Open Access Articles- Top Results for Douglas DC-8

Douglas DC-8

"DC-8" redirects here. For the earlier, never-built piston-engined airplane, see Douglas DC-8 (piston airliner).
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National origin

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First flight

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Primary users

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Number built

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The Douglas DC-8 (also known as the McDonnell Douglas DC-8) is a four-engine long-range narrow-body jet airliner built from 1958 to 1972 by the Douglas Aircraft Company. Launched after the competing Boeing 707, the DC-8 nevertheless kept Douglas in a strong position in the airliner market, and remained in production until 1972 when it began to be superseded by larger wide-body designs, including the Boeing 747, McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and Lockheed L-1011 TriStar. The DC-8's design allowed it a slightly larger cargo capacity than the 707 and some re-engined DC-8s are still in use as freighters.



After World War II Douglas had a commanding position in the commercial aircraft market. Boeing had pointed the way to the modern all-metal airliner in 1933 with the 247, but Douglas, more than any other company, made commercial air travel a reality. Douglas produced a succession of piston-engined aircraft (DC-2, DC-3, DC-4, DC-5, DC-6, and DC-7) through the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s.

When de Havilland flew the first jet airliner, the Comet, in 1949, Douglas felt no need to rush into anything new. Their U.S. competitors at Lockheed and Convair felt the same way: that there would be a gradual switch from piston engines to turbines, and that the switch would be to the more fuel-efficient turboprop engines rather than pure jets. All three companies were working on a new generation of piston-engined designs, with an eye to turboprop conversion in the future.[citation needed]

De Havilland's pioneering Comet entered airline service in 1952. Initially it was a success, but it was grounded after several fatal crashes in 1953 and 1954. The cause of the Comet crashes had nothing to do with jet engines; it was a rapid metal fatigue failure brought on by cycling the high stresses in corners of the near-square windows from pressurizing the cabin to high altitudes and back. The understanding of metal fatigue that the Comet investigation produced would play a vital part in the good safety record of later types like the DC-8.[citation needed]

In 1952 Douglas remained the most successful of the commercial aircraft manufacturers. They had almost 300 orders on hand for the piston-engined DC-6 and its successor, the DC-7, which had yet to fly. The Comet disasters, and the airlines' subsequent lack of interest in jets, seemed to show the wisdom of their staying with propeller-driven aircraft.[citation needed]


Boeing took the bold step of starting to plan a pure-jet airliner as early as 1949. Boeing's military arm had gained experience with large, long-range jets through the B-47 Stratojet (first flight 1947) and the B-52 Stratofortress (1952). With thousands of jet bombers on order or in service, Boeing had developed a close relationship with the US Air Force's Strategic Air Command (SAC). Boeing also supplied the SAC's refueling aircraft, the piston-engined KC-97 Stratofreighters, but these were too slow and low flying to easily work with the new jet bombers. The B-52, in particular, had to descend from its cruising altitude and then slow almost to stall speed to work with the KC-97.[citation needed]

Believing that a requirement for a jet-powered tanker was a certainty, Boeing started work on a new jet aircraft for this role that could be adapted into an airliner. As an airliner it would have similar seating capacity to the Comet, but its swept wing would give it higher cruising speed and better range. First presented in 1950 as the Model 473-60C, Boeing failed to generate any interest at the airlines. Boeing remained convinced that the project was worthwhile, and decided to press ahead with a prototype, the Boeing 367-80 ("Dash-80"). After spending $16 million of their own money on construction, the Dash-80 rolled out on May 15, 1954, and flew the next month. Boeing's plans became obvious, despite the misleading older model number.[citation needed]


Douglas secretly began jet transport project definition studies in mid-1952. By mid-1953 these had developed into a form similar to the final DC-8; an 80-seat, low-wing aircraft with four Pratt & Whitney JT3C turbojet engines, 30° wing sweep, and an internal cabin diameter of Script error: No such module "convert". to allow five-abreast seating. Maximum weight was to be 95 tons (86 tonnes), and range was estimated to be about Script error: No such module "convert"..[citation needed]

Douglas remained lukewarm about the jet airliner project, but believed that the Air Force tanker contract would go to two companies for two different aircraft, as several USAF transport contracts in the past had done. In May 1954, the USAF circulated its requirement for 800 jet tankers to Boeing, Douglas, Convair, Fairchild, Lockheed, and Martin. Boeing was just two months away from having their prototype in the air. Just four months after issuing the tanker requirement, the USAF ordered the first 29 KC-135s from Boeing. Besides Boeing's ability to provide a jet tanker promptly, the flying-boom air-to-air refueling system was also a Boeing product from the KC-97: developing the KC-135 had been a safe bet.[citation needed]

Donald Douglas was shocked by the rapidity of the decision which, he said, had been made before the competing companies even had time to complete their bids. He protested to Washington, but without success. Having started on the DC-8 project, Douglas decided that it was better to press on than give up. Consultations with the airlines resulted in a number of changes: the fuselage was widened by Script error: No such module "convert". to allow six-abreast seating. This led to larger wings and tail surfaces and a longer fuselage.[citation needed]

The DC-8 was announced in July 1955. Four versions were offered to begin with, all with the same Script error: No such module "convert". long airframe with a Script error: No such module "convert". wingspan, but varying in engines and fuel capacity, and with maximum weights of about 120–130 tons (109–118 tonnes). Douglas steadfastly refused to offer different fuselage sizes. The maiden flight was planned for December 1957, with entry into revenue service in 1959. Well aware that they were lagging behind Boeing, Douglas began a major push to market the product.[citation needed]

First orders

Douglas' previous thinking about the airliner market seemed to be coming true; the transition to turbine power looked likely to be to turboprops rather than turbojets. The pioneering 40–60-seat Vickers Viscount was in service and proving popular with passengers and airlines: it was faster, quieter and more comfortable than piston-engined types. Another British rival was the 90-seat Bristol Britannia, and Douglas's main rival in the large airliner market, Lockheed, had committed to the short/medium range 80–100-seat turboprop Electra, with a launch order from American Airlines for 35 and other orders flowing in. Meanwhile the Comet remained grounded, the French 90-passenger twin jet Sud Aviation Caravelle prototype had just flown for the first time, and the 707 was not expected to be available until late 1958. The major airlines were reluctant to commit themselves to the huge financial and technical challenge of jet aircraft. However, no one could afford not to buy jets if their competitors did.[citation needed]

There the matter rested until October 1955, when Pan American placed simultaneous orders with Boeing for 20 707s and Douglas for 25 DC-8s. To buy one expensive and untried jet-powered aircraft type was brave: to buy both was, at the time, unheard of. In the closing months of 1955, other airlines rushed to follow suit: Air France, American, Braniff, Continental and Sabena ordered 707s; United, National, KLM, Eastern, JAL and SAS chose the DC-8. In 1956 Air India, BOAC, Lufthansa, Qantas and TWA added over 50 to the 707 order book, while Douglas sold 22 DC-8s to Delta, Swissair, TAI, Trans Canada and UAT. By the start of 1958, Douglas had sold 133 DC-8s compared to Boeing's 150 707s.[citation needed]

Basic price of a JT4 powered "domestic" version of the DC-8 was around US$5.46 million (£1.95 million) in 1960.[1]

Production and testing

File:Douglas DC-8-51 N8008D TIA LGW 23.07.66 edited-4.jpg
The first DC-8 N8008D which first flew on 30 May 1958 as a Series 10 aircraft. Converted to Series 51 and operated by Trans International Airways at London Gatwick Airport in 1966
File:United DC8 Logan 1973.gif
United Airlines chose the DC-8 over the Boeing 707. This Douglas DC-8-50 was photographed at Boston in 1973.

Donald Douglas proposed to build and test the DC-8 at Santa Monica Airport, which had been the birthplace of the DC-3 and the site of a Douglas plant that employed 44,000 workers during World War II. In order to accommodate the new jet, however, Douglas asked the city of Santa Monica, California to lengthen the airport's 5,000-foot runway. Bowing to the complaints of residents living near the airport, the city refused, so Douglas moved the company's airliner production line to Long Beach Airport.[2] The first DC-8 N8008D was rolled out of the new factory at Long Beach on 9 April 1958 and flew for the first time, in Series 10 form, on 30 May for two hours seven minutes with the crew being led by A.G.Heimerdinger.[3] Later that year an enlarged version of the Comet finally returned to service, but too late to take a substantial portion of the market: de Havilland had just 25 orders. In August Boeing had begun delivering 707s to Pan Am. Douglas made a massive effort to close the gap with Boeing, using no less than ten aircraft for flight testing to achieve FAA certification for the first of the many DC-8 variants in August 1959. Much was needed to be done: the original air brakes on the lower rear fuselage were found ineffective and were deleted as engine thrust reversers had become available; unique leading-edge slots were added to improve low-speed lift; the prototype was 25 kn (46 km/h) short of its promised cruising speed and a new, slightly larger wingtip had to be developed to reduce drag. In addition, a recontoured wing leading edge was later developed that extended the chord 4% and reduced drag at high Mach numbers.[4]

The DC-8 entered service with Delta Air Lines on September 18, 1959 with United entering service later the same day.[5] By March 1960 Douglas had reached their planned production rate of eight DC-8s a month. Despite the large number of DC-8 early models available, all used the same basic airframe, differing only in engines, weights and details. In contrast, Boeing's rival 707 range offered several fuselage lengths and two wingspans: the original Script error: No such module "convert". 707-120, a Script error: No such module "convert". version that sacrificed space to gain longer range, and the stretched 707-320, which at Script error: No such module "convert". overall had Script error: No such module "convert". more cabin space than the DC-8. Douglas' refusal to offer different fuselage sizes made it less adaptable and forced Delta and United to look elsewhere for short/medium range types. Delta ordered Convair 880s but United went for the newly developed lightweight 707-020 but prevailed on Boeing to rename the new variant the "720" in case people thought they were dissatisfied with the DC-8. Significantly, Pan Am never reordered the DC-8 and Douglas gradually lost market share to Boeing. After an excellent start, 1962 DC-8 sales dropped to just 26, followed by 21 in 1963 and 14 in '64, and most of these were for the Jet Trader rather than the more prestigious passenger versions. In 1967, Douglas merged with McDonnell Aircraft Corporation to become McDonnell Douglas.[citation needed]

On August 21, 1961 a Douglas DC-8 broke the sound barrier at Mach 1.012 (660 mph/1,062 km/h) while in a controlled dive through Script error: No such module "convert". and maintained that speed, for 16 seconds. The flight was to collect data on a new leading-edge design for the wing, and while doing so, this DC-8 became the first civilian jet - and the first jet airliner - to make a supersonic flight.[6] The aircraft was a DC-8-43 later delivered to Canadian Pacific Air Lines as CF-CPG. The aircraft, crewed by Captain William Magruder, First Officer Paul Patten, Flight Engineer Joseph Tomich and Flight Test Engineer Richard Edwards, took off from Edwards Air Force Base in California, and was accompanied to altitude by an F-104 flown by Chuck Yeager.[7]

Further developments

In April 1965, Douglas announced belated fuselage stretches for the DC-8 with three new models known as the Super Sixties. The DC-8 program had been in danger of closing with fewer than 300 aircraft sold, but the Super Sixties brought fresh life to it. By the time production ceased in 1972, 262 of the stretched DC-8s had been made. With the ability to seat 269 passengers, the DC-8 Series 61 and 63 had the largest passenger-carrying capacity available. That remained so until the Boeing 747 arrived in 1970.[citation needed]

All the earlier jetliners were noisy by modern standards. Increasing traffic densities and changing public attitudes led to complaints about aircraft noise and moves to introduce restrictions. As early as 1966 the New York Port Authority expressed concern about the noise to be expected from the then still-unbuilt DC-8-61, and operators had to agree to operate it from New York at lower weights to reduce noise. By the early 1970s, legislation for aircraft noise standards was being introduced in many countries, and the 60 Series DC-8s were particularly at risk of being banned from major airports.[citation needed]

In the early 1970s several airlines approached McDonnell Douglas for noise reduction modifications to the DC-8 but nothing was done. Third parties had developed aftermarket hushkits but there was no real move to keep the DC-8 in service. Finally, in 1975, General Electric began discussions with major airlines with a view to fitting the new and vastly quieter Franco-American CFM56 engine to both DC-8s and 707s. MDC remained reluctant but eventually came on board in the late 1970s and helped develop the Series 70.[citation needed]

The Super Seventies were a great success: roughly 70% quieter than the 60-Series and, at the time of their introduction, the world's quietest four-engined airliner. As well as being quieter and more powerful, the CFM56 was roughly 20% more fuel efficient than the JT3D, which reduced operating costs and extended the range.[citation needed]

By 2002, of the 1,032 707s and 720s manufactured for commercial use, just 80 remained in service – though many of those 707s were converted for USAF use, either in service or for spare parts. Of the 556 DC-8s made, around 200 were still in commercial service in 2002, including about 25 50-Series, 82 of the stretched 60-Series, and 96 out of the 110 re-engined 70-Series. Most of the surviving DC-8s are now used as freighters. In May 2009, 97 DC-8s were in service following UPS's decision to retire their remaining fleet of 44.[8] In January 2013, an estimated 36 DC-8s were in use worldwide.[9] As a result of aging, increasing operating costs and strict noise and emissions regulations, the number of active DC-8s continues to decline.


Series 10

For domestic use, powered by 13,500 lb (60.5 kN) Pratt & Whitney JT3C-6 turbojets with water injection. The initial DC-8-11 model had the original, high-drag wingtips and all were converted to DC-8-12 standard. The DC-8-12 had the new wingtips and leading-edge slots, 80 inches long between the engines on each wing and 34 inches long inboard of the inner engines. These unique devices were covered by doors on the upper and lower wing surfaces that opened for low speed flight and closed for cruise. The maximum weight increased from Script error: No such module "convert".. 28 DC-8-10s were built. This model was originally named "DC-8A" until the series 30 was introduced.[10][page needed] 29 built, 22 for United and 6 for Delta, plus the prototype. By the mid sixties United had converted 15 of its 20 surviving aircraft to DC-8-20 standard and the other 5 to -50s. Delta converted its 6 to DC-8-50s.[citation needed]

Series 20

Higher-powered 15,800 lb (70.8 kN) thrust Pratt & Whitney JT4A-3 turbojets (without water injection) allowed a weight increase to Script error: No such module "convert".. 34 DC-8-20s were built plus 15 converted DC-8-10s. This model was originally named "DC-8B" but was renamed when the series 30 was introduced.[10][page needed]

Series 30

For intercontinental routes, the three Series 30 variants combined JT4A engines with a one-third increase in fuel capacity and strengthened fuselage and landing gear. The DC-8-31 was certified in March 1960 with 16,800 lb (75.2 kN) JT4A-9 engines for Script error: No such module "convert". maximum takeoff weight. The DC-8-32 was similar but allowed Script error: No such module "convert". weight. The DC-8-33 of November 1960 substituted 17,500 lb (78.4 kN) JT4A-11 turbojets, a modification to the flap linkage to allow a 1.5° setting for more efficient cruise, stronger landing gear, and Script error: No such module "convert". maximum weight. Many -31 and -32 DC-8s were upgraded to this standard. A total of 57 DC-8-30s were produced.[citation needed]

Series 40

The DC-8-40 was essentially the -30 but with 17,500 lb (78.4 kN) Rolls-Royce Conway 509 turbofan engines for better efficiency, less noise and less smoke. The Conway was an improvement over the turbojets that preceded it, but the Series 40 sold poorly because of the traditional reluctance of U.S. airlines to buy a foreign product and because the still more advanced Pratt & Whitney JT3D turbofan was due in early 1961. The DC-8-41 and DC-8-42 had weights of Script error: No such module "convert". respectively, The Script error: No such module "convert". DC-8-43 had the 1.5° flap setting of the -33 and introduced a 4% leading edge wing extension to reduce drag and increase fuel capacity slightly – the new wing improved range by 8%, lifting capacity by 3.3 tons (3 tonnes), and cruising speed by better than Script error: No such module "convert".. It was used on all later DC-8s. The first DC-8-40 was delivered in 1960; 32 were built.[citation needed]

Series 50

The definitive short-fuselage DC-8 with the same engine that powered the vast majority of 707s, the JT3D. Fourteen earlier DC-8s were converted to this standard. All but the -55 were certified in 1961. The DC-8-51, DC-8-52 and DC-8-53 all had 17,000 lb (76.1 kN) JT3D-1 or 18,000 lb (80.6 kN) JT3D-3B engines, varying mainly in their weights: Script error: No such module "convert"., Script error: No such module "convert". and Script error: No such module "convert". respectively. The DC-8-55 arrived in June 1964, retaining the JT3D-3B engines but with strengthened structure from the freighter versions and Script error: No such module "convert". maximum weight. 88 DC-8-50s were built plus the 14 converted from Series 10/30.[citation needed]

The unique EC-24A of the US Navy in storage
  • DC-8 Jet Trader: Douglas approved development of freighter versions of the DC-8 in May 1961, based on the Series 50. An original plan to fit a fixed bulkhead separating the forward ⅔ of the cabin for freight, leaving the rear cabin for 54 passenger seats was soon replaced by a more practical one to use a movable bulkhead and allow anywhere between 25 and 114 seats with the remainder set aside for cargo. A large cargo door was fitted into the forward fuselage, the cabin floor was reinforced and the rear pressure bulkhead was moved by nearly Script error: No such module "convert". to make more space. Airlines could order a windowless cabin but only United did, ordering 15 in 1964. The DC-8F-54 had a maximum takeoff weight of Script error: No such module "convert". and the DC-8F-55 Script error: No such module "convert".. Both used 18,000 lb (80.6 kN) JT3D-3B powerplants. 54 aircraft built.[citation needed]

Super 60 Series

  • DC-8 Series 61: The Series 61 was designed for high capacity and medium range. It had the same wings, engines and pylons as the -55, and sacrificed range to gain capacity. Having decided to stretch the DC-8, Douglas inserted a Script error: No such module "convert". plug in the forward fuselage and a Script error: No such module "convert". plug aft, taking overall length to Script error: No such module "convert".. The added length required strengthening of the structure, but the basic DC-8 design already had sufficient ground clearance to permit the one-third increase in cabin size without requiring longer landing gear.[12] The variant first flew on March 14, 1966 and was certified on September 2, 1966 at a maximum weight of Script error: No such module "convert"..[13] Deliveries began in January 1967 and it entered service with United Airlines in February 1967.[14][15] It typically carried 180–220 passengers in mixed-class configuration, or 259 in high-density configuration.[16] A cargo door equipped DC-8-61CF was also available. 78 -61 and 10 -61CF were built.[12]
  • DC-8 Series 62: The long-range Series 62 followed in April 1967. It had a more modest stretch, two Script error: No such module "convert". plugs fore and aft of the wing taking overall length to Script error: No such module "convert"., and a number of modifications to provide greater range. Script error: No such module "convert". wingtip extensions reduced drag and added fuel capacity, and Douglas redesigned the engine pods, extending the pylons and substituting new shorter and neater nacelles, all in the cause of drag reduction. The 18,000 lb JT3D-3B was retained but the engine pylons were redesigned to eliminate their protrusion above the wing and make them sweep forward more sharply, so that the engines were some Script error: No such module "convert". further forward. The engine pods were also modified with a reduction in diameter and the elimination of the -50 and -61 bypass duct. The changes all improved the aircraft's aerodynamic efficiency. The DC-8 Series 62 is slightly heavier than the -53 or -61 at Script error: No such module "convert"., and able to seat up to 189 passengers, the -62 had a range with full payload of about Script error: No such module "convert"., or about the same as the -53 but with 40 extra passengers. Many late production -62s had Script error: No such module "convert". maximum takeoff weight and were known as the -62H.[17] Also available as the cargo door equipped convertible -62CF or all cargo -62AF. 51 DC-8-62s were built plus 10 -62CF and 6 -62AF.[18]
  • DC-8 Series 63: The Series 63 was the final new-build variant and entered service in June 1968. It had the long fuselage of the -61, the aerodynamic refinements and increased fuel capacity of the -62 and 19,000 lb (85.1 kN) JT3D-7 engines.[19] This allowed a maximum take off weight of Script error: No such module "convert".[20] and a range with full payload of Script error: No such module "convert"..[citation needed] Like the -62, the Series 63 was also available as a cargo door equipped -63CF or all cargo -63AF. The freighters had a further increase in Maximum Take Off Weight to Script error: No such module "convert".. Eastern Airlines bought 6 -63PFs with the strengthened floor of the freighters but no cargo door. 41 DC-8-63s were built, plus 53 -63CF, 7 -63AF and the 6 -63PFs.[21] The Flying Tiger Line was a major early customer for the DC-8-63F.

Super seventies

File:Douglas DC-8 over Mint Canyon-California.jpg
NASA Dryden DC-8 airborne laboratory refitted with CFM56 turbofan engines

The DC-8-71 to DC-8-73 were straightforward conversions of the -61 to -63, replacing the JT3D engines with more fuel-efficient 22,000 lb (98.5 kN) CFM56-2 high-bypass turbofans in new housings built by Grumman, along with new engine pylons and fairing of the air intakes below the nose. The DC-8-71 achieved the same end but required more modification because the -61 did not have the improved wings and relocated engines of the -62 and -63. Maximum takeoff weights remained the same, but there was a slight reduction in payload because of the heavier engines. All three models were certified in 1982 and a total of 110 60-Series DC-8s were converted by the time the program ended in 1988.[citation needed]


A total of 17 DC-8s (all variants) were in service as of June 2014 with the following operators:[22]

Aircraft In Service
Airlift International 3
Bravo Cargo Services 1
Brisair 2
BTL - Base de Transport de Lomé 1
FITS Aviation (d/b/a FitsAir) 1
Force Aérienne du Congo 1
Heavylift Cargo Airlines 1
Meridian Airways 1
ATSA/SkyBus Jet Cargo Inc 2
Lufthansa Cargo Retired
Trans Air Cargo Service 3
Total 17

Accidents and incidents

As of May 2011, the DC-8 had been involved in 140 incidents,[23] including 83 hull-loss accidents,[24] with 2,256 fatalities.[25] The DC-8 has been in 46 hijackings involving 2 fatalities.[26]

Aircraft on display

The following museums have DC-8s on display or in storage:


Variant DC-8-32 DC-8-51 DC-8-54JT (-54CF) DC-8-61 DC-8-63CF
Crew Three
Payload 176 passengers (coach)
124 passengers (mixed)
144–179 passengers (coach)
132 passengers (mixed)
132 passengers (mixed)
155–189 passengers (coach)
8 Cargo Pallets + 63 passengers (coach)
13 cargo pallets
200–212 passengers (mixed)
251–269 passengers (coach)
251–269 passengers (coach)
200–212 passengers (mixed)
Overall length Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert".
Wingspan Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert".
Overall height Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert".
Wing Area Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert".
Maximum Landing Weight Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert".
Maximum Gross Weight Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert".
Powerplants (4x) Pratt & Whitney JT4A-9 turbojets,
16,800 lb (74.7 kN) each
Pratt & Whitney JT3D-1 or JT3D-3 turbofans,
17,000/18,000 lb (75.61/80.06 kN) each
Pratt & Whitney JT3D-3B turbofans,
18,000 lb (80.06 kN) each
Pratt & Whitney JT3D-7 turbofans,
19,000 lb (84.51 kN) each
Maximum cruise speed Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert".
Range Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert".
Cruising altitude Script error: No such module "convert".
Fuel capacity Script error: No such module "convert". Script error: No such module "convert".
Number produced 43 30 15 78 53

Sources:[28][29][verification needed][30]


1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 Total
21 91 42 22 19 20 31 32 41 102 85 33 13 4 556

See also

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Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists


  1. ^ "Commercial Aircraft of the World: DC-8". Flight 78 (2697): p. 803. 18 November 1960. Retrieved 2013-01-20. 
  2. ^ Garvey, William, Battled field, Aviation Week and Space Technology, February 24, 2014, p.18
  3. ^ Francillon 1979, p. 582
  4. ^ Shevell, R. S. , "Aerodynamics Bugs: Can CFD Spray Them Away?" AIAA paper 85-4067, October 1985.
  5. ^ Whittle 1972, p. 5.
  6. ^ "Douglas Passenger Jet Breaks Sound Barrier". August 21, 1961. 
  7. ^ Wasserzieher, Bill. "I Was There: When the DC-8 Went Supersonic" / "Boeing will never try it: The day a Douglas DC-8 busted Mach 1", Air & Space/Smithsonian, August 2011, pp. 56–57.
  8. ^ "Final UPS DC-8 flight lands at Louisville International Airport". Business First of Louisville. May 11, 2009. Retrieved May 13, 2009. 
  9. ^ Bostick, Brian (January 10, 2013). "DC-8 Operations in US Winding Down". Aviation Week. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  10. ^ a b Norris, Guy; Wagner, Mark (1999). Douglas Jetliners. MBI Publishing. ISBN 0-7603-0676-1. 
  11. ^ "EC-24A". Retrieved 18 October 2009. 
  12. ^ a b Francillon, 1979, pp. 588–589.
  13. ^ Taylor 1966, pp. 231–233.
  14. ^ "Air Transport". Flight International 91 (3022): p. 192. 9 February 1967. 
  15. ^ Harrison, Neil (23 November 1967). "Commercial Aircraft Survey: DC-8-61". Flight International 92 (3063): p. 852. 
  16. ^ Francillon 1979, p. 598.
  17. ^ Whittle 1972, p. 11.
  18. ^ Francillon 1979, pp. 590–591.
  19. ^ Francillon 1979, pp. 591–593, 598.
  20. ^ Francillon 1979, p. 591.
  21. ^ Francillon 1979, pp. 591–593.
  22. ^ "Aircraft and Fleet Lists". Retrieved 2013-01-20. 
  23. ^ "Douglas DC-8 incidents". Aviation Safety Network. May 23, 2011. 
  24. ^ "Douglas DC-8 summary". Aviation Safety Network. May 23, 2011. 
  25. ^ "Douglas DC-8 Accident Statistics". Aviation Safety Network. May 23, 2011. 
  26. ^ "DC-8 Statistics". Aviation Safety Network. May 23, 2011. 
  27. ^ Harrison, Scott. "DC-8 for California Museum of Science and Industry". LA Times, September 14, 2012.
  28. ^ "DC-8 Tech Data". Cox, Fred. Retrieved December 24, 2011. [dead link]
  29. ^ "McDonnell Douglas DC-8 Performance and Technical Specifications". Gothard, Tony. Retrieved December 24, 2011. 
  30. ^ "DC-8 – Technical Data (". Retrieved December 24, 2011. [dead link]
  • Francillon, Rene J., McDonnell Douglas Aircraft since 1920, Putnam & Company Ltd, 1979, ISBN 0-370-00050-1.
  • Whittle, John A., Nash, H.J., and Sievers, Harry. The McDonnell DC-8. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain, 1972. ISBN 0-85130-024-3.

Further reading

  • Cearley, George Walker. The Douglas DC-8: A Pictorial History. Dallas: G.W. Cearley, Jr., 1992.
  • Douglas Aircraft Co. The DC-8 Story. Long Beach, CA: Douglas Aircraft Company, 1972.
  • Douglas Aircraft Co. Douglas DC-8 Maintenance Manual. Long Beach, CA: Douglas Aircraft Company, 1959. OCLC 10621428.
  • Francillon, René. McDonnell Douglas Aircraft since 1920 London: Putnam, 1979. ISBN 0-370-00050-1.
  • Hubler, Richard G. Big Eight: A Biography of an Airplane. New York: Duell, Sloan, and Pearce, 1960.
  • Lundkvist, Bo-Goran. Douglas DC-8. Coral Springs, FL: Lundkvist Aviation Research, 1983. OCLC 62220710.
  • McDonnell-Douglas. The DC-8 Super-Sixty. Long Beach, CA: McDonnell Douglas Corp. Sales Engineering Div., 1968.
  • McDonnell-Douglas. The DC-8 Handbook. Long Beach, CA: McDonnell Douglas Corp. Sales Engineering Div., 1982.
  • Norris, Guy, and Wagner, Mark. Douglas Jetliners. Osceola, WI: MBI Publishing, 1999. ISBN 0-7603-0676-1.
  • Proctor, Jon, Machat, Mike, Kodeta, Craig. From Props to Jets: Commercial Aviatin's Transition to the Jet Age 1952-1962. North Branch, MN: Specialty Press. ISBN 1-58007-146-5.
  • Vicenzi, Ugo. Early American Jetliners: Boeing 707, Douglas DC-8 and Convair CV880. Osceola, WI: MBI Publishing. ISBN 0-7603-0788-1.
  • Waddington, Terry. Douglas DC-8. Miami, FL: World Transport Press, 1996. ISBN 0-9626730-5-6.
  • Wilson, Stewart. Airliners of the World. Fyshwick, Australia, ACT: Aerospace Publications Pty Ltd., 1999. ISBN 1-875671-44-7.
  • Wilson, Stewart. Boeing 707, Douglas DC-8, and Vickers VC-10. Fyshwick, Australia, ACT: Aerospace Publications Pty Ltd., 1998. ISBN 1-875671-36-6.

External links