Elections in Germany
Hesse state election results
- Hesse state election, 2013
- Hesse state election, 2009
- Hesse state election, 2008
- Hesse state election, 2003
- Hesse state election, 1999
Lower Saxony state election results
- Lower Saxony state election, 2013
- Lower Saxony state election, 2008
- Lower Saxony state election, 2003
- Lower Saxony state election, 1998
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern state election results
- Mecklenburg-Vorpommern state election, 2011
- Mecklenburg-Vorpommern state election, 2006
- Mecklenburg-Vorpommern state election, 2002
North Rhine-Westphalia state election results
- North Rhine-Westphalia state election, 2012
- North Rhine-Westphalia state election, 2010
- North Rhine-Westphalia state election, 2005
- North Rhine-Westphalia state election, 2000
Rhineland-Palatinate state election results
- Rhineland-Palatinate state election, 2011
- Rhineland-Palatinate state election, 2006
- Rhineland-Palatinate state election, 2001
Saarland state election results
- Saarland state election, 2012
- Saarland state election, 2009
- Saarland state election, 2004
- Saarland state election, 1999
Saxony state election results
- Saxony state election, 2014
- Saxony state election, 2009
- Saxony state election, 2004
- Saxony state election, 1999
Saxony-Anhalt state election results
- Saxony-Anhalt state election, 2011
- Saxony-Anhalt state election, 2006
- Saxony-Anhalt state election, 2002
Schleswig-Holstein state election results
- Schleswig-Holstein state election, 2012
- Schleswig-Holstein state election, 2009
- Schleswig-Holstein state election, 2005
- Schleswig-Holstein state election, 2000
Thuringia state election results
German Democratic Republic
In the German Democratic Republic, elections to the Volkskammer were effectively controlled by the Socialist Unity Party of Germany and state hierarchy, even though multiple parties existed pro forma. The 18 March 1990 election were the first free ones held in the GDR, producing a government whose major mandate was to negotiate an end to itself and its state.
Local elections in Germany (German: Kommunalwahlen) include elections for most regional and local subdivisions, unless their representatives are appointed or elected by another assembly or office. Such local elections are conducted for representatives in districts, cities, towns, villages and various other administrative regional organizations. In cities and towns local elections usually include voting for a lord mayor or mayor. Smaller villages and settlements may elect a representative (German: Ortsvorsteher) with limited administrative power. Local elections are also often combined with polls about important local matters and questions of general public interest (i.e. the construction of local roads or other infrastructure facilities). While such polls are not legally binding in most cases, their results have considerable influence on local political decisions.
After the Maastricht Treaty of 1992 to strengthen the European integration, Germany and other EU member states implemented legislative changes to grant foreigners of other EU countries the right to vote in local elections in their host country. Foreign EU citizens can vote in elections on district and municipal level in Germany, after the German states adapted their regulations between 1995 and 1998.
German elections 1871 to 1945
From the unification of Germany under Emperor Wilhelm I in 1871 to the Nazi accession to power and the abolition of elections following the Enabling Act of 1933, elections were held to the German Reichstag or "Imperial Assembly", which supplanted its namesake, the Reichstag of the Norddeutscher Bund. The Reichstag could be dissolved by the Kaiser or, after the abdication of Wilhelm II in 1918, the Reichspräsident. With the Weimar Republic's Constitution of 1919, the voting system changed from single-member constituencies to proportional representation. The election age was reduced from 25 to 20 years of age. Women's suffrage had already been established by a new electoral law in 1918 following the November Revolution of that year.
The German election in 1933 was the ninth and last (mostly) free election. In the Third Reich, several elections were conducted leading to unanimous support of the Nazi Party because other parties were dissolved or banned.
- 1st German election, 1871
- 2nd German election, 1874
- 3rd German election, 1877
- 4th German election, 1878
- 5th German election, 1881
- 6th German election, 1884
- 7th German election, 1887
- 8th German election, 1890
- 9th German election, 1893
- 10th German election, 1898
- 11th German election, 1903
- 12th German election, 1907
- 13th German election, 1912
Weimar Republic elections
- 1st German election, 1919
- 2nd German election, 1920
- 3rd German election, May 1924
- 4th German election, December 1924
- 5th German election, 1928
- 6th German election, 1930
- 7th German election, July 1932
- 8th German election, November 1932
- 9th German election, March 1933
Elections in Nazi Germany
- "Art. 39 Grundgesetz". Grundgesetz Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Bundesministerium der Justiz. 19 March 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- "§16 Bundeswahlgesetz". Bundeswahlgesetz Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Bundesministerium der Justiz. 3 June 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- "Federal Constitutional Court decision on the Federal Election Law". Bverfg.de. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
- Decision of the Federal Constitutional Court. 25 July 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
- Bill amending the Federal Election Law. 11 December 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
- ZEIT ONLINE GmbH, Hamburg, Germany (22 February 2013). "Bundestag: Deutschland hat ein neues Wahlrecht | ZEIT ONLINE". Zeit.de. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
- Peter Marschalck: Bevölkerungsgeschichte Deutschlands im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, Frankfurt am Main 1984, S. 173.
- Kitschelt, Herbert (October 2003). "Political-economic context and partisan strategies in the German federal elections, 1990-2002". West European Politics 26 (4): 125–152. doi:10.1080/01402380312331280718.
- Manow, Philip (January 2007). "Electoral rules and legislative turnover: Evidence from Germany's mixed electoral system". West European Politics 30 (1): 195–207. doi:10.1080/01402380601019852.
- Adam Carr's Election Archive
- Parties and elections
- Opinion poll tracker with data, graph and daily average
- Latest polling results for state and federal elections Invalid language code.
- Official Site of "Bundeswahlleiter"
- Collection of German Election Posters of Weimar Republic and Federal Republic
- NSD: European Election Database – Germany publishes regional level election data; allows for comparisons of election results, 1990–2009
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