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East Java

East Java
Jawa Timur
Mount Bromo
Mount Bromo
Template:Infobox settlement/columns
Motto: Jer Basuki Mawa Béya (Javanese)
(meaning: Efforts are needed to succeed or prosper)
Location of East Java in Indonesia
Location of East Java in Indonesia

Coordinates: 7°16′S 112°45′E / 7.267°S 112.750°E / -7.267; 112.750Coordinates: 7°16′S 112°45′E / 7.267°S 112.750°E / -7.267; 112.750{{#coordinates:7|16|S|112|45|E|region:ID_type:adm1st|| |primary |name=

Country Indonesia
Capital Surabaya
 • Governor Soekarwo
 • Vice Governor Saifullah Yusuf
 • Total 47,799.75 km2 (18,455.59 sq mi)
Population (2014)[1]
 • Total 38,529,481
 • Density 810/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
 • Ethnic groups Javanese (80%), Madurese (18%), Tionghoa (1%)[2]
 • Religion Islam (96.36%), Christianity (2.4%), Buddhism (0.6%), Hinduism (0.5%), Confucianism (0.1%), Kejawen also practised[3]
 • Languages Indonesian (official), Javanese languages (Arekan & Osing), Madurese (regional)
Time zone WIB (UTC+7)

East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur, abbreviated as Jatim, Javanese: Jåwå Wétan)[4] is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the eastern part of the island of Java and includes the neighbouring islands of Madura, and the Kangean, Sapudi, Bawean, and Masalembu groups. The dominant cultures are Javanese and, in the north-east, Madurese, as opposed to the Sundanese of western Java.

It covers an area of 47,800 km2, and had a population of 37,476,757 at the 2010 Census, making it Indonesia's second most populated province (after West Java); the latest official estimate (for January 2014) is 38,529,481. Its capital is Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia and a major industrial center and port.

It has a land border only with the province of Central Java to the west, being surrounded by sea on all other sides.


The history of eastern Java was substantially that of the empire of Majapahit - which reached its golden moment under Hayam Wuruk in 1350–1389. But, after his death, Majapahit entered a period of decline. Following the European occupation of Majapahit ruins, the kingdom was replaced by the Residency system. There were eight Residencies within East Java—those of Bojonegoro, Madiun, Kediri, Malang, Surabaya, Probolinggo, Besuki (the latter for the far eastern part of Java) and Madura. In November 1947, a State of East Java was formed under Dutch auspices as part of the new Republic of the United States of Indonesia. After a Round Table conference, many people demanded that the state of East Java should be dissolved and that it become a part of the Republic of Indonesia.

Administrative divisions

East Java is administratively divided into 29 regencies (or kabupaten), and 9 cities (or kotamadya) that are independent of the regency in which they sit geographically. These are listed below with their areas and their populations at the 2000 and 2010 Censuses[5] and at the latest (January 2014) estimates:

Name Capital Area
(in km²)
2000 Census
2010 Census
2014 estimate
Mojokerto City Mojokerto 16.47 108,938 120,196 123,572
Pasuruan City Pasuruan 35.29 168,323 186,262 191,494
Surabaya City Surabaya 350.54 2,599,796 2,765,487 2,843,144
Gresik Regency
(includes Bawean Island)
Gresik 1,191.25 1,005,445 1,177,042 1,210,105
Lamongan Regency Lamongan 1,782.05 1,181,660 1,179,059 1,212,179
Mojokerto Regency Mojokerto 717.83 908,004 1,025,443 1,054,248
Pasuruan Regency Pasuruan 1,474.02 1,366,605 1,512,468 1,554,956
Sidoarjo Regency Sidoarjo 634.38 1,563,015 1,941,497 1,996,034
Surabaya Sub-regional Totals 6,201.83 8,901,786 9,907,454 10,185,732
Madiun City Madiun 33.92 163,956 170,964 175,767
Bojonegoro Regency Bojonegoro 2,198.79 1,165,401 1,209,973 1,243,961
Jombang Regency Jombang 1,115.09 1,126,930 1,202,407 1,236,184
Madiun Regency Madiun 1,037.58 639,825 662,278 680,881
Magetan Regency Magetan 688.84 615,254 620,442 637,872
Nganjuk Regency Nganjuk 1,224.25 973,472 1,017,030 1,045,598
Ngawi Regency Ngawi 1,295.98 813,228 817,765 840,736
Tuban Regency Tuban 1,834.15 1,051,999 1,118,464 1,149,882
Northwest Sub-regional Totals 9,428.60 6,550,065 6,819,323 7,010,881
Probolinggo City Probolinggo 56.67 191,522 217,062 223,159
Banyuwangi Regency Banyuwangi 5,782.40 1,488,791 1,556,078 1,599,788
Bondowoso Regency Bondowoso 1,525.97 688,651 736,772 757,468
Jember Regency Jember 3,092.34 2,187,657 2,332,726 2,398,252
Lumajang Regency Lumajang 1,790.90 965,192 1,006,458 1,034,730
Probolinggo Regency Kraksaan 1,696.21 1,004,967 1,096,244 1,127,041
Situbondo Regency Situbondo 1,669.87 603,705 647,619 665,818
Far Southeast Sub-regional Totals 15,614.36 7,130,485 7,592,959 7,806,256
Batu City Batu 136.74 (included in
Malang Regency)
190,184 195,526
Blitar City Blitar 32.57 119,372 131,968 135,675
Kediri City Kediri 63.40 244,519 268,507 276,051
Malang City Malang 145.28 756,982 820,243 843,284
Blitar Regency Kanigoro 1,336.48 1,064,643 1,116,639 1,148,005
Kediri Regency Kediri 1,386.05 1,408,353 1,499,768 1,541,897
Malang Regency Kepanjen 3,530.65 2,412,570 2,446,218 2,514,932
Pacitan Regency Pacitan 1,389.92 525,758 540,881 556,074
Ponorogo Regency Ponorogo 1,305.70 841,449 855,281 879,306
Trenggalek Regency Trenggalek 1,147.22 649,883 674,411 693,355
Tulungagung Regency Tulungagung 1,055.65 929,833 990,158 1,017,972
Southern Sub-regional Totals 11,529.66 8,953,362 9,534,258 9,802,077
East Java
(excluding Madura) Totals
42,774.45 31,535,693 33,853,994 34,804,946
Bangkalan Regency Bangkalan 1,001.44 805,048 906,761 932,232
Pamekasan Regency Pamekasan 792.24 689,225 795,918 818,283
Sampang Regency Sampang 1,233.08 750,046 877,772 902,429
Sumenep Regency Sumenep 1,998.54 985,981 1,042,312 1,071,591
Madura Totals 5,025.30 3,230,300 3,622,763 3,724,535
Total for Province 47,799.75 34,765,993 37,476,757 38,529,481


Historical population
1971 25,516,999—    
1980 29,188,852+14.4%
1990 32,503,991+11.4%
1995 33,844,002+4.1%
2000 34,783,640+2.8%
2010 37,476,757+7.7%
2014 38,529,481+2.8%
Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2010, 2014 Health Ministry[1]

According to the 2000 census, East Java had 34,765,993 inhabitants, which increased to 37,476,757 at the 2010 Census,[6] making it the second most populous Indonesian province after West Java. The inhabitants are predominantly ethnically Javanese. Native minorities include migrants from nearby Madura, and distinct Javanese ethnicities such as the Tengger people in Bromo, the Samin and the Osing people in Banyuwangi. East Java also hosts a significant population of other ethnic groups, such as Chinese, Indians, and Arabs. In addition to the national language, Indonesian, they also speak Javanese. Javanese as spoken in the western East Java is a similar dialect to the one spoken in nearby Central Java, with its hierarchy of high, medium, and low registers. In the eastern cities of Surabaya, Malang, and surrounding areas, a more egalitarian version of Javanese is spoken, with less regard for hierarchy and a richer vocabulary for vulgarity.

Madurese is spoken by around 15 million ethnic Madurese, and is concentrated in Madura Island, Kangean Islands, Masalembu Islands, the eastern parts of East Java, and East Java's larger cities.


Hinduism and Buddhism once dominated the island; however Islam gradually supplanted Hinduism in the 14th and 15th centuries (see the spread of Islam in Indonesia). The last nobles and loyalists of the fallen empire of Majapahit fled from this point to Bali. Islam spread from northern cities in Java where traders from Gujarat, India brought with them Islam. The eastern part of East Java, from Surabaya to Pasuruan, and the cities along the coast, and back to Banyuwangi to Jember, are known as the "horseshoe area" in context with earlier Muslim communities living there.[citation needed]

Pockets of Hinduism remain, and syncretic abangan streams of Islam and Hinduism remain strong (see Hinduism in Java).

Natural resources

  • Chalk (Trenggalek & Gresik the city is also famous of its cement industries)
  • Marble (Tulungagung)
  • Petroleum (Bojonegoro)
  • Salt (Madura Island)
  • Kaolinite (Blitar)
  • Sulfur


East Java planned to build 4 seaports by 2013: in Lamongan, Gresik, Probolinggo and Banyuwangi.[7]


East Java hosts some of the famous universities in Indonesia, both owned by government and private. Three major cities for universities, because they have government's universities, are Surabaya, Malang, and Jember. Among them, Airlangga University and Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember are the most famous, and both are located in Surabaya. See: List of universities in East Java

Another important form of education that is available in most cities in East Java is the pesantren. This kind of education is built and organized by Islamic clerics, and associated with local or national Muslim organizations. Jombang is a famous city for its pesantren.


East Java supports several regional media outlets. Local newspapers with provincial news reach their readers earlier than their competitors from Jakarta. In the spirit of "providing more news from around readers", most newspapers even issue municipal sections which are different among their distribution areas.

  • Jawa Pos Group, one of the major newspaper groups in Indonesia, is based in Surabaya.
  • Surya, is a newspaper based in Surabaya. Surya is now controlled by Kompas, one of the major newspaper groups in Indonesia

National parks

File:Wild Deers near Bama Point, Baluran.jpg
Deer in Baluran National Park
  • Meru Betiri National Park - Between Jember and Banyuwangi districts, this park covers Script error: No such module "convert".. Hard to get to, it contains fantastic coastal rainforest and scenery and is home to abundant wildlife.
  • Alas Purwo National Park - This Script error: No such module "convert". park is formed by the Blambangan Peninsula (south eastern Java). Comprising mangrove, savanna, lowland monsoon forests and excellent beaches, the park's name means First Forest in Javanese. Javanese legend says that the earth first emerged from the ocean here.
  • Baluran National Park - This Script error: No such module "convert". national park is located in north east Java, once known as Indonesia's little piece of Africa, the parks formerly extensive savanna has been largely replaced by Acacia.
  • Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park - Located in East Java at the region of Probolinggo and Pasuruan, Script error: No such module "convert". from Surabaya the capital city of East Java province. Mount Bromo is one of the great hiking and trekking destinations for overseas tourists. The scenic view of Bromo also attracts hundreds of photo enthusiasts to see the views there.

Local economic governance

Based on the survey conducted between August 2010 and January 2011, East Java included 11 of the top 20 cities and regencies of the Local economic governance which measures nine parameters: [8]

  • infrastructure
  • private enterprises development program
  • access to land
  • interaction between local administrations and businesses
  • business licensing
  • local taxes and fees
  • security and business conflict resolution
  • capacity and integrity of regional heads
  • quality of local regulations

The top 5 were:


East Java cuisine tends to be sweeter than that of Central and West Java.
Rujak Cingur, traditional dish from East Java.


  1. ^ a b Estimasi Penduduk Menurut Umur Tunggal Dan Jenis Kelamin 2014 Kementerian Kesehatan
  2. ^ Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003. 
  3. ^ Keagamaan 2009
  4. ^ Piwulang Basa Jawa Pepak, S.B. Pramono, hal 148, 2013
  5. ^ Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  6. ^ [1][dead link]
  7. ^ "East Java vows to top Jakarta, build four ports by 2013". The Jakarta Post. 2011-06-01. Retrieved 2013-12-10. 
  8. ^ "Blitar leads economic governance survey". The Jakarta Post. 2011-06-08. Retrieved 2013-12-10. 

External links

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