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Dodge Challenger

Dodge Challenger
File:2008 Dodge Challenger.jpg
2008 Dodge Challenger
Overview
Manufacturer
Production
  • 1959
  • 1969–74
  • 1978–83
  • 2008–present
Body and chassis
Class
Layout FR layout
Chronology
Predecessor

The Dodge Challenger is the name of three different generations of American automobiles marketed by the Dodge division of Chrysler. The Dodge Silver Challenger was produced from 1958 to 1959. From 1969 to 1974, the first generation Dodge Challenger pony car was built using the Chrysler E platform, sharing major components with the Plymouth Barracuda. The second generation, from 1978 to 1983, was a badge engineered Mitsubishi Galant Lambda. The third, and current generation, was introduced in early 2008 as a rival to the evolved fifth generation Ford Mustang and the fifth generation Chevrolet Camaro.

Dodge Silver Challenger (1958-1959)

Silver Challenger (1959)
File:1959 Dodge Silver Challenger a "Barn Find".jpg
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door sedan
Related Dodge Coronet (fourth generation)

The first car that carried the Challenger name was the introduction of a limited edition Dodge Silver Challenger Club Sedan to the 1959 full-sized Dodge Coronet (fourth generation) model line.[1]

The Silver Challenger came only in silver paint and exclusively on Chrysler's Script error: No such module "convert". long two-door body style riding on a Script error: No such module "convert". wheelbase. It was available with either the Script error: No such module "convert". "Getaway" L-head straight-six engine for $2,297, or powered by the Script error: No such module "convert". "Red Ram" V8 for $2,408.[1] This car was marketed for the spring selling season to the "new-car buyers who've been waiting to get the most for the least."[2] A column-shifted three-speed manual transmission was standard and an automatic was optional.

The 1959 Silver Challenger was marketed with extra features at no extra cost. These included premium white wall tires, full wheel covers, electric windshield wipers, as well as an upgraded interior with silver metallic vinyl and black "Manchu" fabric upholstery, dual arm rests and sun visors, as well as deep pile wall-to-wall carpeting.[2][3]

First generation (1970–1974)

First generation
File:'73 Dodge Challenger (Auto classique VAQ Mont St-Hilaire '11).jpg
Overview
Production 1969–1974
Assembly Hamtramck, Michigan, United States
Los Angeles, California, United States
Designer Carl Cameron (1968)
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door convertible
2-door hardtop
Platform E-body
Related Plymouth Barracuda
Powertrain
Engine Script error: No such module "convert". Slant 6 I6
Script error: No such module "convert". Slant 6 I6
Script error: No such module "convert". LA V8
Script error: No such module "convert". LA V8
Script error: No such module "convert". LA V8
Script error: No such module "convert". B V8
Script error: No such module "convert". Hemi V8
Script error: No such module "convert". RB V8
Transmission 3-speed manual
4-speed manual
3-speed TorqueFlite automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase Script error: No such module "convert".
Length Script error: No such module "convert".[4]
Width Script error: No such module "convert".
Height Script error: No such module "convert".

The Challenger was described in a book about 1960s American cars as Dodge's "answer to the Mustang and Camaro."[5] Introduced in fall 1969 for the 1970 model year,[5] it was one of two Chrysler E-body cars, the other being the slightly smaller Plymouth Barracuda. "Both the Challenger and Barracuda were available in a staggering number of trim and option levels" and were intended "to compete against cars like the Chevrolet Camaro and Ford Mustang, and to do it while offering virtually every engine in Chrysler's inventory."[6] However, the 1970 Challenger was "a rather late response to the ponycar wave the Ford Mustang had started" with its introduction in April 1964.[7] In his book Hemi Muscle Cars,[8] Robert Genat wrote that the Challenger was conceived in the late 1960s as Dodge's equivalent of the Plymouth Barracuda, and that the Barracuda was designed to compete against the Mustang. The 1964 Barracuda was actually the first car in this sporty car segment by a few weeks, but was quickly overshadowed by the release of the segment defining Mustang (the segment being referred to as "Pony Car"). He added that Chrysler intended the new 1970 Dodge as "the most potent ponycar ever," and positioned it "to compete against the Mercury Cougar and Pontiac Firebird." Genat also noted that the "Barracuda was intended to compete in the marketplace with the Mustang and Camaro/Firebird, while the Dodge was to be positioned against the Cougar" and other more luxury-type musclecars.[9]

The Challenger's longer wheelbase, larger dimensions and more luxurious interior were prompted by the launch of the 1967 Mercury Cougar, likewise a bigger, more luxurious and more expensive pony car aimed at affluent young American buyers.[10] The wheelbase, at Script error: No such module "convert"., was two inches longer than the Barracuda, and the Dodge differed substantially from the Plymouth in its outer sheetmetal, much as the Cougar differed from the shorter-wheelbase Ford Mustang. Air conditioning and a rear window defogger were optional.[11]

Exterior design was done by Carl Cameron, who also did the exterior for the 1966 Dodge Charger. Cameron based the 1970 Challenger grille off an older sketch of his 1966 Charger prototype that was to have a turbine engine. The Charger never got the turbine, but the Challenger featured that car's grille. Although the Challenger was well received by the public (with 76,935 produced for the 1970 model year), it was criticized by the press, and the pony car segment was already declining by the time the Challenger arrived. Sales fell dramatically after 1970, and though sales rose for the 1973 model year with over 27,800 cars being sold, Challenger production ceased midway through the 1974 model year. A total of 165,437 Challengers were sold over this generation's lifespan.

A 1970 Challenger R/T 440 Magnum was featured in the existentialist 1971 film Vanishing Point.[12] For the 1973-74 season of the TV show Mannix the title character drove a 1974 Challenger Rallye, which was specially ordered and built for the show. The car had every option available including the 360 4-barrel engine and the rare factory sunroof.

Models

File:'70 Dodge Challenger (Auto classique Bellepros Vaudreuil-Dorion '11).JPG
1970 Dodge Challenger R/T coupe with a 426-cubic inch engine
File:Dodge Challenger conv six bak.jpg
1970 convertible with I6 showing the center mounted backup light

The Challenger was available as a two-door in either a hardtop coupe or a convertible body design, and in two models for its introductory year.[13][better source needed] The base model was the "Challenger" with either a I6 or V8 engine, as well as a "Challenger R/T" that included a Script error: No such module "convert". V8. The Special Edition or "Challenger SE" that added a number of appearance, convenience, and comfort items was "available as a model in either the Challenger R/T or Challenger."[14][better source needed] The standard engine on the base model was the Script error: No such module "convert". six-cylinder. The standard engine on the V8 was the Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". V8 with a 2-barrel carburetor. For 1970, the optional engines included the Script error: No such module "convert"., as well as the Script error: No such module "convert". V8s, all with a standard 3-speed manual transmission, except for the Script error: No such module "convert". 383 CID engine, which was available only with the TorqueFlite automatic transmission. A 4-speed manual was optional on all engines except the 225 CID I6 and the 2-barrel 383 CID V8.

For 1971, the Challenger line up was modified to include a new model, the "Challenger Coupe" with either a I6 or V8 engine, and as the most basic version it had fixed in position quarter windows and a basic black steering wheel with horn button.[15][better source needed]

The performance model was the R/T (Rapid Transit), with a Script error: No such module "convert". "Magnum" V8, rated at Script error: No such module "convert".; Script error: No such module "convert". for 1971, due to a drop in compression. The standard transmission was a 3-speed manual. Optional R/T engines were the Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Magnum, the Script error: No such module "convert". 440 CID Six-Pack and the Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Hemi. The R/T was available in either the hardtop or convertible. For 1970 only, base hardtop and R/T hardtop models could be ordered with the more luxurious SE specification, which included leather seats, a vinyl roof, a smaller 'formal' rear window, and an overhead interior console that contained three warning lights (door ajar, low fuel, and seatbelts).[16][better source needed] The Challenger R/T came with a Rallye instrument cluster that included a Script error: No such module "convert". speedometer, an 8,000 rpm tachometer,[17][better source needed] 1972–1974 tachometer went to 7,000 rpm and an oil pressure gauge. In 1972, the R/T badging was dropped and these models were called "Rallye", although they were never badged as such. The Rallye model featured a faux brake vent on the fenders. The shaker hood scoop was not available after 1971.

A 1970-only model was the Dodge Challenger T/A (Trans Am) racing homologation car. In order to race in the Sports Car Club of America's Trans American Sedan Championship Trans Am, Dodge built a street version of its race car (just like Plymouth with its Plymouth 'Cuda AAR) which it called the Dodge Challenger T/A (Trans Am). Although the race cars ran a destroked version of the 340, street versions took the 340 and added a trio of two-barrel carburetors atop an aluminum intake manifold, creating the 340 Six Pack. Dodge rated the 340 Six Pack at Script error: No such module "convert"., only Script error: No such module "convert". more than the original 340 engine (which also had the same rating as the Camaro Z/28 and Ford Boss 302 Mustang). The engine actually made about Script error: No such module "convert".. It breathed air through a suitcase-sized air scoop molded into the pinned down, hinged matte-black fiberglass hood. Low-restriction dual exhaust ran to the stock muffler location, then reversed direction to exit in chrome tipped "megaphone" outlets in front of the rear wheels. Options included a TorqueFlite automatic or pistol-grip Hurst-shifted four-speed transmission, 3.55:1 or 3.90:1 gears, as well as manual or power steering. Front disc brakes were standard. The special Rallye suspension used heavy duty parts and increased the rate of the rear springs. The T/A was one of the first U.S. muscle car to fit different size tires front and rear: E60x15 Goodyear Polyglas in the front, and G60x15 on the rear axle.[18][19] The modified chamber elevated the tail enough to clear the rear tires and its side exhaust outlets. Thick dual side stripes, bold ID graphics, a fiberglass ducktail rear spoiler, and a fiberglass front spoiler were also included. The interior was identical to other Challengers.

Dodge contracted Ray Caldwell's Autodynamics in Marblehead, Massachusetts to run the factory Trans-Am team. Sam Posey drove the No.77 "sub-lime" painted car that Caldwell's team built from a car taken off a local dealer's showroom floor. When the No.76 was completed mid-season from a chassis provided by Dan Gurney's All American Racers, Posey alternated between the two. Both cars ran the final two races, with Posey in the #77. Ronnie Bucknum drove the No.76 at Seattle Washington, and Tony Adamowicz drove it at Riverside, California.

The Challenger T/A's scored a few top three finishes, but lack of a development budget and the short-lived Keith Black 303 c. i. engines led to Dodge leaving the series at season's end. The street version suffered from severe understeer in fast corners, largely due to the smaller front tires. Only 2,399 T/As were made. A 1971 model using the 340 engine with a 4-barrel carburetor was planned and appeared in advertising, but was not produced since Dodge had left the race series.

The "Western Special" was a version available only to west coast dealers. It came with a rear-exit exhaust system and Western Special identification on the rear decklid. Some examples came with a vacuum-operated trunk release. Another late production version was the low-priced "Deputy", stripped of some of the base car's trim and with fixed rear side glass.

File:'72 Dodge Challenger (Rigaud).jpg
1972 Dodge Challenger Rallye

For 1972 the options lists (both for performance and appearance/convenience items) had been drastically cut back. The convertible version (though a sun-roof was made available), most interior upgrade options (in particular leather seats), comfort/convenience items (in particular power windows and power seats), and all the big-block engine options were gone. The R/T series was replaced by the Rallye series. Engine choices were down to three: the 225 cu in slant-6, the 318 cu in V-8, and a performance oriented 340 cu in V-8 which was equipped with a 4-barrel carb, performance camshaft, heads and dual exhausts. All three were detuned to lower compression ratios in order to run on lead-free gasoline, and the horsepower ratings were lowered to reflect the more accurate Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) net hp calculations. Each engine could be mated to a 3-speed manual or automatic transmission, while the 340 could also be equipped with a 4-speed manual if so ordered. The performance axle ratios were also gone except for a 3.55 sure grip which could only be had with the 340 and the heavy duty suspension. The 1972 models also received a new grille that extended beneath the front bumper, as well as new rear tail-lights. Toward the end of the 1971 model year a few convertibles were made with the 1972 front end (grille, lights, etc.) and rear end (tail lights and their panel). These were specially built for TV and movie studio production use and showed up "Mod Squad", and other shows. The only way to ascertain these 1972 Challenger convertible is to look at its fender tag. On the code line which gives the dealer order number, that number will start with an "R", which designates "Special Meaning" (in this case, a TV 'special promotions' car). A cigarette lighter was standard.[20]

The 1972 grille and tail-light arrangement was carried over for the 1973 (and 1974) models, and the mandatory 5 mph bumpers were added. While the 225 cu in six-cylinder engine was dropped, (leaving just the two V-8s), all option lists otherwise were carry-overs from 1972. For 1974, the Script error: No such module "convert". engine was replaced by a Script error: No such module "convert". version offering Script error: No such module "convert"., but the pony car market had fallen off and production of Challengers ceased in late April 1974. The A/C was not available with the 3-speed manual.[21]

Cosmetic variations

File:1973 Dodge Challenger red.jpg
Protruding bumper guards, 1973

Although the body style remained the same throughout the Challenger's five-year run, there were two notable changes to the front grille. The 1971 models had a "split" grille, while 1972 introduced a design that extended the grille (nicknamed the "sad-mouth") beneath the front bumper. With this change to the front end, 1972 through 1974 models had little to no variation. The only way to properly distinguish them is that the 1972s had flush mounted bumpers with no bumper guards, (small bumper guards were optional), while both the 1973 and 1974 models had the protruding "Script error: No such module "convert"." bumpers (with a rubber type filler behind them) in conjunction with large bumper guards. The 1974 cars had larger rear bumper guards to meet the (new for 1974 and on) rear 5 mph rear impact law. These changes were made to meet U.S. regulations regarding crash test safety.

The 1970 taillights went all the way across the back of the car, with the backup light in the middle. In 1971, the backup lights were on the left and right instead of the middle. The taillight array also changed for 1972 onwards, with the Challenger now having four individual rectangular lamps.

Collectibility

Although few mourned the end of the E-body models, the passage of time has created legends and highlighted the unique personalities of both the Challenger and the Barracuda.[6] With a low total production, as well as low survivability over the years, any Challenger is worth a substantial amount of money. In a historic review, the editors of Edmunds Inside Line ranked these models as: 1970 was a "great" year, 1971 was a "good" one, and then "three progressively lousier ones" (1972–1974).[6] With total sales and production off by 2/3 from 1970, the performance engine 1971 Challengers are the most rare. Sales and production of the 1973 cars (with only two V8s available) actually exceeded 1971 by approximately 1,700 cars. This may be explained by 1973 being a very good year for the U.S. auto industry in general and an increased interest in Chrysler (the Plymouth Barracuda and Plymouth Road Runner also saw sales increases) performance cars.

Export markets

Dodge Challengers were mainly produced for the U.S. and Canadian markets. Interestingly, Chrysler officially sold Challengers to Switzerland through AMAG Automobil- und Motoren AG in Schinznach-Bad, near Zurich. Only a few cars were shipped overseas each year to AMAG. They did the final assembly of the Challengers and converted them to Swiss specs. There are few AMAG cars still in existence. From a collector's point of view, these cars are very desirable. Today, less than five Swiss Challengers are known to exist in North America.[22]

Chrysler exported Dodge Challengers officially to France as well through their Chrysler France Simca operation, since Ford sold the Mustang in France successfully in small numbers. However, only a few Challengers were exported and Chrysler finally gave up the idea of selling them in France.

Engines

Engine choices by Chrysler included the following:

  • C: Script error: No such module "convert". Slant 6 I6: 1970–71 Script error: No such module "convert". SAE gross, 1971-72 Script error: No such module "convert". SAE net
  • G: Script error: No such module "convert". LA V8 (2-barrel carburetor, single exhaust): 1970-71 Script error: No such module "convert". SAE gross, 1971 Script error: No such module "convert". SAE net, 1972-74 Script error: No such module "convert". SAE net
  • H: Script error: No such module "convert". LA V8 (4-barrel carburetor, dual exhaust): 1970-71 Script error: No such module "convert". SAE gross, 1971 Script error: No such module "convert". SAE net, 1972-73 Script error: No such module "convert". SAE net
  • J: Script error: No such module "convert". LA V8 (4-barrel carburetor, dual exhaust): 1974 Script error: No such module "convert". SAE net
  • J: Script error: No such module "convert". LA V8 (3 × 2-barrel carburetor): 1970 Script error: No such module "convert". SAE gross, used in T/A
  • L: Script error: No such module "convert". B V8 (2-barrel carburetor, single exhaust): 1970 Script error: No such module "convert". SAE gross, 1971 Script error: No such module "convert". SAE gross, 1971 Script error: No such module "convert". SAE net
  • L: Script error: No such module "convert". B V8 (4-barrel carburetor, dual exhaust): 1970 Script error: No such module "convert". SAE gross (likely Script error: No such module "convert". SAE net)
  • N: Script error: No such module "convert". B V8 Magnum (4-barrel carburetor, dual exhaust): 1970 Script error: No such module "convert". SAE gross, 1971 Script error: No such module "convert". SAE gross, 1971 Script error: No such module "convert". SAE net
  • U: Script error: No such module "convert". RB V8 Magnum (4-barrel carbureted): 1970 Script error: No such module "convert". SAE gross, (Charger R/T only in 1971 Script error: No such module "convert". SAE gross, Script error: No such module "convert". SAE net)
  • V: Script error: No such module "convert". RB V8 Six-Pack (3 × 2-barrel carburetor): 1970 Script error: No such module "convert"./Script error: No such module "convert". SAE gross, 1971 Script error: No such module "convert". SAE gross, 1971 Script error: No such module "convert". SAE net
  • R: Script error: No such module "convert". Hemi V8: 1970-71 Script error: No such module "convert"./Script error: No such module "convert". SAE gross, 1971 Script error: No such module "convert". SAE net. Costing an extra US$1,228 with very few sold.

SAE gross HP ratings were tested with no accessories, no air cleaner, or open dyno headers. In 1971, compression ratios were reduced in performance engines, except the 426ci and the high performance 440ci, to accommodate regular gasoline. The compression ratio would be reduced on the high performance 440ci starting in 1972. 1971 was the last year for the 426ci hemi.

Performance 1/4 mile

  • 340: 14.8 @ Script error: No such module "convert".
  • 340 T/A: 14.3 @ Script error: No such module "convert". 4-speed with 3.55; it was the same car used on all published tests.
  • 383 2-barrel: 15.1 @ Script error: No such module "convert".
  • 383 Magnum R/T: 14.3 @ Script error: No such module "convert".
  • 440 Magnum R/T: 13.8 @ Script error: No such module "convert".
  • 440 Six-Pack: 13.4 @ Script error: No such module "convert".
  • 426 Hemi: 13.2 @ Script error: No such module "convert".

(year unknown)

  • A comprehensive review of original road and drag tests of production line stock cars demonstrates that the many of the results listed here fall well outside of the established statistical norm. Indeed, most of these results are from period Chrysler promotional information and weren't achieved by independent, third party sources. Statistical norms are slower than what's indicated here.
  • Times were done with different standards than today.Track prep were not done and they didn't have good tracks as today. Times were recorded by some in empty parking lots,dirt roads ect..Skiny tires and lack of traction slowed these cars down.When researching you will find 383 2 barrel cars quicker than 440 or Hemi cars.Car Life tested a 440 4bbl model and it ran high 13's low 14's with factory tires,they added a 10 inch slick of the day,equal to a modern radial tire and the car ran low 12's.So,take 1 second off these times above for closer to actual times,furthermore a 340 small block ran 13.33 at over 104 mph in the 1/4 mile.You can even research and find a 383 2bbl Challenger with gear ratio's in the high 2's running 14.6 ,14.8 as they just hooked and went without tire spinning,loss of traction or incase of the hemi and 440 cars burning tires past the 1/8 th mile mark.318 2 barrel depending on the 2 barrel carburetor can run high 15's to low 16's.

Serial numbers

ex. JS27R0B100001

  • J: Car line, Dodge Challenger
  • S: Price class (H-High, S-Special)
  • 27: Body type (23-Hardtop, 27-Convertible, 29-Sports hardtop)
  • R: Engine code (see engines above)
  • 0: Last digit of model year
  • B: Assembly plant code (B-Hamtramck, E-Los Angeles)
  • 100001: Consecutive sequence number

Production numbers

  • 1970 = 76,935 *includes 2,539 T/As
    • Hardtop I6: 9,929
    • Hardtop V8:. 39,350*
    • Sports hardtop I6: 350
    • Sports hardtop V8: 5,873
    • Convertible I6: 378
    • Convertible V8: 2,543
    • Hardtop R/T: 13,796
    • Special Edition hardtop R/T: 3,753
    • Convertible R/T: 963
  • 1971 = 26,299
    • Hardtop I6: 1,672
    • Hardtop V8: 18,956
    • Convertible I6: 83
    • Convertible V8: 1,774
    • Hardtop V8 R/T: 3,814
  • 1972 = 22,919
    • Hardtop I6: 842
    • Hardtop V8: 15,175
    • Hardtop V8 Rallye: 8,123
  • 1973 = 27,930
    • Note: All models were V8-powered hardtops
  • 1974 = 11,354
    • Note: All models were V8-powered hardtops

Colors

1970

Light Gold Metallic-FY4, Plum Crazy (purple)-FC7, Sublime (green)-FJ5, Go-Mango(orange)-EK2, Hemi Orange-EV2, Banana (yellow)-FY1, Light Blue Metallic-EB3, Bright Blue Metallic-EB5, Dark Blue Metallic-EB7, Rallye Red-FE5, Light Green Metallic-FF4, Dark Green Metallic-EF8, Dark Burnt Orange-FK5, Beige-BL1, Dark Tan Metallic-FT6, White-EW1, Black-TX9, Cream-DY3, Panther Pink-FM3

1971

Light Gunmetal Metallic-GA4, Light Blue Metallic-GB2, Bright Blue Metallic-GB5, Dark Blue Metallic-GB7, Dark Green Metallic-GF7, Light Green Metallic-GF3, Gold Metallic-GY8, Dark Gold Metallic-GY9, Dark Bronze Metallic-GK6, Tan Metallic-GT5, Bright Red-FE5, Bright White-GW3, Black-TX9, Butterscotch-EL5, Citron Yella-GY3, Hemi Orange-EV2, Green Go-FJ6, Plum Crazy-FC7, Top Banana-FY1

1972

Light Blue-HB1, Bright Blue Metallic-HB5, Bright Red-FE5, Light Green Metallic-GF3, Dark Green Metallic-GF7, Eggshell White-GW1, Black-TX9, Honeydew-GY4, Light Gold-GY5, Gold Metallic-GY8, Dark Gold Metallic-GY9, Dark Tan Metallic-GT8, Light Gunmetal Metallic-GA4, Medium Tan Metallic-GA4, Super Blue-GB3, Hemi Orange-EV2, Top Banana-FY1

1973

Black-TX9, Dark Silver Metallic-JA5, Eggshell White-EW1, Parchment-HL4, Light Gold-JY3, Dark Gold Metallic-JY9, Gold Metallic-JY6, Bronze Metallic-GK6, Pale Green-JF1, Dark Green Metallic-JF8, Light Blue-HB1, Super Blue-TB3, Bright Blue Metallic-GB5, Bright Red-FE5, Top Banana-FY1, Light Green Metallic-GF3

1974

Yellow Blaze-KY5, Golden Fawn-KY4, Parchment-HL4, Bright Red-FE5, GE7 Burnished Red Metallic, Deep Sherwood Metallic (Green)-KG8, Eggshell White-EW1, Black-TX9, Light Blue-HB1 Bright Blue Metallic-GB5

Second generation (1978–1983)

Second generation
Overview
Production 1978–1983
Assembly Okazaki, Aichi, Japan
Body and chassis
Class Subcompact car
Body style 2-door hardtop
Related Mitsubishi Galant Lambda
Plymouth Sapporo
Powertrain
Engine Script error: No such module "convert". 4G32 I4
Script error: No such module "convert". 4G54 I4
Transmission 5-speed manual
3-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase Script error: No such module "convert".
Length Script error: No such module "convert".
Width Script error: No such module "convert".
Height Script error: No such module "convert".
See Mitsubishi Galant Lambda for more information

The Challenger name was revived in 1978 for a version of the early Mitsubishi Galant Lambda coupe. It was known overseas as the Mitsubishi Sapporo/Scorpion and sold through Dodge dealers as a captive import. It was identical except in color and minor trim to the Plymouth Sapporo with the Dodge version emphasizing sportiness, with bright colors and tape stripes, while the Plymouth emphasized luxury, with more subdued trim. The cars were slightly restyled in 1981 with revised headlights and other minor cosmetic changes. Both cars were sold until 1984, until being replaced by the Conquest and Daytona.

The car retained the frameless hardtop styling of the old Challenger, but had smaller engines (inline-4s instead of the six and eight-cylinder engines from the old Challenger) and was a long way off in performance from its namesake. Nevertheless, it acquired a reputation as a reasonably brisk performer in its class, not least because of its available 2.6 L engine. Four-cylinder engines of this size had not usually been built due to inherent vibration, but Mitsubishi pioneered the use of balance shafts to help dampen this effect, and the Challenger was one of the first vehicles to bring this technology to the American market; it has since been licensed to many other manufacturers.

Third generation (2008–present)

Third generation
File:2008 Dodge Challenger SRT8.jpg
Overview
Also called SRT Challenger (2013-2014)
Production 2007–present
Model years 2008–present
Assembly Brampton, Ontario, Canada (Brampton Assembly)[23]
Designer Jeff Gale, Brian Nielander (2006)
Body and chassis
Class Pony car
Muscle car
Body style 2-door coupe
Platform Chrysler LC platform
Related Chrysler 300
Dodge Charger
Dodge Magnum
Mercedes-Benz E-Class
Mercedes-Benz S-Class
Powertrain
Engine Script error: No such module "convert". SOHC V6 (2009–2010)
Script error: No such module "convert". Pentastar V6 (2011–present)
Script error: No such module "convert". HEMI V8 (2009–present)
Script error: No such module "convert". HEMI V8 (2008–2010)
Script error: No such module "convert". HEMI V8 (2011–present)
Transmission 4-speed automatic 42RLE (2008)
5-speed automatic W5A580 (2009–2014)
8-speed automatic 845RE (2014-present)
6-speed manual Tremec TR6060 (2008-present)
Dimensions
Wheelbase Script error: No such module "convert".
Length Script error: No such module "convert".
Width Script error: No such module "convert".
Height Script error: No such module "convert".

The Dodge Challenger Concept was unveiled at the 2006 Detroit Motor Show and was a preview for the 3rd generation Dodge Challenger that started its production in 2007. Many design cues of the Dodge Challenger Concept were adapted from the 1970 Dodge Challenger R/T.

Initial release

On December 3, 2007, Chrysler started taking deposits for the third-generation Dodge Challenger which debuted on February 6, 2008, simultaneously at the Chicago Auto Show[24] and Philadelphia International Auto Show. Listing at US$40,095, the new version was a 2-door coupe which shared common design elements with the first generation Challenger, despite being significantly longer and taller. As with Chevrolet's new Camaro, the Challenger concept car's pillarless hardtop body was replaced with a fixed "B" pillar, hidden behind the side glass to give an illusion of the hardtop. The LC chassis is a modified (shortened wheelbase) version of the LX platform that underpins the Dodge Charger (LX), Dodge Magnum, and the Chrysler 300. The LX was developed in America from the previous Chrysler LH platform, which had been designed to allow it to be easily upgraded to rear and all-wheel drive. Many Mercedes components were incorporated, or used for inspiration, including the Mercedes-Benz W220 S-class control arm front suspension, the Mercedes-Benz W211 E-Class 5-link rear suspension, the W5A580 5-speed automatic, the rear differential, and the ESP system. All (7119) 2008 models were SRT8s and equipped with the Script error: No such module "convert". Hemi and a 5-speed AutoStick automatic transmission. The entire 2008 U.S. run of 6,400 cars were pre-sold (many of which for above MSRP), and production commenced on May 8, 2008;

Chrysler of Mexico offered only 100 SRT8s, with a 6.1 liter V8 and Script error: No such module "convert". (SAE). Chrysler auctioned off two 2008 SRT8s for charity with the first car going for $400,000 and a "B5" Blue No.43 car with a winning bid of $228,143.43.[25]

The base model Challenger SE was initially powered by a Script error: No such module "convert". SOHC V6 producing Script error: No such module "convert". (SAE) and Script error: No such module "convert". torque which was coupled to a 4-speed automatic transmission for the first half of 2009, and was then changed to have a standard 5-speed automatic transmission.[26] Several different exterior colors, with either cloth or leather interiors became available. Standard features included air conditioning, power windows, locks, and mirrors; cruise control, and Script error: No such module "convert". aluminum wheels. Leather upholstery, heated front seats, sunroof, 18-inch aluminum wheels, and a premium audio system are available as options, as are ABS, and stability and traction control.[27] The Canadian market also sports the SXT trim, similar to the SE, but more generous in terms of standard features. Some of these features being ESP, an alarm system, and Script error: No such module "convert". wheels. Starting with the 2012 model year, the SE was replaced in the U.S. with the SXT model.

Previous to the 2012 model year, the SXT version of the Challenger was only sold in Canada and is a more well-equipped variation of the SE. It adds fog lamps, a rear spoiler, larger wheels, illuminated vanity mirrors, security alarm and a leather-wrapped shifter. In addition, the SXT has increased option packages available to it that aren't available on the SE, and are also available to the R/T. (Such as the high-end navigation-enabled entertainment system.)

Challenger 500

Chrysler Canada offered a further 670 SRTs uniquely badged as the Challenger 500 (paying homage to Charger and Coronet 500s) all of which were shipped to Canadian Dodge dealers.

2009 model year

Production of the limited edition 2008 SRT8s ended in July 2008, and production of the expanded 2009 line-up started in early August of the same year. The expanded offering was the same as had been unveiled earlier that spring at the 2008 New York Auto Show. Chrysler debuted the full Dodge Challenger line for 2009, with four different trims – SE, R/T, SRT8, and the SXT in Canada only. In addition to the SRT8, which remained unchanged except for the optional 6 speed manual and standard limited slip differential, the line-up included the previously mentioned SE and SXT which offered the 250 HP 3.5-Liter V6. The R/T hosted a 5.7 Hemi sporting Script error: No such module "convert". and Script error: No such module "convert". of torque when coupled with the 5 speed automatic, and Script error: No such module "convert". with Script error: No such module "convert". when matched with the same Tremec 6-speed manual transmission as the SRT8.

New for 2009 was the Rallye Package for the SE model. The package featured design cues including dual body stripes on the hood and the trunk, chromed fuel door, deck lid spoiler, 18-inch aluminum wheels, and Micro Carbon in the interior accents.

File:2009 Dodge Challenger RT.jpg
2009 Dodge Challenger R/T

The mid-level Challenger R/T is powered by a Script error: No such module "convert". Hemi V8 coupled to a 5-speed automatic transmission or a Tremec TR-6060 6-speed manual transmission. On cars equipped with the automatic transmission, the engine features the Multi-Displacement System and produces Script error: No such module "convert". (SAE) and Script error: No such module "convert". torque.[26] With the 6-speed manual transmission, the Multi-Displacement System option was deleted and the engine produced Script error: No such module "convert". (SAE) and Script error: No such module "convert". torque.[26] Another feature was the Intelligent Deceleration Fuel Shut-Off (iDFSO) available for the automatic models only. The first to combine both a Multi-Displacement system and fuel shut-off.[28] The final drive ratio was 3.06:1 on cars with the automatic transmission, 3.73:1 on cars with the 6-speed manual and Script error: No such module "convert". wheels or 3.92:1 with the 6-speed manual and optional Script error: No such module "convert". wheels. Also available on R/T was the "Track Pak" option group, which includes the Tremec manual transmission, a limited slip differential and self-leveling rear shock absorbers.

File:2010 Detonator Challenger RT Classic.jpg
2010 Detonator Challenger RT Classic

The Challenger R/T Classic has retro aspects such as script "Challenger" badges on the front panels and black or white "R/T" stripes. It comes with a five-speed automatic standard, with an optional six-speed manual transmission including a pistol-grip-shifter. The wheels are Heritage 20" Torq-Thrust style specials. It became available in Brilliant Black Crystal Pearl, Bright Silver Metallic, Stone White and in multiple "heritage" colors: Toxic Orange, HEMI-Orange, TorRed, B5 Blue, Plum Crazy Purple, Detonator Yellow and Furious Fuchsia. Production started in February 2009.

File:Dodge Challenger SRT8.JPG
Dodge Challenger SRT8

The 2009 SRT8, while still equipped with the 6.1 L (370 cu in) Hemi V8, is virtually identical to its 2008 counterpart, with the main difference being the choice of either a 5-speed automatic or a 6-speed manual transmission. Standard features include Brembo brakes, a sport suspension, bi-xenon headlamps, heated leather sport seats, keyless go, Sirius satellite radio, and Script error: No such module "convert". forged aluminum wheels in addition to most amenities offered on the R/T and SE models such as air conditioning and cruise control.[27] In addition, the 2009 had a "limited slip" differential that was not offered on the 2008 model.[29] A "Spring Special" SRT8 Challenger was also offered in B5 Blue, but due to rolling plant shutdowns, just over 250 Spring Special Challengers were built before the end of the 2009 model year.

The "Mopar '10 Challenger R/T" is a limited version of the 2010 Challenger R/T with metallic pearl black body color, three accent colors (blue, red, silver) of stripes to choose from. In addition, these cars were available with black R/T Classic-style wheels along with a Hurst aftermarket pistol grip shifter, custom badging, Mopar cold air intake for a ten-horsepower increase, and a Katzkin-sourced aftermarket interior. The cars were built in Brampton Assembly and completed at the Mopar Upfit Center in Windsor, Ontario. There were 500 U.S. Units and 100 Canadian units built. Of the 500 Mopar special edition U.S. versions, 320 had automatic transmissions, 180 had manuals, while 255 had blue stripes, 115 had red stripes, and 130 had silver stripes.

The Drag Race Package is a race model designed for NHRA competition, based on the Dodge Challenger SRT-8. The car is Script error: No such module "convert". lighter than the street vehicle by eliminating major production components and systems. To accentuate the weight savings, they also feature added composite, polycarbonate and lightweight components designed for drag racing that will be part of the new Package Car program. The engine was repositioned to improve driveline angle and weight distribution. The Script error: No such module "convert". wheelbase was shortened by ½ inch. They also feature a front cradle with bolt-in crossmember and solid engine mounts.

At least 50 Challenger Drag Race Package Cars are being built to meet NHRA requirements. Engine options include a 6.1L HEMI, 5.7-L HEMI, and a 5.9L Magnum Wedge. Manual or automatic transmissions are available, and the rear axle is solid (not IRS). The initial run of the required 50 cars has been completed and over 100 of the "2009 Challenger Drag Pak" vehicles will be produced. Currently a 2010 program is being considered. "Big Daddy" Don Garlits bought the first drag race package car and has raced it in NHRA competition.[30] The prototype cars shown at SEMA were built by MPR Racing of Michigan, who continue to modify the production cars as delivered from Chrysler. Currently, the "Drag-Pak" cars running in legal A/SA trim are running around the 9.7–10 second mark at 130–140 mph in the quarter mile.

2011 model year

File:2011 DODGE CHALLENGER SRT8.jpg
2011 Dodge Challenger SRT-8

The Dodge Challenger received two new engines across the lineup for the 2011 model year:[31]

  • The SE was renamed to SXT and received a new 3.6-liter Pentastar V6 engine producing Script error: No such module "convert". and Script error: No such module "convert"., replacing the former 3.5-liter V6.[32]
  • The R/T received revisions including a new bottom grille cutout and an updated suspension.
  • The new SRT8's chin spoiler was enlarged to create more downforce. It resembles the 1970 Challenger R/T. The SRT8 received a new 6.4-liter Hemi V8.[33] The so-called 392 (although its actual size is 391 cu-in.) was officially rated at Script error: No such module "convert". and Script error: No such module "convert". of torque. Dodge engineers said they sacrificed peak horsepower ratings for low-end torque, stating a 90 lb-ft increase over the outgoing 6.1-L (370 c.i.d.) Hemi V8 at 2900 rpm.[34] Two transmissions were offered: a 5-Speed Shiftable Automatic and a 6-speed manual.[35] With the revised 6.4-Liter engine, Chrysler engineers cited a quarter mile (~400 m) time of 12.4 seconds at Script error: No such module "convert". – bettering the outgoing 6.1-Liter Hemi by 0.8 seconds, although that figure has varied wildly between automotive magazines. Car and Driver tested the 392 at 12.9 seconds at Script error: No such module "convert".[36] while Motor Trend ran it at 13.0 seconds at Script error: No such module "convert".[37] and Edmunds' number was far closer to Chrysler's claimed numbers at 12.6 seconds at Script error: No such module "convert"..[38]

For the 2011 model year, Dodge also debuted and marketed a "392" version of the Challenger. This version is a reminiscence to 392 of the past, although the 6.4-liter displacement of this V8 actually equals 391 cubic inches.

For 2012, the base SE trim was renamed to SXT for consistency with the naming scheme of the remaining Dodge lineup. They came with the following equipment:

A 305-hp 3.6L Pentastar V6 with Script error: No such module "convert". of torque, dual rear exhaust with bright tips, a five-speed automatic transmission with AutoStick, 18-inch aluminum wheels, advanced brake systems including: four-wheel disc antilock brakes, brake assist, ready alert braking and rain brake support, electronic stability control (ESC), with hill start assist and all-speed traction control, a chrome fuel filler door, Uconnect 130 System with AM/FM radio, CD player, six speakers and auxiliary input jack, steering wheel-mounted audio and speed control, twin hood scoops, touring suspension, remote keyless entry, six airbags, active front head restraints, premium cloth seating, six-way power driver seat with four-way power lumbar adjust, a leather-wrapped steering wheel, air conditioning with automatic temperature control, keyless enter and go with proximity sensor and push button start, power windows, locks & mirrors, a tilt/telescoping steering column and 60/40 folding rear seats that include a rear armrest with cup holders.

SXT PLUS
  • Includes everything on SXT, plus these differences: +
  • Uconnect with voice command and Bluetooth connectivity + +
  • Auto-dimming rearview mirror with microphone
  • Bluetooth Streaming Audio +
  • Six Boston Acoustics speakers with 276-watt amplifier +
  • SiriusXM Satellite Radio with one-year subscription +
  • Premium nappa leather-trimmed seats
  • Heated front seats
  • Automatic headlamps
  • Fog lamps
  • Sun visors with illuminated vanity mirrors

R/T

Includes everything on SXT, plus these differences:

  • 5.7 L Hemi V8 with the Tremec six-speed manual (375 hp, Script error: No such module "convert". of torque and 23 hwy mpg)
  • 5.7 L Hemi V8 with Fuel Saver technology and the available five-speed automatic (372 hp, Script error: No such module "convert". of torque and 25 hwy mpg)
  • Anti-spin rear differential (standard with 6-speed manual, optional with 5-speed automatic in model years 2012-14)
  • Performance suspension & steering
  • Bright pedals (manual transmission only)
  • Body color rear spoiler
  • Fog lamps
  • Automatic headlamps
  • Uconnect with voice command and Bluetooth connectivity
  • SiriusXM satellite radio with one-year subscription
  • Sun visors with illuminated vanity mirrors

The available Blacktop appearance package on R/T and R/T Plus models includes 20-inch Gloss Black painted aluminum wheels, Gloss Black grille surround, body-color fuel door, Matte Graphite body stripe with Red edge accents, a high-performance steering gear, brake linings, monotube-shock absorbers, P245/45ZR20 Goodyear Eagle F1 three-season tires and three-mode Electronic Stability Control+ (ESC) with "full off" mode, 5.7 L Hemi V8 engine with cold-air induction delivering up to 375 horsepower +

Rallye Redline

Includes everything on SXT Plus, with the following differences: +

  • Red center hood-to-tail stripe
  • 20-inch black chrome-clad wheels with red backbone
  • Performance tires
  • Steering wheel-mounted shifter controls
  • Performance brakes
  • Performance steering
  • Performance suspension
  • Sport mode
  • Body-color rear spoiler
  • 3.06 rear axle ratio

R/T Plus

Includes everything on R/T, plus these differences:

  • Boston Acoustics sound system with 276-watt amplifier and six speakers
  • Premium Nappa leather-trimmed seats
  • Heated front seats
  • Power heated exterior mirrors
  • Temperature and compass gauge
  • Tire pressure monitoring display
  • Security alarm
  • HomeLink control for garage door, home security lighting and more

The available Blacktop appearance package on R/T and R/T Plus models includes 20-inch Gloss Black painted aluminum wheels, Gloss Black grille surround, body-color fuel door, Matte Graphite body stripe with Red edge accents, a high-performance steering gear, brake linings, monotube-shock absorb

R/T classic

Includes everything on R/T Plus, with the following differences:

  • Dual black or white R/T side stripes
  • Functional hood scoop
  • 20-inch polished forged aluminum wheels
  • High intensity discharge (HID) headlamps
  • 3.92 rear axle ratio
  • Performance tires
  • Classic Challenger script badging and classic R/T badging

SRT8 Core

Includes Everything On R/T Classic, with the following differences:

  • 470-Hp 392 CID 6.4 L SRT8 Hemi V8
  • Performance-tuned Bilstein suspension
  • Standard launch control for off-the-line performance
  • Brembo brakes with black-anodized calipers
  • Sport seats with ballistic cloth
  • 20-inch aluminum wheels with painted pockets

SRT8 392

Includes everything on R/T Classic, with the following differences:

  • 470-hp 392 CID 6.4 L SRT8 Hemi V8 with 470 lb-ft of torque
  • Three-mode active damping suspension
  • Standard launch control for off-the-line performance
  • Brembo Brakes with red calipers
  • Nappa leather-trimmed seats with perforated suede inserts
  • 20-inch 5-spoke SRT forged wheels

2013 model year

File:Dodge Challenger White.JPG
A 2013 Dodge Challenger R/T

For 2013, a Rallye Redline package is available with Dodge Challenger V6 models. Based on the SXT Plus trim, the Rallye Redline package includes unique exterior accents, Black chrome 20-inch wheels with Redline Red accents, performance suspension and brakes, a 3.06 rear-axle ratio and available Radar Red Nappa leather interior.[39] Dodge sold 51,000 Challengers in the U.S. for 2013.

The Electronic Vehicle Tracking System (EVTS), a GPS-enabled stolen vehicle recovery system, is available.

2015 model year

File:2015 Dodge Challenger RT Sublime.JPG
2015 Dodge Challenger R/T in Sublime

Changes include:[40]

  • 5-speed automatic transmission will be replaced by a new 8-speed ZF 8HP automatic transmission),
  • Power output on the 6.4 liter V8 will increase by 15 to total 485 horsepower.
  • A slightly revamped exterior features a new grille with design cues from the 1971 grill/split tail lights, Quad LED 'Halo Ring" Head lights, LED Tail lights, and a functional hood intake on HEMI models.
  • Inside, the Challenger gets a 7-inch (780mm) TFT Thin Film Transistor display with over one hundred possible configurations, 8.4-inch Uconnect touchscreen radio with available navigation, and a retro styled gauge cluster.

Dodge Challenger SRT Hellcat

It is a version of the 2015 Dodge Challenger with a supercharged 6.2-liter HEMI engine rated at Script error: No such module "convert". and Script error: No such module "convert". of torque. Chrysler claims that this makes the Challenger SRT Hellcat "the most powerful muscle car ever,"[41] with a top speed of Script error: No such module "convert".. The inner driving light on the left front has been removed to allow air to get into the engine resulting in more torque, and the wheel wells are different from the standard SRT to accommodate the 20-inch aluminum wheels. The SRT Hellcat will come equipped with two separate key fobs; use of the "black" fob will limit engine output to 500 horsepower, while the "red" fob will enable the full output capability.[42] The Hellcat has a quarter mile time of 10.8 seconds which is faster than the Chevrolet Camaro ZL1 and the Ford Mustang GT 500. However, this was accomplished with drag racing tires, on stock tires the Hellcat was able to achieve 11.2 seconds on the quarter mile.

Limited production variants

In addition to official Dodge concept cars, there have been numerous limited production and street legal variants created by third parties, based on stock cars that have been rebuilt with modified powertrains, suspensions, and interiors. These include the SMS 570 and (supercharged) 570X with up to a claimed Script error: No such module "convert"., the Mr. Norm's Challengers with a claimed Script error: No such module "convert". horsepower, the supercharged SpeedFactory SF600R with around Script error: No such module "convert"., the supercharged Richard Petty Signature Series with a claimed Script error: No such module "convert"., and the Legacy by Petty Convertible Challenger completely customized by Petty's Garage to include a one of a kind front end and NASCAR styled treatments[43]

U.S. sales figures

Model Year Sales
2008.75[44] 7,209 SRT-8
2009[44] 8,625 - Base

16,395 - R/T

9,834 - SRT8

Total 34,854

2010[44] 24,789 - Base

22,877 - R/T

10,156 - SRT8

Total 57,822

2011[44] 12,562 - Base

8,552 - R/T

5,265 - SRT8

Total 26,379

2012[44] 24,197 - Base

15,158 - R/T

7,210 - SRT8

Total 46,565

2013[44] 17,387 - R/T

4,563 - R/T Classic

Total 51,462

Calendar Year Sales
2008 17,423
2009 25,852
2010 36,791
2011 39,534
2012 43,119
2013 51,462
2014 51,611

Racing

File:NationwideCOT2010NMPA.jpg
Early version of the Nationwide Series Challenger R/T
  • The Challenger was introduced to the SCCA Trans Am Series in 1970. Two factory-backed cars were prepared by Ray Caldwell's Autodynamics and driven by Sam Posey and Tony Adamowicz. The No.77 car was built at Autodynamics from a street Challenger T/A that was taken from a local dealer showroom. The No.76 chassis arrived mid-season from Dan Gurney's All-American Racers, and was completed by Autodynamics.
  • Dodge's mid-1970s factory-supported "Kit Car" program for short-track late-model stock car racing offered a choice of Challenger, but in 1974 Dodge ended the Challenger line and they went to the Dodge Dart Sports and Dodge Aspen bodies over a steel-tube chassis.[45]
  • Blackforest Motorsports has currently entered a Challenger in the Continental Challenge.[46]
  • The Challenger R/T has been used as the Chrysler model for starting in 2010.NASCAR Nationwide Series competition.[47]

With Dodge officially out of NASCAR with the close of the 2012 season the remaining cars and racing parts have been bought up by "privateer" racing teams and continue to show up in Nationwide races during the 2013 and 2014 seasons. JJ Yeley had indicated his 2 (sometimes 3) car team would continue to field a Challenger in the Nationwide series for as long as he can find parts to keep the cars running. The team stopped after the 2014 season, though the Mike Harmon #74 and the Derek White #40 qualified and ran in the first 2015 race.

In late 2014 two Challengers fielded by the Mopar factory team and driven by Cameron Lawrence and Joe Smith started racing in the Trans-Am TA2 series. Both cars were built in way very similar to the 1970 cars, with factory Challenger sheet metal assembled over purpose built racing frames. Except for slightly bulged fenders and a "wing" spoiler, the cars look very much like the stock/street version. Though the teams started slowly, Lawrence won the spring 2015 race at Road Atlanta.

Awards and recognition

  • Best of Show- 2006 Challenger Concept-North America International Auto Show (Detroit) Concept
  • Best of Show (2006)- LA Auto Show
  • Best Concept Car (2006)- Autoweek
  • People's Choice Award for 2006 (NAIAS)
  • 2008 Collectible Car of the Future- Friends of the National Automotive History Collection (NAHC)
  • Top Owner Satisfaction List for 2009- Annual Auto Survey- Consumer Reports
  • 10 Best Looking Cars for 2009- Vehix.com
  • Most Appealing Mid-Size Sporty Car- J.D. Powers and Associates 2009 Appeal Study
  • Best of Class Ideal Vehicle for 2009, Sporty Car Category- Auto Pacific
  • The 25 Most Collectible Cars of the Last 25 Years (SRT8)- Consumer Guide Automotive
  • Recommended Buy for 2009- Consumer Guides Automotive
  • Motor Trend Car of the Year (contender)-Motor Trend
  • 5-Star Safety Rating (2009 Challenger)- NHTSA
  • Forbes- Most Beautiful Cars 2010
  • Forbes- Fastest Cars Under $50,000
  • 10 Cars that Will Look Good in 10 Years- U.S. News & World Report (March 2011)
  • J.D. Powers & Associates-Best Midsize Sporty Car in 2011 Initial Quality Study.
  • Shoppers Choice (Cars.com “Best of 2012” NAIAS event)
  • America's Best-Loved Cars- (J.D. Powers 2011 APEAL Survey- 1st Place Midsize Sporty)
  • Top Ten Most Fun to Drive Cars (Fast Car Lane)
  • Top 10 Cars to Drive to the Big Game (Roadfly TV)
  • 2011 Polk Automotive Award- Sports Car Category (Polk Loyalty Awards)
  • Best Affordable Sports Cars - 2012 (4 of 8)- U.S. News
  • Auto Industry's Greatest Hits (2013 retro cars)- bankrate.com

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External links

Template:Dodge timeline 1950–1979