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Dinar

For other uses, see Dinar (disambiguation).
File:Dinar.svg
Nations in dark green currently use the dinar. Nations in light green previously used the dinar. Yugoslavian states are inset to the lower left.

The dinar or denar is a main currency unit in modern circulation in nine mostly-Islamic countries, and has historic use in several more.

History

File:Coin of Stefan Uroš I.jpg
Serbian silver Dinar during the reign of Stephen Uroš I of Serbia in the 13th century

The English word "dinar" is the transliteration of the Arabic دينار (dīnār), which was borrowed via the Syriac dīnarā from the Greek δηνάριον (denárion), itself from the Latin dēnārius.[1][2] The gold dinar was an early Islamic coin corresponding to the Byzantine denarius auri.[3] A gold coin known as the dīnāra was also introduced to India by the Kushan Empire in the 1st century AD, and adopted by the Gupta Empire and its successors up to the 6th century.[4][5] The modern gold dinar is a modern bullion gold coin.

Legal tender

Countries currently using a currency called "dinar" or similar

Countries Currency ISO 4217 code
23x15px Algeria Algerian dinar DZD
23x15px Bahrain Bahraini dinar BHD
Template:Country data Iraq Iraqi dinar IQD
Template:Country data Jordan Jordanian dinar JOD
Template:Country data Kuwait Kuwaiti dinar KWD
23x15px Libya Libyan dinar LYD
23x15px Macedonia Macedonian denar MKN (1992–1993)
MKD (1993− )
23x15px Serbia Serbian dinar RSD
23x15px Tunisia Tunisian dinar TND

Countries and regions which have previously used a currency called "dinar"

File:Offa king of Mercia 757 793 gold dinar copy of dinar of the Abassid Caliphate 774.jpg
A mancus or gold dinar of the English king Offa of Mercia (757–796), a copy of the dinars of the Abbasid Caliphate (774). It combines the Latin legend OFFA REX with Arabic legends. (British Museum)
Countries Currency ISO 4217 code Used Replaced by
23x15px Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina dinar BAD 1992–1998 Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark
23x15px Croatia Croatian dinar HRD 1991–1994 Croatian kuna
Template:Country data Iran Iranian rial was divided into at first 1250 and then 100 dinars
23x15px Republika Srpska Republika Srpska dinar n/a 1992–1998 Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark
23x15px South Yemen South Yemeni dinar YDD 1965–1990 Yemeni rial
23x15px Sudan Sudanese dinar SDD 1992–2007 Sudanese pound
23x15px Kingdom of Yugoslavia
23x15px SFR Yugoslavia
23x15px FR Yugoslavia
Yugoslav dinar YUD (1965–1989)
YUN (1990–1992)
YUR (1992–1993)
YUO (1993)
YUG (1994)
YUM (1994–2003)
1918–2003 n/a

The 8th century English king Offa of Mercia minted copies of Abbasid dinars struck in 774 by Caliph Al-Mansur with "Offa Rex" centered on the reverse.[6][7] The moneyer visibly had no understanding of Arabic as the Arabic text contains many errors. Such coins may have been produced for trade with Islamic Spain.

See also

References

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, Second edition, 1989, s.v. dinar; online version November 2010
  2. ^ Versteegh, C. H. M.; Versteegh, Kees (2001). The Arabic Language. Edinburgh University Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-7486-1436-3. 
  3. ^ Koehler, Benedikt (2014). Early Islam and the Birth of Capitalism. Lexington Books. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-7391-8883-5. 
  4. ^ Friedberg, Arthur L.; Friedberg, Ira S. (2009). Gold Coins of the World: From Ancient Times to the Present. Coin & Currency Institute. p. 457. ISBN 978-0-87184-308-1. 
  5. ^ Mookerji, Radhakumud (2007). The Gupta Empire. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 30–31. ISBN 978-81-208-0440-1. 
  6. ^ British Museum
  7. ^ Medieval European Coinage By Philip Grierson p.330