3.164. ISBN 1439855110. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Properties of Dichloromethane. chemister.ru
  4. ^ a b c d e Methylene chloride in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD. http://webbook.nist.gov (retrieved 2014-05-26)
  5. ^ a b c d CID 6344 from PubChem
  6. ^ a b c d Sigma-Aldrich Co., Dichloromethane. Retrieved on 2014-05-26.
  7. ^ a b c "Methylene Chloride Hazards for Bathtub Refinishers". OSHA-NIOSH Hazard Alert 2013-110. OSHA and NIOSH. Retrieved 22 January 2015. 
  8. ^ "methylene chloride". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 
  9. ^ a b c d Rossberg, M. et al. (2006) "Chlorinated Hydrocarbons" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_233.pub2
  10. ^ a b Gribble, Gordon W. (2009). Naturally Occurring Organohalogen Compounds. Springer. ISBN 321199324X. 
  11. ^ Regnault, V. (1839) "De l'action du chlore sur les éthers hydrochloriques de l'alcool et de l'esprit de bois, et de plusieurs points de la théorie des éthers" (On the action of chlorine on the hydrochloric ethers of ethanol and methanol, and on several points of the theory of ethers), Annales de chimie et physique, series 2, 71 : 353–431; see especially: "Seconde partie. De l'action du chlore sur l'éther hydrochlorique de l'esprit de bois" (Second part. On the action of chlorine on the hydrochloric ether of methanol [i.e., chloromethane]), pages 377–380. Regnault gives dichloromethane the name éther hydrochlorique monochloruré (monochlorinated hydrochloric ether). Note: Regnault gives the empirical formula for dichloromethane as C2H4Cl4 because during that era, chemists used incorrect atomic masses.
    Reprinted in German in:
  12. ^ a b c d e f Hall, Ronald M. (4 February 2013). "Dangers of Bathtub Refinishing". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved 21 January 2015. 
  13. ^ Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (September 2000). "Dichloromethane" (PDF). Public Health Goals for Chemicals in Drinking Water. California Environmental Protection Agency. 
  14. ^ Shell Bitumen (2003-09-25). The Shell Bitumen Handbook. ISBN 978-0-7277-3220-0. 
  15. ^ Rioux JP, Myers RA (1988). "Methylene chloride poisoning: a paradigmatic review". J Emerg Med 6 (3): 227–238. PMID 3049777. doi:10.1016/0736-4679(88)90330-7. 
  16. ^ CDC (2012). "Fatal Exposure to Methylene Chloride Among Bathtub Refinishers — United States, 2000–2011". MMWR 61 (07): 119–122. 
  17. ^ Fagin J, Bradley J, Williams D (1980). "Carbon monoxide poisoning secondary to inhaling methylene chloride". Br Med J 281 (6253): 1461. PMC 1714874. PMID 7437838. doi:10.1136/bmj.281.6253.1461. 
  18. ^ Kobayashi A, Ando A, Tagami N, Kitagawa M, Kawai E, Akioka M, Arai E, Nakatani T, Nakano S, Matsui Y, Matsumura M (2008). "Severe optic neuropathy caused by dichloromethane inhalation". J Ocul Pharmacol and Ther 24 (6): 607–612. PMID 19049266. doi:10.1089/jop.2007.0100. 
  19. ^ Cordes DH, Brown WD, Quinn KM (1988). "Chemically induced hepatitis after inhaling organic solvents". West J Med 148 (4): 458–460. PMC 1026148. PMID 3388849. 
  20. ^ Wells GG, Waldron HA (1984). "Methylene chloride burns". Br J Ind Med 41 (3): 420. PMC 1009322. PMID 6743591. doi:10.1136/oem.41.3.420. 
  21. ^ a b USDHHS. "Toxicological Profile for Methylene Chloride" (PDF). Retrieved 2006-09-10. 
  22. ^ Bell BP, Franks P, Hildreth N, Melius J (1991). "Methylene chloride exposure and birthweight in Monroe County, New York". Environ Res 55 (1): 31–9. PMID 1855488. doi:10.1016/S0013-9351(05)80138-0. 
  23. ^ OSHA QuickTakes, February 1, 2013;
  24. ^ Methylene Chloride. Occupational Safety & Health Administration. osha.gov
  25. ^ "EU Banning Most DCM Paint Strippers," PaintSquare News, retrieved 1/5/14.
  26. ^ "COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 276/2010 (Official Journal of the European Union, L 86/7)". 2010-04-01. Retrieved 2012-02-07. 
  27. ^ "SCOEL recommendations". 2011-04-22. Retrieved 2011-04-22. 
  28. ^ "Summary of Regulations Controlling Air Emissions from Paint Stripping and Miscellaneous Surface Coating Operations" (PDF). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency – NESHAP 6H. 

External links

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