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Discus throw

"Discus thrower" and "Discus" redirect here. For the statue, see Discobolus. For other uses, see Discus (disambiguation).

Template:Infobox athletics event The discus throw (About this sound pronunciation) is a track and field event in which an athlete throws a heavy disc—called a discus—in an attempt to mark a farther distance than his or her competitors. It is an ancient sport, as demonstrated by the fifth-century-B.C. Myron statue, Discobolus. Although not part of the modern pentathlon, it was one of the events of the ancient Greek pentathlon, which can be dated back to at least to 708 BC.[1]

History

File:Diskuskastare Gbg - Alkamenes.jpg
Modern copy of the Diskophoros, attributed to Alkamenes

Discus is a routine part of most modern track-and-field meets at all levels and is a sport which is particularly iconic of the Olympic Games. The men's competition has been a part of the modern Summer Olympic Games since the first Olympiad in 1896. Images of discus throwers figured prominently in advertising for early modern Games, such as fundraising stamps for the 1896 games and the main posters for the 1920 and 1948 Summer Olympics.

The first modern athlete to throw the discus while rotating the whole body was František Janda-Suk from Bohemia (present Czech Republic). He invented this technique when studying the position of the famous statue of Discobolus. After only one year of developing the technique he gained the olympic silver in 1900.

The women's competition was added to the Olympic program in the 1928 games, although they had been competing at some national and regional levels previously.

Description

File:Discobolus Kleomelos Louvre G111.jpg
Discus-thrower, tondo of a kylix by the Kleomelos Painter, Louvre Museum

The discus, the object to be thrown, is a heavy lenticular disc with a weight of Script error: No such module "convert". and diameter of .219 m (0 ft 812 in) for the men's event, and a weight of Script error: No such module "convert". and diameter of .180 m (0 ft 7 in) for the women's program.

Under IAAF (international) rules, Youth boys (16–17 years) throw the Script error: No such module "convert". discus, the Junior men (18–19 years) throw the unique Script error: No such module "convert". discus, and the girls/women of those ages throw the 1 kg discus.

In international competition, men throw the 2 kg discus through to age 49. The Script error: No such module "convert". discus is thrown by ages 50–59, and men age 60 and beyond throw the Script error: No such module "convert". discus. Women throw the Script error: No such module "convert". discus through to age 74. Starting with age 75, women throw the Script error: No such module "convert". discus.

The typical discus has sides made of plastic, wood, fiberglass, carbon fiber or metal with a metal rim and a metal core to attain the weight. The rim must be smooth, with no roughness or finger holds. A discus with more weight in the rim produces greater angular momentum for any given spin rate, and thus more stability, although it is more difficult to throw. However, a higher rim weight, if thrown correctly, can lead to a farther throw. A solid rubber discus is sometimes used (see in the United States).

To make a throw, the competitor starts in a circle of 2.5 m (8 ft 214 in) diameter, which is recessed in a concrete pad by 20 mm. The thrower typically takes an initial stance facing away from the direction of the throw. He then spins anticlockwise (for right-handers) around one and a half times through the circle to build momentum, then releases his/her throw. The discus must land within a 34.92-degree sector. The rules of competition for discus are virtually identical to those of shot put, except that the circle is larger, a stop board is not used and there are no form rules concerning how the discus is to be thrown.

The distance from the front edge of the circle to where the discus has landed is measured, and distances are rounded down to the nearest centimetre. The competitor's best throw from the allocated number of throws, typically three to six, is recorded, and the competitor who legally throws the discus the farthest is declared the winner. Ties are broken by determining which thrower has the longer second-best throw.

The basic motion is a forehanded sidearm movement. The discus is spun off the index finger or the middle finger of the throwing hand. In flight the disc spins anticlockwise when viewed from above for a right-handed thrower, and clockwise for a lefty. As well as achieving maximum momentum in the discus on throwing, the discus' distance is also determined by the trajectory the thrower imparts, as well as the aerodynamic behavior of the discus. Generally, throws into a moderate headwind achieve the maximum distance. Also, a faster-spinning discus imparts greater gyroscopic stability. The technique of discus throwing is quite difficult to master and needs lots of experience to get right, thus most top throwers are 30 years old or more.

Phases

There are six key movements of the discus throw: wind up, move in rhythm, balance, right leg engine, orbit, and delivery. The wind up is one of the most important aspects of the throw because it sets the tone – both mentally and technically – for the entire throw.

File:DiscusRutgerSmith6551.jpg
Rutger Smith in phases of the discus throw

The following are the technical aspects: flat right foot, on the ball of your left foot, keep your weight evenly distributed between your feet, and not being overly active, which results in the waste of energy. Although the wind up sets the tone for the entire throw, the rhythm of the throw is the most important aspect. It is necessary to move in rhythm throughout the entire throw.

The best throwers contain the same amount of time in each phase while completing a great throw. Focusing on rhythm can bring about the consistency to get in the right positions that many throwers lack. Executing a sound discus throw with solid technique requires perfect balance. This is due to the throw being a linear movement combined with a one and a half rotation and an implement at the end of one arm. Thus, a good discus thrower needs to maintain balance within the circle.[citation needed]

It is also important that the discus thrower keeps their shoulders at the same level during the throw until the end, where the thrower must extend their shoulders upward to get good lift under the discus. If extension is executed properly the discus will be at the right angle to ride on the air current and thus be taken a farther distance.

Culture

The discus throw is the subject of a number of well-known ancient Greek statues and Roman copies such as the Discobolus and Discophoros.

Discus throwers have been selected as a main motif in numerous collectors' coins. One of the recent samples is the €10 Greek Discus commemorative coin, minted in 2003 to commemorate the 2004 Summer Olympics. On the obverse of the coin a modern athlete is seen in the foreground in a half-turned position, while in the background an ancient discus thrower has been captured in a lively bending motion, with the discus high above his head, creating a vivid representation of the sport.

United States

In U.S. high school track and field, boys typically throw a discus weighing 1.6 kg (3 lb 9 oz) and the girls throw the 1 kg (2.2 lb) women's discus. Under USATF Youth rules, boys throw the 1 kg discus between the ages of 11-14, and transition to the 1.6 kg discus as 15- to 18-year-olds. Girls throw the 1 kg discus as 11- to 18-year-olds.

Under US high school rules, if a discus hits the surrounding safety cage and is deflected into the sector, it is ruled a foul. In contrast, under IAAF, WMA, NCAA and USATF rules, it is ruled a legal throw. Additionally, under US high school rules, distances thrown are rounded down to the nearest whole inch, rather than the nearest centimetre.

US high school rules allow the use of a solid rubber discus; it is cheaper and easier to learn to throw (due to its more equal distribution of weight, as opposed to the heavy rim weight of the metal rim/core discus), but less durable.

Top 25 performers

Accurate as of June 2013.[2][3]

Men

Rank Mark Athlete Venue Date
1 74.08 m (243 ft 012 in) 23x15px Jürgen Schult (GDR) Neubrandenburg 6 June 1986
2 73.88 m (242 ft 412 in) 23x15px Virgilijus Alekna (LTU) Kaunas 3 August 2000
3 73.38 m (240 ft 834 in) 23x15px Gerd Kanter (EST) Helsingborg 4 September 2006
4 71.86 m (235 ft 9 in) 23x15px Yuriy Dumchev (URS) Moscow 29 May 1983
5 71.84 m (235 ft 814 in) 23x15px Piotr Małachowski (POL) Hengelo 8 June 2013
6 71.70 m (235 ft 234 in) 23x15px Róbert Fazekas (HUN) Szombathely 14 July 2002
7 71.50 m (234 ft 634 in) 23x15px Lars Riedel (GER) Wiesbaden 3 May 1997
8 71.32 m (233 ft 1134 in) 23x15px Ben Plucknett (USA) Eugene 4 June 1983
9= 71.26 m (233 ft 912 in) 23x15px John Powell (USA) San Jose 9 June 1984
9= 71.26 m (233 ft 912 in) 23x15px Rickard Bruch (SWE) Malmö 15 November 1984
9= 71.26 m (233 ft 912 in) 23x15px Imrich Bugár (TCH) San Jose, CA 25 May 1985
12 71.18 m (233 ft 614 in) 23x15px Art Burns (USA) San Jose 19 July 1983
13 71.16 m (233 ft 512 in) 23x15px Wolfgang Schmidt (GDR) Berlin 9 August 1978
14 71.14 m (233 ft 434 in) 23x15px Anthony Washington (USA) Salinas 22 May 1996
15 71.06 m (233 ft 112 in) 23x15px Luis Delís (CUB) Havana 21 May 1983
16 70.98 m (232 ft 1014 in) 23x15px Mac Wilkins (USA) Helsinki 9 July 1980
17 70.82 m (232 ft 4 in) 23x15px Aleksander Tammert (EST) Denton 15 April 2006
18 70.66 m (231 ft 934 in) 23x15px Robert Harting (GER) Turnov 22 May 2012
19 70.54 m (231 ft 5 in) 23x15px Dmitriy Shevchenko (RUS) Krasnodar 7 May 2002
20 70.38 m (230 ft 1034 in) 23x15px Jay Silvester (USA) Lancaster 16 May 1971
21 70.32 m (230 ft 812 in) 23x15px Frantz Kruger (RSA) Salon-de-Provence 26 May 2002
22 70.06 m (229 ft 1014 in) 23x15px Roman Ubartas (URS) Smalininkai 8 May 1988
23 70.00 m (229 ft 734 in) 23x15px Juan Martínez (CUB) Havana 21 May 1983
24 69.95 m (229 ft 534 in) 23x15px Zoltán Kővágó (HUN) Salon-de-Provence 25 May 2006
25 69.91 m (229 ft 414 in) 23x15px John Godina (USA) Salinas 19 May 1998

Women

Rank Mark Athlete Venue Date
1 76.80 m (251 ft 1112 in) 23x15px Gabriele Reinsch (GDR) Neubrandenburg July 9, 1988
2 74.56 m (244 ft 714 in) 23x15px Zdenka Šilhavá (TCH) Nitra August 26, 1984
74.56 m (244 ft 714 in) 23x15px Ilke Wyludda (GDR) Neubrandenburg July 23, 1989
4 74.08 m (243 ft 012 in) 23x15px Diana Sachse-Gansky (GDR) Karl-Marx-Stadt June 20, 1987
5 73.84 m (242 ft 3 in) 23x15px Daniela Costian (ROU) Bucharest April 30, 1988
6 73.36 m (240 ft 8 in) 23x15px Irina Meszynski (GDR) Prague August 17, 1984
7 73.28 m (240 ft 5 in) 23x15px Galina Savinkova (URS) Donetsk September 8, 1984
8 73.23 m (240 ft 3 in) 23x15px Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL) Kazanlak April 19, 1987
9 73.10 m (239 ft 934 in) 23x15px Gisela Beyer (GDR) Berlin July 20, 1984
10 72.92 m (239 ft 234 in) 23x15px Martina Hellmann (GDR) Potsdam August 20, 1987
11 72.14 m (236 ft 8 in) 23x15px Galina Murashova (URS) Prague August 17, 1984
12 71.80 m (235 ft 634 in) 23x15px Maria Vergova-Petkova (BUL) Sofia July 13, 1980
13 71.68 m (235 ft 2 in) 23x15px Xiao Yanling (CHN) Beijing March 14, 1992
14 71.58 m (234 ft 10 in) 23x15px Ellina Zvereva (URS) Leningrad June 12, 1988
15 71.50 m (234 ft 634 in) 23x15px Evelin Jahl (GDR) Potsdam May 10, 1980
16 71.30 m (233 ft 11 in) 23x15px Larisa Korotkevich (RUS) Sochi May 29, 1992
17 71.22 m (233 ft 734 in) 23x15px Ria Stalman (NED) Walnut July 15, 1984
18 71.08 m (233 ft 214 in) 23x15px Sandra Perković (CRO) Zurich August 16, 2014
19 70.88 m (232 ft 612 in) 23x15px Hilda Ramos (CUB) Havana May 8, 1992
20 70.80 m (232 ft 314 in) 23x15px Larisa Mikhalchenko (URS) Kharkov June 18, 1988
21 70.68 m (231 ft 1012 in) 23x15px Maritza Marten (CUB) Sevilla July 18, 1992
22 70.50 m (231 ft 312 in) 23x15px Faina Melnik (URS) Sochi April 24, 1976
23 70.34 m (230 ft 914 in) 23x15px Silvia Madetzky (GDR) Athens May 16, 1988
24 70.02 m (229 ft 812 in) 23x15px Natalya Sadova (RUS) Thessaloniki June 23, 1999
25 69.86 m (229 ft 214 in) 23x15px Valentina Kharchenko (URS) Feodosiya May 16, 1981

Olympic medalists

Men

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
details
22x20px Robert Garrett (USA) 22x20px Panagiotis Paraskevopoulos (GRE) 22x20px Sotirios Versis (GRE)
1900 Paris
details
22x20px Rudolf Bauer (HUN) 22x20px František Janda-Suk (BOH) 22x20px Richard Sheldon (USA)
1904 St. Louis
details
22x20px Martin Sheridan (USA) 22x20px Ralph Rose (USA) 22x20px Nikolaos Georgantas (GRE)
1908 London
details
22x20px Martin Sheridan (USA) 22x20px Merritt Giffin (USA) 22x20px Bill Horr (USA)
1912 Stockholm
details
22x20px Armas Taipale (FIN) 22x20px Richard Byrd (USA) 22x20px James Duncan (USA)
1920 Antwerp
details
22x20px Elmer Niklander (FIN) 22x20px Armas Taipale (FIN) 22x20px Gus Pope (USA)
1924 Paris
details
22x20px Bud Houser (USA) 22x20px Vilho Niittymaa (FIN) 22x20px Thomas Lieb (USA)
1928 Amsterdam
details
22x20px Bud Houser (USA) 22x20px Antero Kivi (FIN) 22x20px James Corson (USA)
1932 Los Angeles
details
22x20px John Anderson (USA) 22x20px Henri LaBorde (USA) 22x20px Paul Winter (FRA)
1936 Berlin
details
22x20px Ken Carpenter (USA) 22x20px Gordon Dunn (USA) 22x20px Giorgio Oberweger (ITA)
1948 London
details
22x20px Adolfo Consolini (ITA) 22x20px Giuseppe Tosi (ITA) 22x20px Fortune Gordien (USA)
1952 Helsinki
details
22x20px Sim Iness (USA) 22x20px Adolfo Consolini (ITA) 22x20px James Dillion (USA)
1956 Melbourne
details
22x20px Al Oerter (USA) 22x20px Fortune Gordien (USA) 22x20px Des Koch (USA)
1960 Rome
details
22x20px Al Oerter (USA) 22x20px Rink Babka (USA) 22x20px Dick Cochran (USA)
1964 Tokyo
details
22x20px Al Oerter (USA) 22x20px Ludvík Daněk (TCH) 22x20px Dave Weill (USA)
1968 Mexico City
details
22x20px Al Oerter (USA) 22x20px Lothar Milde (GDR) 22x20px Ludvík Daněk (TCH)
1972 Munich
details
22x20px Ludvík Daněk (TCH) 22x20px Jay Silvester (USA) 22x20px Ricky Bruch (SWE)
1976 Montreal
details
22x20px Mac Wilkins (USA) 22x20px Wolfgang Schmidt (GDR) 22x20px John Powell (USA)
1980 Moscow
details
22x20px Viktor Rashchupkin (URS) 22x20px Imrich Bugár (TCH) 22x20px Luis Delís (CUB)
1984 Los Angeles
details
22x20px Rolf Danneberg (FRG) 22x20px Mac Wilkins (USA) 22x20px John Powell (USA)
1988 Seoul
details
22x20px Jürgen Schult (GDR) 22x20px Romas Ubartas (URS) 22x20px Rolf Danneberg (FRG)
1992 Barcelona
details
22x20px Romas Ubartas (LTU) 22x20px Jürgen Schult (GER) 22x20px Roberto Moya (CUB)
1996 Atlanta
details
22x20px Lars Riedel (GER) 22x20px Vladimir Dubrovshchik (BLR) 22x20px Vasiliy Kaptyukh (BLR)
2000 Sydney
details
22x20px Virgilijus Alekna (LTU) 22x20px Lars Riedel (GER) 22x20px Frantz Kruger (RSA)
2004 Athens
details
22x20px Virgilijus Alekna (LTU) 22x20px Zoltán Kővágó (HUN) 22x20px Aleksander Tammert (EST)
2008 Beijing
details
22x20px Gerd Kanter (EST) 22x20px Piotr Małachowski (POL) 22x20px Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)
2012 London
details
22x20px Robert Harting (GER) 22x20px Ehsan Haddadi (IRI) 22x20px Gerd Kanter (EST)

Women

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1928 Amsterdam
details
22x20px Halina Konopacka (POL) 22x20px Lillian Copeland (USA) 22x20px Ruth Svedberg (SWE)
1932 Los Angeles
details
22x20px Lillian Copeland (USA) 22x20px Ruth Osburn (USA) 22x20px Jadwiga Wajs (POL)
1936 Berlin
details
22x20px Gisela Mauermayer (GER) 22x20px Jadwiga Wajs (POL) 22x20px Paula Mollenhauer (GER)
1948 London
details
22x20px Micheline Ostermeyer (FRA) 22x20px Edera Gentile (ITA) 22x20px Jacqueline Mazéas (FRA)
1952 Helsinki
details
22x20px Nina Romashkova (URS) 22x20px Yelisaveta Bagriantseva (URS) 22x20px Nina Dumbadze (URS)
1956 Melbourne
details
22x20px Olga Fikotová (TCH) 22x20px Irina Beglyakova (URS) 22x20px Nina Romashkova (URS)
1960 Rome
details
22x20px Nina Romashkova (URS) 22x20px Tamara Press (URS) 22x20px Lia Manoliu (ROU)
1964 Tokyo
details
22x20px Tamara Press (URS) 22x20px Ingrid Lotz (EUA) 22x20px Lia Manoliu (ROU)
1968 Mexico City
details
22x20px Lia Manoliu (ROU) 22x20px Liesel Westermann (FRG) 22x20px Jolán Kleiber-Kontsek (HUN)
1972 Munich
details
22x20px Faina Melnyk (URS) 22x20px Argentina Menis (ROU) 22x20px Vasilka Stoeva (BUL)
1976 Montreal
details
22x20px Evelin Schlaak (GDR) 22x20px Mariya Vergova (BUL) 22x20px Gabriele Hinzmann (GDR)
1980 Moscow
details
22x20px Evelin Jahl (GDR) 22x20px Mariya Petkova (BUL) 22x20px Tatyana Lesovaya (URS)
1984 Los Angeles
details
22x20px Ria Stalman (NED) 22x20px Leslie Deniz (USA) 22x20px Florenţa Crăciunescu (ROU)
1988 Seoul
details
22x20px Martina Hellmann (GDR) 22x20px Diana Gansky (GDR) 22x20px Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL)
1992 Barcelona
details
22x20px Maritza Martén (CUB) 22x20px Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL) 22x20px Daniela Costian (AUS)
1996 Atlanta
details
22x20px Ilke Wyludda (GER) 22x20px Natalya Sadova (RUS) 22x20px Ellina Zvereva (BLR)
2000 Sydney
details
22x20px Ellina Zvereva (BLR) 22x20px Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE) 22x20px Iryna Yatchenko (BLR)
2004 Athens
details
22x20px Natalya Sadova (RUS) 22x20px Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE) 22x20px Vera Pospisilova-Cechlova (CZE)[4]
2008 Beijing
details
22x20px Stephanie Brown Trafton (USA) 22x20px Yarelis Barrios (CUB) 22x20px Olena Antonova (UKR)
2012 London
details
22x20px Sandra Perković (CRO) 22x20px Darya Pishchalnikova (RUS) 22x20px Li Yanfeng (CHN)

World Championships medalists

Men

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki 23x15px Imrich Bugár (TCH) 23x15px Luis Delís (CUB) 23x15px Gejza Valent (TCH)
1987 Rome 23x15px Jürgen Schult (GDR) 23x15px John Powell (USA) 23x15px Luis Delís (CUB)
1991 Tokyo 23x15px Lars Riedel (GER) 23x15px Erik de Bruin (NED) 23x15px Attila Horváth (HUN)
1993 Stuttgart 23x15px Lars Riedel (GER) 23x15px Dmitriy Shevchenko (RUS) 23x15px Jürgen Schult (GER)
1995 Gothenburg 23x15px Lars Riedel (GER) 23x15px Vladimir Dubrovshchik (BLR) 23x15px Vasiliy Kaptyukh (BLR)
1997 Athens 23x15px Lars Riedel (GER) 23x15px Virgilijus Alekna (LTU) 23x15px Jürgen Schult (GER)
1999 Seville 23x15px Anthony Washington (USA) 23x15px Jürgen Schult (GER) 23x15px Lars Riedel (GER)
2001 Edmonton 23x15px Lars Riedel (GER) 23x15px Virgilijus Alekna (LTU) 23x15px Michael Möllenbeck (GER)
2003 Saint-Denis 23x15px Virgilijus Alekna (LTU) 23x15px Róbert Fazekas (HUN) 23x15px Vasiliy Kaptyukh (BLR)
2005 Helsinki 23x15px Virgilijus Alekna (LTU) 23x15px Gerd Kanter (EST) 23x15px Michael Möllenbeck (GER)
2007 Osaka 23x15px Gerd Kanter (EST) 23x15px Robert Harting (GER) 23x15px Rutger Smith (NED)
2009 Berlin 23x15px Robert Harting (GER) 23x15px Piotr Małachowski (POL) 23x15px Gerd Kanter (EST)
2011 Daegu 23x15px Robert Harting (GER) 23x15px Gerd Kanter (EST)
  1. REDIRECT Template:Country data Iran
2013 Moscow 23x15px Robert Harting (GER) 23x15px Piotr Malachowski (POL) 23x15px Gerd Kanter (EST)

Women

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki 23x15px Martina Opitz (GDR) 23x15px Galina Murasova (URS) 23x15px Mariya Petkova (BUL)
1987 Rome 23x15px Martina Hellmann (GDR) 23x15px Diana Gansky (GDR) 23x15px Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL)
1991 Tokyo 23x15px Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL) 23x15px Ilke Wyludda (GER) 23x15px Larisa Mikhalchenko (URS)
1993 Stuttgart 23x15px Olga Chernyavskaya (RUS) 23x15px Daniela Costian (AUS) 23x15px Min Chunfeng (CHN)
1995 Gothenburg 23x15px Ellina Zvereva (BLR) 23x15px Ilke Wyludda (GER) 23x15px Olga Chernyavskaya (RUS)
1997 Athens 23x15px Beatrice Faumuina (NZL) 23x15px Ellina Zvereva (BLR) 23x15px Natalya Sadova (RUS)
1999 Seville 23x15px Franka Dietzsch (GER) 23x15px Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE) 23x15px Nicoleta Grasu (ROU)
2001 Edmonton 23x15px Ellina Zvereva (BLR) 23x15px Nicoleta Grasu (ROU) 23x15px Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE)
2003 Saint-Denis 23x15px Irina Yatchenko (BLR) 23x15px Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE) 23x15px Ekaterini Voggoli (GRE)
2005 Helsinki 23x15px Franka Dietzsch (GER) 23x15px Natalya Sadova (RUS) 23x15px Věra Pospíšilová-Cechlová (CZE)
2007 Osaka 23x15px Franka Dietzsch (GER) 23x15px Yarelis Barrios (CUB) 23x15px Nicoleta Grasu (ROU)
2009 Berlin 23x15px Dani Samuels (AUS) 23x15px Yarelis Barrios (CUB) 23x15px Nicoleta Grasu (ROU)
2011 Daegu 23x15px Li Yanfeng (CHN) 23x15px Nadine Müller (GER) 23x15px Yarelis Barrios (CUB)
2013 Moscow 23x15px Sandra Perkovic (CRO) 23x15px Mélina Robert-Michon (FRA) 23x15px Yarelis Barrios (CUB)

Season's bests

See also

References

External links