Education in Kyrgyzstan
Education in Kyrgyzstan is compulsory for nine years, between ages seven and 15. Following four years of primary and five years of lower secondary school, the system offers two years of upper secondary school, specialized secondary school, or vocational/technical school.
The Ministry of Education and Science (MES) is in charge of Education in Kyrgyzstan. Budget cuts that have reduced teacher salaries and equipment availability are reflected disproportionately in reduced numbers of female students.
In 2008, 3.7 percent of gross domestic product was spent on education. In 2001 some 89 percent of the relevant age-group was enrolled in the compulsory program, but this figure has decreased in the early 2000s. In 2004 the literacy rate in Kyrgyzstan was 98.7 percent.
Structure and organization
Pre-school and primary Education
Pre-school is addressed to children from 3 to 6/7 and is not compulsory. Access to it is however limited (net enrollment ratio of 10% in 2005). Primary School usually starts at 6 or 7, lasts four years and is compulsory. Since 2007, uniforms are required in primary education. The law was pointed out as a source of school-drop out, as the uniform has to be bought by the parents. Teaching quality is sometime described as "poor": Kyrgyzstan ranked last in reading, mathematics and science at PISA 2006.
Secondary Education begins with the Basic secondary Education, which lasts 4 years and is compulsory. Students have then the choice between comprehensive and vocation Education. Comprehensive Education is constituted of a 2 two year curriculum, which grants -if completed- a certificate of completion ("attestat"). The certificate is generally required in order to join a university. Vocational Education is offered through 3 different kind of courses: A three year course mixing vocational and general education and preparing for higher education, a two year course mixing vocational and general education (without preparation to higher Education), and finally, a ten month course of pure vocational education (also opened to adults). Vocational Education is given in Professional lyceum and vocational technical colleges.
Higher Education includes universities, academies, specialized higher education institutes and institutes. There are 54 tertiary education institutions, 33 public for 21 private. The Gross Enrolment Rate in Higher Education was 12,5% in 2011/2012.
Universities deliver Bachelor(Bakalavr) degree in 4 years, which allows to pursue into master(Magistr) programs, lasting 2 years. They also offer a "specialist degree"(specialist) in 5(or 6 for medical and architecture studies) years. The specialist and the master degrees both open the door to PhD programs(aspirantura). Academies offer the same degrees in fields of scientific activity. An institute is usually a specialized branch of a university or an academy. Specialized Higher Education institutes are narrow profiles higher education institutions. There were criticisms about the competency of university lecturers in Kyrgyzstan: if a Master degree is theoretically required to teach at university, most teachers would actually hold a Bachelor, or even no degree at all.
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- Kyrgyzstan country profile. Library of Congress Federal Research Division (January 2007). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "World Data on Education: Kyrgyzstan" (PDF). UNESCO-IBE. August 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "Education in Kyrgyzstan" (PDF). UNICEF. 2008. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "Higher Education in Kyrgyzstan" (PDF). European Commission. 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "Vocational Education in Kyrgyzstan". UNESCO-UNEVOC. 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- World Data on Education: Kyrgyzstan, UNESCO-IBE(2011) Overview of the Kyrgyz Education system
- Vocational Education in Kyrgyzstan, UNESCO-UNEVOC(2013)- Overview of the kyrgyz Vocational Education system.