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Duployan shorthand

Duployan shorthand
140px
Type
light-line geometric stenographic alphabet
Languages French, English, German, Spanish, Romanian, Chinook Jargon, Lillooet, Thompson, Okanagan
Creator Émile Duployé
Published
1868 (Pernin: 1877; Sloan: 1883; Ellis: 1888; LeJeune: 1891)
Status historic and hobbyist usage
Child systems
Malone's Script Phonography
ISO 15924 Dupl, 755
Direction Left-to-right
Unicode alias
Duployan
U+1BC00–U+1BC9F
U+1BCA0–U+1BCAF

The Duployan shorthand, or Duployan stenography (French: Sténographie Duployé), was created by [[Émile Duployé#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.father Émile Duployé]][fr] in 1860 for writing French. Since then, it has been expanded and adapted for writing English, German, Spanish, Romanian, and Chinook Jargon.[1] The Duployan stenography is classified as a geometric, alphabetic, stenography and is written left-to-right in connected stenographic style. The Duployan shorthands, including Chinook writing, Pernin's Universal Phonography, Perrault's English Shorthand, the Sloan-Duployan Modern Shorthand, and Romanian stenography, were included as a single script in version 7.0 of the Unicode Standard / ISO 10646[2][3][4]

Typology and structure

Duployan is classified as a geometric stenography, in that the prototype for letterforms are based on lines and circles, instead of ellipses. It is alphabetic, with both consonant and vowel signs in equal prominence. Writing is in a left-to-right direction, proceeding down the page, as in common European writing. Most Duployan letters will attach to adjacent letters, allowing a word (or words) to be written in a single stroke, without lifting the pen.[1]

Consonants

Consonant characters come in two basic styles: line consonants and arc consonants. All consonants have a shape, size, and stroke direction that do not change based on the surrounding characters. Both types of consonants are contrasted by orientation, length, and the presence of ancillary dots and dashes on or near the letter.

The line consonants come in five orientations: vertical, horizontal, left-to-right falling, left-to-right rising, and right-to-left falling; and in three lengths: short, long, and extended. Variations of some line consonants will have dots adjacent to the center of the line.

Arc consonants come in two arc lengths: half circle, and quarter circle. The half circle arcs have four orientations: left, right, top, and bottom half; and two lengths: regular and extended. Variations of the half circle arc consonants have dots inside and outside of the bowl, and dashes across the middle. The quarter arc consonants also have four orientations corresponding to the four quadrants of a circle, with both upwards and downwards strokes, and come in regular and extended lengths. The only variant quarter arc consonant is the addition of a dot (Duployan letter H) to the Duployan letter W to make the Duployan letter Wh.[1]

Vowels

Vowels characters also come in two basic styles: circle vowels, and orienting vowels. Vowels have only a general shape and size, but their orientation and exact appearance are usually dictated by the adjacent characters.

Circle vowels are written by creating a loop that starts from the preceding character acting as a tangent, continuing around the circle until reaching the tangent point of the following character, at which point the following letterform is written, with the two adjacent characters crossing to complete the "circle". Variants of the circle vowels have dots in the middle of the circle, or a protuberance in from the circle. Circle vowels may also take standard diacritic marks when used to write some languages.

Some circle vowels
File:1bc42.png File:1bc44.png File:1bc5a.png File:1bc5b.png 20px File:1bc60.png

Orienting vowels are written by rotating the vowel to match the incoming angle of the preceding character, then mirrored along the axis of that character to avoid the following character crossing. They come in two varieties, defined by whether they will tend toward the right or left if the adjacent characters will allow either. Nasal vowels are considered a special case of an orienting vowel, and will act as orienting vowels, except in the Chinook script, where nasals can appear as diacritics.[1]

Affixes and word signs

Many Duployan shorthands use small unattached marks, as well as various crossing and touching strokes, as markers for common prefixes and suffixes. Individual letters and letterlike symbols are also used in many Duployan shorthands to stand for common words and phrases. Overlapping two or more letters and signs can be used in some shorthands as word signs and abbreviations.[1]

Ligatures

Most Duployan scripts do not make use of true ligatures that are not just one of its constituent letters with a distinguishing mark. The Romanian stenography is fairly unique in having a number of vowel ligatures, especially with the Romanian U.[1]

Connecting letters

Most Duployan letters cursively connect to any adjacent letters. Circle vowels will sometimes reduce to as small as a semi-circle in order to accommodate the incoming and outgoing strokes of adjacent letters, and orienting vowels will rotate to meet the preceding letter at a straight angle, while mirroring to present themselves to the following letter.

30px + 30px + 30px = 30px
P + A + T = pat
30px + 30px + 30px = 30px * Note that E would normally sit on the left side of P, except that it must sit on the right to join with the T.
P + E + T = pet
30px + 30px + 30px + 30px = 60px
J + A + I + N = shine
30px + 30px + 30px + 30px + 30px + 30px = 60px
P + E + Lh + T + E + N = pelten (Chinook)

Alphabetical order

Duployan does not have a widely agreed alphabetical order. A precursory order for the alphabet has been invented for the Unicode script proposal, however; and this order can basically be found in the order of the Unicode allocation (see Table of characters). This order places consonants before vowels, with similar type and size letters grouped roughly together by shape and size.

Table of characters

This table lists the characters used in all of the Duployan shorthands along with their Unicode code points. A basic alphabetization can be derived from the order of the letters. Letters with a name otherwise identical to a more universal letter will have a parenthetical denoting its shorthand of use: (Per) for Pernin's Universal Phonography, (Rom) for Romanian stenography, and (Sl) for Sloan-Duployan shorthand.

Spacing and line consonants

spacing consonants short line consonants
Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter
Name Name Name Name Name Name Name
1BC00 File:1bc00.png 1BC01 File:1bc01.png 1BC02 File:1bc02.png 1BC03 File:1bc03.png 1BC04 File:1bc04.png 1BC05 File:1bc05.png 1BC06 File:1bc06.png
H X P T F K L
long line consonants extended line consonants
1BC07 File:1bc07.png 1BC08 File:1bc08.png 1BC09 File:1bc09.png 1BC0A File:1bc0a.png 1BC0B File:1bc0b.png 1BC0C File:1bc0c.png 1BC0D File:1bc0d.png 1BC0E File:1bc0e.png 1BC0F File:1bc0f.png 1BC10 File:1bc10.png
B D V G R PN DS FN KM RS
variant line consonants
1BC11 File:1bc11.png 1BC12 File:1bc12.png 1BC13 File:1bc13.png 1BC14 File:1bc14.png 1BC15 File:1bc15.png 1BC16 File:1bc16.png 1BC17 File:1bc17.png 1BC18 File:1bc18.png
Th Dh (Sl) Dh Kk J (Sl) hL Lh Rh
[2]

Arc consonants

half arc consonants half arc consonants (cross variants)
Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter
Name Name Name Name Name Name Name Name
1BC19 File:1bc19.png 1BC1A File:1bc1a.png 1BC1B File:1bc1b.png 1BC1C File:1bc1c.png 1BC1D File:1bc1d.png 1BC1E File:1bc1e.png 1BC1F File:1bc1f.png 1BC20 File:1bc20.png
M N J S MN NM JM SJ
half arc consonants (dotted variants) large variant half arc consonants
1BC21 File:1bc21.png 1BC22 File:1bc22.png 1BC23 File:1bc23.png 1BC24 File:1bc24.png 1BC25 File:1bc25.png 1BC26 File:1bc26.png 1BC2F File:1bc2f.png 1BC30 File:1bc30.png 1BC31 File:1bc31.png
M + dot N + dot J + dot J + dots S + dot S + dot below JS + dot JN JNS
large half arc consonants large half arc consonants (cross variants)
1BC27 File:1bc27.png 1BC28 File:1bc28.png 1BC29 File:1bc29.png 1BC2A File:1bc2a.png 1BC2B File:1bc2b.png 1BC2C File:1bc2c.png 1BC2D File:1bc2d.png 1BC2E File:1bc2e.png
MS NS JS SS MNS NMS JMS SJS
downslope quarter arc consonants large downslope quarter arc consonants
1BC32 File:1bc32.png 1BC33 File:1bc33.png 1BC34 File:Duployan 1bc34.png 1BC35 File:1bc3c.png 1BC36 File:1bc3d.png 1BC37 File:1bc3e.png 1BC38 File:1bc3f.png 1BC39 File:1bc39.png 1BC3A File:1bc40.png
ST STR SP SPR TS TRS W Wh WR
upslope quarter arc consonants large upslope quarter arc consonants
1BC3B File:1bc3b.png 1BC3C File:1bc3c.png 1BC3D File:Duployan KRS 1bc3d.png 1BC3E File:1bc3e.png 1BC3F File:1bc3f.png 1BC40 File:1bc40.png
SN SM KRS GRS SK SKR
[2]

Vowels

circle vowels I / E
Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter
Name Name Name Name Name Name Name
1BC41 File:1bc42.png 1BC42 File:1bc42.png 1BC43 File:1bc43.png 1BC44 File:1bc44.png 1BC45 File:1bc45.png 1BC46 File:1bc46.png 1BC47 File:1bc47.png
A Ow (Sl) OA O Aou I E
non-orienting I/E variants I/E variants
1BC48 File:1bc48.png 1BC49 File:1bc49.png 1BC4A File:1bc4a.png 1BC4B File:1bc4b.png 1BC4C File:1bc4c.png 1BC4D File:1bc4d.png 1BC4E File:1bc4e.png 1BC4F File:1bc4f.png 1BC50 File:1bc50.png
Ie short I Ui Ee Eh (Sl) I (Rom) Ee (Sl) Long I Ye
quarter circle vowels Other 'U' vowels
1BC51 File:1bc51.png 1BC52 File:1bc52.png 1BC53 File:1bc53.png 1BC54 File:1bc54.png 1BC55 File:1bc55.png 1BC56 File:1bc56.png 1BC57 File:1bc57.png 1BC58 File:1bc58.png 1BC59 File:1bc59.png
U Eu Xw / Uh UN Long U U (Rom) Uh U (Sl) Ooh
dotted circle vowels compound W-vowels
1BC5A File:1bc5a.png 1BC5B File:1bc5b.png 1BC5C 20px 1BC5D File:1bc5d.png 1BC5E File:1bc5e.png 1BC5F File:1bc5f.png 1BC60 File:1bc60.png
Ow Ou Wa Wo Wi Wei Wow
basic nasal vowels variant nasal vowels
1BC61 File:1bc61.png 1BC62 File:1bc62.png 1BC63 File:1bc63.png 1BC64 File:1bc66.png 1BC65 File:1bc62.png 1BC66 File:1bc66.png 1BC67 File:1bc67.png 1BC68 File:1bc68.png 1BC69 File:1bc69.png 1BC6A File:1bc6a.png
Un On In An An (Per) Am (Per) En (Sl) An (Sl) On (Sl) uM
[2]

Affixes, marks, punctuation, and others

invariant attached affixes
Code Affix Code Affix Code Affix Code Affix Code Affix Code Affix
1BC70 File:1bc70.png 1BC71 File:1bc71.png 1BC72 File:1bc72.png 1BC73 File:1bc73.png 1BC74 File:1bc74.png 1BC75 File:1bc75.png
orienting attached affixes
1BC76 File:1bc76.png 1BC77 File:1bc77.png 1BC78 File:1bc78.png 1BC79 File:1bc79.png 1BC7A File:1bc7a.png 1BC7B File:1bc7b.png 1BC7C File:1bc7c.png
high affixes
1BC80 File:1bc80.png 1BC81 File:1bc81.png 1BC82 File:1bc82.png 1BC83 File:1bc83.png 1BC84 File:1bc84.png 1BC85 File:1bc85.png 1BC86 File:1bc86.png 1BC87 File:1bc87.png 1BC88 File:1bc88.png
low affixes
1BC90 File:1bc90.png 1BC91 File:1bc91.png 1BC92 File:1bc92.png 1BC93 File:1bc93.png 1BC94 File:1bc94.png 1BC95 File:1bc95.png 1BC96 File:1bc96.png 1BC97 File:1bc97.png 1BC98 File:1bc98.png 1BC99 File:1bc99.png
[2]
Other marks and symbols
Code Symbol Code Symbol Code Symbol
Name Name Name
1BC9C File:1bc9c.png 1BC9E File:1bc9e.png 1BC9F File:1bc9f.png
Chinook Likalisti (eucharist) sign Double Mark Chinook punctuation mark
[2]
Invisible Unicode format characters
Code Name Code Name Code Name Code Name Code Name
1BC9D Duployan Thick
Letter Selector
1BCA0 Shorthand Format
Letter Overlap
1BCA1 Shorthand Format
Continuing Overlap
1BCA2 Shorthand Format
Down Step
1BCA3 Shorthand Format
Up Step
[1][2]

French Duployan

The use of French Duployan shorthand has historically been heavier in areas of southern France and Switzerland, with the Prévost-Delaunay and Aimé-Paris shorthands more common in northern France and the Paris area.

File:Wawatest2.jpg
Introduction to the Wawa shorthand

French Duployan makes use of an extensive list of letter words, combined consonants, and affix marks, but does not cross letters to make abbreviations. Like most European shorthands, French Duployan omits vowels that can be guessed by a fluent speaker.[5][6]

Chinook writing

The Chinook writing, or Wawa shorthand, was developed by Father Jean-Marie-Raphaël Le Jeune in the early 1890s for writing in Chinook Jargon, Lillooet, Thompson, Okanagan, and English, with the intended purpose of bringing literacy and church teaching to the first nations in the Catholic Diocese of Kamloops. The result was three decades' publication of the Chinook Jargon language Kamloops Wawa.[7]

The Chinook writing is notable by the absence of affixes and word signs, the phonological rigor - vowels were not omitted, even when predictable - and its use of W-vowels. Chinook writing is also notable in splitting a word into nominally syllabic units as well as using the only non-joining consonant characters in Duployan.[8][9]

Romanian stenography

The Romanian stenography was developed by Margaretta Sfințescu in the 1980s. Like French Duployan, Romanian stenography uses a large number of affix marks and word signs.[10]

English shorthands

Several adaptations of Duployan were developed for writing English, including those by Helen Pernin, J. Matthew Sloan, Denis Perrault, Carl Brandt, and George Galloway. The Pernin, Perrault, and Sloan shorthands are distinguished from other Duployan shorthands by the presence of the quarter-arc compound consonants. They also make use of affix marks, and omit redundant vowels.[11][12][13] Galloway and Brandt shorthands are not included in the Duployan Unicode proposal.[1]

Unlike other Duployan shorthands, Sloan-Duployan uses a thick, or heavy, stroke to indicate the addition of an "R" sound to a letter. Although not found in the other Duployan shorthands, contrastive thick and thin strokes are common in other shorthands, such as Pitman shorthand, where a heavy stroke would indicate a voiced consonant, and thin the unvoiced version of the same consonant.[11]

Unicode

Duployan shorthand was added to the Unicode Standard in June 2014 with the release of version 7.0.

Template:Unicode chart Duployan Template:Unicode chart Shorthand Format Controls

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Anderson, Van (2010-09-24). "Proposal to include Duployan script and Shorthand Format Controls in UCS" (PDF). 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Anderson, Van; Michael Everson (2011-05-30). "Resolving chart and collation order for the Duployan script" (PDF). 
  3. ^ "Roadmap to the SMP". 
  4. ^ "Resolutions of WG 2 meeting 58" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-06-10. 
  5. ^ Hautefeuille and Ramaude. Cours de Sténographie Duployé Fondamentale. 
  6. ^ "Stenographie Integrale" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-04-19. 
  7. ^ LeJeune, Jean Marie. "How the Shorthand was Introduced among the Indians". 
  8. ^ LeJeune, Jean Marie Raphael. "Chinook Rudiments". 
  9. ^ LeJeune, Jean Marie Raphael. "Kamloops Wawa". 
  10. ^ Sfinţescu, Margaretta (1984). Curs De Stenografie. 
  11. ^ a b Sloan, J.M. (1882). Modern Shorthand. the Sloan-Duployan Phonographic Instructor. Ramsgate, England; St. John's, NL; Brisbane, QLD. 
  12. ^ Perrault, Denis R. (1918). Perrault-Duployan Complete Elementary Course of Stenography in Six Lessons. Montreal. 
  13. ^ Pernin, Helen M. (1902). Pernin's Universal Phonography. Detroit, MI.