Open Access Articles- Top Results for Digital X-ray radiogrammetry

Digital X-ray radiogrammetry

Digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) is a method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). Digital X-ray radiogrammetry is based on the old technique of radiogrammetry. In DXR the cortical thickness of the three middle metacarpal bones in the hand is measured in a digital X-ray image by a computer and is through a geometrical operation converted to bone mineral density. The BMD is corrected for porosity of the bone, estimated by a texture analysis performed on the cortical part of the bone.

Like other technologies for estimating the bone mineral density, the outputs are an areal BMD value, a T-score and a Z-score for assessing osteoporosis and the risk of bone fracture.

Digital X-ray radiogrammetry is primarily used in combination with digital mammography for osteoporosis screening, where same mammography machine that is used to acquire breast X-ray images is also used to acquire a hand image for BMD measurement. Due to high precision, DXR is also used for monitoring change in bone mineral density over time.


  • Estimation of bone mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: theoretical background and clinical testing, Rosholm A et al., Osteoporos Int. 2001;12(11):961-9.
  • Digital X-ray radiogrammetry: a new appendicular bone densitometric method with high precision, Jorgensen JT et al., . Clin Physiol. 2000 Sep;20(5):330-5.
  • Friis M, Digital X-ray Radiogrammetry on Hand X-rays Obtained on Mammographic X-ray Equipment, Journal of the International Bone and Mineral Society, 2001, 28; 5(suppl):P336 (IBMS 2001).
  • Digital X-ray radiogrammetry combined with semiautomated analysis of joint space widths as a new diagnostic approach in rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study, Bottcher J et al., Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Dec;52(12):3850-9.

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