Entomophagy (//, from Greek ἔντομον éntomon, "insect", and φᾰγεῖν phagein, "to eat") is the human consumption of insects as food: human insectivory. The eggs, larvae, pupae and adults of certain insect species have been eaten by man since prehistoric times and continue to be an item of the human nutrition in modern times.
Human insect-eating is common to cultures in most parts of the world, including North, Central and South America; and Africa, Asia, Australia and New Zealand. Over 1,000 species of insects are known to be eaten in 80% of the world's nations. The total number of ethnic groups recorded to practice entomophagy is around 3,000. However, in some societies insect-eating is uncommon or even taboo. Today insect eating is rare in the developed world, but insects remain a popular food in many developing regions of Latin America, Africa, Asia and Oceania. There are some companies that are trying to introduce insects into Western diets.
- 1 Definition
- 2 In non-humans
- 3 History
- 4 Current examples
- 5 Advantages
- 6 Disadvantages
- 7 Cultural taboo
- 8 Policy instruments
- 9 Unintentional ingestion
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Entomophagy is sometimes defined broadly to include the practice of eating arthropods that are not insects, such as arachnids (tarantulas mainly) and myriapods (centipedes mainly). The term is not used for the consumption of other arthropods, specifically crustaceans like crabs, lobsters and shrimp. Insects are eaten by many animals, but the term is generally used to refer to human consumption of insects; animals that eat insects are known as insectivores. There are also some species of carnivorous plants that derive nutrients from insects.
Some of the more popular insects and arachnids eaten around the world include crickets, cicadas, grasshoppers, ants, various beetle grubs (such as mealworms), the larvae of the darkling beetle or rhinoceros beetle, various species of caterpillar (such as bamboo worms, mopani worms, silkworms and waxworms), scorpions and tarantulas. There are over 1,900 known species of arthropods, including arachnids, that are edible to humans.
Recent assessments of the potential of large-scale entomophagy have led some experts to suggest entomophagy as a potential alternative protein source to animal livestock, citing possible benefits including greater efficiency, lower resource use, increased food security, and environmental and economic sustainability.
Insects, nematodes and fungi that obtain their nutrition from insects are sometimes termed entomophagous, especially in the context of biological control applications. These may also be more specifically classified into predators, parasites or parasitoids, while viruses, bacteria and fungi that grow on or inside insects may also be termed "entomopathogenic". (See also Entomopathogenic fungi)
Before humans had tools to hunt or farm, insects may have represented an important part of their diet. Evidence has been found analyzing coprolites from caves in the US and Mexico. Coprolites in caves in the Ozark Mountains were found to contain ants, beetle larvae, lice, ticks, and mites. Evidence suggests that evolutionary precurors of Homo sapiens were also entomophagous. Insectivory also features to various degrees amongst extant primates, such as marmosets and tamarins, and some researchers suggest that the earliest primates were nocturnal, arboreal insectivores. Similarly, most extant apes are insectivorous to some degree.
Cave paintings in Altamira, north Spain, dated from about 30,000 to 9,000 BC, depict the collection of edible insects and wild bee nests, suggesting a possibly entomophagous society. Cocoons of wild silkworm (Theophilia religiosae) were found in ruins in the Shanxi province of China, from 2,000 to 2,500 years BC. The cocoons were discovered with large holes, suggesting the pupae were eaten. Many ancient entomophagy practices have changed little over time compared with other agricultural practices, leading to the development of modern traditional entomophagy.
- Traditional cultures
There are a plethora of cultures that embrace the consumption of insects, and a variety of species are consumed. These include 235 types of butterflies and moths, 344 species of beetles, 313 species of ants, bees and wasps, 239 species of grasshoppers, crickets and cockroaches, 39 species of termites, as well as 20 species of dragonflies, among others. Other commonly eaten insects are termites, cicadas and dragonflies. Insects are known to be eaten in 80% of the world's nations. The consumption of Atta laevigata is traditional in some regions of Colombia and northeast Brazil. In southern Africa, a species of moth called Gonimbrasia belina is found throughout much of the region; its large caterpillar, the mopani or mopane worm, is a source of food protein. In Australia, Witchetty grub is considered a source of food amongst the Indigenous population.
Use of insects as an ingredient in traditional foodstuffs in some places has been on a large enough scale to have a sizable impact on insect populations. The commercial exploitation of food insects has led to their decline in some places.
- Western culture
Eating insects has not typically been adopted in the West. However, a few companies have introduced products made using insects. The primary vehicle for this so far has been powder made from insects utilized as an ingredient (often referred to as insect flour, cricket flour, cricket powder, or whole cricket powder). The first company to use cricket flour was Chapul, which launched a project on Kickstarter on July 12, 2012, to make a protein bar with the cricket flour  and followed up with a successful appearance on ABC's Shark Tank, partnering with Mark Cuban. A US company, All Things Bugs, manufactures and sells whole cricket powder wholesale to other small startup companies that use it in protein bars, baked goods and other products. One such startup is Exo, which successfully used Kickstarter in to 2013 to fund an initial batch of protein bars made with cricket flour. The bars are now available for sale online. Additionally, other companies such as Cricket Flours LLC are now selling pure cricket flour and flavored mixes such as Peruvian Chocolate and Chocolate Peanut Butter cricket flour as well online. The most likely early adopters of insects as a meat substitute in Western societies have been profiled as younger males with a weak attachment to meat, who are open to trying novel foods and interested in the environmental impact of their food choice.
There are also restaurants that serve insects to the public on a regular basis. For example, two places in Vancouver, Canada, offer cricket-based items. Vij's Restaurant has parathas that are made from roasted crickets that are ground into a flour. Its sister restaurant, Rangoli Restaurant, offers pizza that was made by sprinkling whole roasted crickets on naan dough.
- Reality TV
Entomophagy has been featured on some reality television shows, such as Fear Factor. Barrington Hall, a former student cooperative at U.C. Berkeley held an annual insect banquet for many years until the co-op was closed down in 1990. The New York Entomological Society held a Centennial Banquet on Wednesday, May 20, 1992 at the Explorers Club in New York. The theme for the evening banquet was the use of insects as food. Appetizers and desserts featured insects in their preparations. The Explorers Club itself holds an annual dinner at New York's Waldorf-Astoria Hotel featuring a wide array of unusual dishes including many featuring insects. Theme park operator Six Flags Inc, based in New York, staged a contest as part of a promotion leading up to Halloween in which it also offered customers free entry or line-jumping advantages if they ate a live Madagascar hissing cockroach; the People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) opposed the overall promotion. "Insects do not deserve to be eaten alive especially for a gratuitous marketing gimmick," PETA spokeswoman Jackie Vergerio told Reuters.
Insects as food and feed emerge as an especially relevant issue in the twenty-first century due to the rising cost of animal protein, food and feed insecurity, environmental pressures, population growth and increasing demand for protein among the middle classes. At the 2013 International Conference on Forests for Food Security and Nutrition, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations released a publication titled "Edible insects - Future prospects for food and feed security" describing the contribution of insects to food security. It shows the many traditional and potential new uses of insects for direct human consumption and the opportunities for and constraints to farming them for food and feed. It examines the body of research on issues such as insect nutrition and food safety, the use of insects as animal feed, and the processing and preservation of insects and their products.
The intentional cultivation of insects and edible arthropods for human food, referred to as minilivestock, is now emerging in animal husbandry as an ecologically sound concept. Several analyses have found entomophagy to be a more environmentally friendly alternative to traditional animal livestocking.
Edible insects have long been used by ethnic groups in Asia, Africa, Mexico and South America as cheap and sustainable sources of protein, and the major role of entomophagy in human food security is well-documented. Up to 2,086 species are consumed by 3,071 ethnic groups in 130 countries. While more attention is needed to fully assess the potential of edible insects, they provide a natural source of essential carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins and offer an opportunity to bridge the gap in protein consumption between poor and wealthy nations but also to lessen the Ecological footprint. Many insects contain abundant stores of lysine, an amino acid deficient in the diets of many people who depend heavily on grain. Some argue that the combination of increasing land use pressure, climate change, and food grain shortages due to the use of corn as a biofuel feedstock will cause serious challenges for attempts to meet future protein demand.
In Thailand, two types of edible insects (cricket and palm weevil larvae) are commonly farmed in the north and south respectively. Cricket-farming approaches throughout the northeast are similar and breeding techniques have not changed much since the technology was introduced 15 years ago. Small-scale cricket farming, involving a small number of breeding tanks, is rarely found today and most of the farms are medium- or large-scale enterprises. Community cooperatives of cricket farmers have been established to disseminate information on technical farming, marketing and business issues, particularly in northeastern and northern Thailand. Cricket farming has developed into a significant animal husbandry sector and is the main source of income for a number of farmers. In 2013, there are approximately 20 000 farms operating 217 529 rearing pens. Total production over the last six years (1996-2011) has averaged around 7 500 tonnes per year.
In the Western world, agricultural technology companies such as Tiny Farms have been founded with the aim of modernizing insect rearing techniques, permitting the scale and efficiency gains required for insects to displace other animal proteins in the human food supply.
In 2012, Dr. Aaron T. Dossey announced that his company, All Things Bugs, had been named a Grand Challenges Explorations winner by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Grand Challenges Explorations provides funding to individuals with ideas for new approaches to public health and development. The research project is titled "Good Bugs: Sustainable Food for Malnutrition in Children". Director of pediatric nutrition at the University of Alabama at Birmingham Frank Franklin has argued that since low calories and low protein are the main causes of death for approximately 5 million children annually, insect protein formulated into a ready-to-use therapeutic food similar to Nutriset's Plumpy'Nut could have potential as a relatively inexpensive solution to malnutrition. In 2009, Dr. Vercruysse from Ghent University in Belgium has proposed that insect protein can be used to generate hydrolysates, exerting both ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activity, which might be incorporated as multifunctional ingredient into functional foods. Additionally, edible insects can provide a good source of unsaturated fats, thereby helping to reduce coronary disease.
Edible insects can provide economic, nutritional, and ecological advantages to the indigenous populations that commonly raise them. For instance, the mopane worm of South Africa provides a "flagship taxon" for the conservation of mopane woodlands. Some researchers have argued that edible insects provide a unique opportunity for insect conservation by combining issues of food security and forest conservation through a solution which includes appropriate habitat management and recognition of local traditional knowledge and enterprises. However, senior FAO forestry officer Patrick Durst claims that "Among forest managers, there is very little knowledge or appreciation of the potential for managing and harvesting insects sustainably. On the other hand, traditional forest-dwellers and forest-dependent people often possess remarkable knowledge of the insects and their management."
Similarly, Julieta Ramos-Elorduy has stated that rural populations, who primarily "search, gather, fix, commercialize and store this important natural resource", do not exterminate the species which are valuable to their lives and livelihoods. According to the FAO, many experts see income opportunities for rural people involved in cultivation. However, adapting food technology and safety standards to insect-based foods would enhance these prospects by providing a clear legal foundation for insect-based foods.
Some researchers have proposed entomophagy as a solution to policy incoherence created by traditional agriculture, by which conditions are created which favor a few insect species, which then multiply and are termed "pests". In parts of Mexico, Sphenarium purpurascens is controlled by its capture and use as food. Such strategies allow decreased use of pesticide and create a source of income for farmers totaling nearly $3000 per family. Some argue that pesticide use is economically inefficient due to its destruction of insects which may contain up to 75 percent animal protein in order to save crops containing no more than 14 percent protein.
The methods of matter assimilation and nutrient transport used by insects make insect cultivation a more efficient method of converting consumed matter into biomass than rearing traditional livestock; more than 10 times more plant nutrients are needed to produce one kilogram of meat than one kilogram of insect biomass. The spatial usage and water requirements are only a fraction of that required to produce the same mass of food with cattle farming. Production of 150g of grasshopper meat requires only very little water, while cattle requires 3290 liters to produce the same amount of beef. This indicates that lower natural resource use and ecosystem strain could be expected from insects at all levels of the supply chain. Edible insects also display exponentially faster growth and breeding cycles than traditional livestock. An analysis of the carbon intensity of five edible insect species conducted at the University of Wageningen, Netherlands found that "the average daily gain (ADG) of the five insect species studied was 4.0-19.6 percent, the minimum value of this range being close to the 3.2% reported for pigs, whereas the maximum value was 6 times higher. Compared to cattle (0.3%), insect ADG values were much higher." Additionally, all insect species studied produced much lower amounts of ammonia than conventional livestock, though further research is needed to determine the long-term impact. The authors conclude that insects could serve as a more environmentally friendly source of dietary protein.
Insects generally have a higher food conversion efficiency than more traditional meats, measured as efficiency of conversion of ingested food, or ECI. While many insects can have an energy input to protein output ratio of around 4:1, raised livestock has a ratio closer to 54:1. This is partially due to the fact that feed first needs to be grown for most traditional livestock. Additionally endothermic (warm-blooded) vertebrates need to use a significantly greater amount of energy just to stay warm whereas ectothermic (cold blooded) plants or insects do not. An index which can be used as a measure is the Efficiency of conversion of ingested food to body substance: for example, only 10% of ingested food is converted to body substance by beef cattle, versus 19–31% by silkworms and 44% by German cockroaches. Studies concerning the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) provide further evidence for the efficiency of insects as a food source. When reared at 30 °C or more and fed a diet of equal quality to the diet used to rear conventional livestock, crickets showed a food conversion twice as efficient as pigs and broiler chicks, four times that of sheep, and six times higher than steers (oxen) when losses in carcass trim and dressing percentage are counted.
Insects reproduce at a faster rate than beef animals. A female cricket can lay from 1,200 to 1,500 eggs in three to four weeks, while for beef the ratio is four breeding animals for each market animal produced. This gives house crickets a true food conversion efficiency almost 20 times higher than beef. For this reason and because of the essential amino acids content of insects, some people, on ecological grounds, propose the development of entomophagy to provide a major source of protein in human nutrition.
Impacts of animal agriculture
According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), animal agriculture makes a "very substantial contribution" to climate change, air pollution, land, soil and water degradation, land use concerns, deforestation and the reduction of biodiversity. The high growth and intensity of animal agriculture has caused ecological damage worldwide; with meat production predicted to double from now to 2050, maintaining the status quo's environmental impact would demand a 50 percent reduction of impacts per unit of output. As the FAO states, animal livestock "emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to the most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global."  Some researchers argue that establishing sustainable production systems will depend upon a large-scale replacement of traditional livestock with edible insects; such a shift would require a major change in Western perceptions of edible insects, pressure to conserve remaining habitats, and an economic push for food systems that incorporate insects into the supply chain.
Greenhouse gas emission
In total, the emissions of the livestock sector account for 18 percent of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, a greater share than the transportation sector. Using the ratio between body growth realized and carbon production as an indicator of environmental impact, conventional agriculture practices entail substantial negative impacts as compared to entomophagy. The University of Wageningen analysis found that the CO2 production per kilogram of mass gain for the five insect species studied was 39-129% that of pigs and 12-54% that of cattle. This finding corroborates existing literature on the higher feed conversion efficiency of insects as compared to mammalian livestock. For four of the five species studied, GHG emission was "much lower than documented for pigs when expressed per kg of mass gain and only around 1% of the GHG emission for ruminants."
Animal livestock is the largest anthropogenic user of land. 26 percent of the Earth's ice-free terrestrial surface is occupied by grazing, while feedcrop production amounts to 33 percent of total arable land. Livestock production accounts for 70 percent of all agricultural land and 30 percent of the planet's surface. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, livestock activity such as overgrazing, erosion, and soil compaction, has been the primary cause of the degradation of 20 percent of the world's pastures and rangeland. Animal livestock is responsible for 64 percent of man-made ammonia emissions, which contribute significantly to acid rain. By extension, animal waste contributes to environmental pollution through nitrification and acidification of soil.
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, 64 percent of the world's population is expected to live in water-stressed basins by 2025. A reassessment of human usage and treatment of water resources will likely become necessary in order to meet growing population needs. The FAO argues that the livestock sector is a major source of water pollution and loss of freshwater resources:
- The livestock sector [...] is probably the largest sectoral source of water pollution, contributing to eutrophication, "dead" zones in coastal areas, degradation of coral reefs, human health problems, emergence of antibiotic resistance and many others. The major sources of pollution are from animal wastes, antibiotics and hormones, chemicals from tanneries, fertilizers and pesticides used for feedcrops, and sediments from eroded pastures. Global figures are not available but in the United States, with the world's fourth largest land area, livestock are responsible for an estimated 55 percent of erosion and sediment, 37 percent of pesticide use, 50 percent of antibiotic use, and a third of the loads of nitrogen and phosphorus into freshwater resources. Livestock also affect the replenishment of freshwater by compacting soil, reducing infiltration, degrading the banks of watercourses, drying up floodplains and lowering water tables. (brackets added)
Researchers from Wageningen University and the FAO published an evaluation of the potential of edible insects as a protein source in the August 2012 issue of Food Control. The researchers found that "spore forming bacteria are a potential spoilage and safety risk" for both cooked and insect protein. While more study is needed before integration into the food supply, current data suggest that while edible insects must be processed with care, simple methods are available to prevent spoilage.
In general, many insects are herbivorous and less problematic than omnivores. Cooking is advisable in ideal circumstances since parasites of concern may be present. But pesticide use can make insects unsuitable for human consumption. Herbicides can accumulate in insects through bioaccumulation. For example when locust outbreaks are treated by spraying, people can no longer eat them. This may pose a problem since edible plants have been consumed by the locusts themselves.
In some cases, insects may be edible regardless of their toxicity. In the Carnia region of Italy, moths of the Zygaenidae family have been eaten by children despite their potential toxicity. The moths are known to produce hydrogen cyanide precursors in both larvae and adults. However, the ingluvies (or crop) of the adult moths contain cyanogenic chemicals in extremely low quantities along with high concentrations of sugar, making Zygaena a convenient supplementary source of sugar during the early summer. The moths are very common and easy to catch by hand, and the low cyanogenic content of the ingluvies make Zygaena a minimally risky seasonal delicacy.
Within Western culture, entomophagy (barring some food dyes, such as carmine) is seen as taboo. There are some exceptions. Casu marzu, for example, also called casu modde, casu cundhídu, or in Italian formaggio marcio, is a cheese made in Sardinia notable for being riddled with live insect larvae. Casu marzu means "rotten cheese" in Sardinian and is known colloquially as maggot cheese. A scene in the Italian film Mondo Cane (1962) features an insect banquet for shock effect, and a scene from Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom features insects as part of a similar banquet for shock factor. Western avoidance of entomophagy coexists with the consumption of other invertebrates such as mollusks and the insects' close arthropod relatives crustaceans, and is not based on taste or food value.
Within Judaism, most insects are not considered kosher, with the exception of a few species of locust which are accepted by certain communities (see Kosher locust). Honey is, however, considered kosher.
Public health nutritionist Alan Dangour has argued that large-scale entomophagy in Western culture faces "extremely large" barriers, which are "perhaps currently even likely to be insurmountable." The anthropologist Marvin Harris has also suggested that the eating of insects is taboo in cultures that have other protein sources that require less work to obtain, such as poultry or cattle, though there are cultures which feature both animal husbandry and entomophagy. Examples can be found in Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe where strong cattle-raising traditions co-exist with entomophagy of insects like the mopane worm. In addition, people in cultures where entomophagy is common are not indiscriminate in their choice of insects, as Thai consumers of insects perceive edible insects not consumed within their culture in a similar way as Western consumers.
The Food and Agriculture Organization has displayed an interest in developing entomophagy on multiple occasions. In 2008, the FAO organized a conference to "discuss the potential for developing insects in the Asia and Pacific region.". According to Durst, FAO efforts in entomophagy will focus on regions in which entomophagy has been historically accepted but has recently experienced a decline in popularity.
In 2011, the European Commission issued a request for reports on the current use of insects as food, with the promise that reports from each European Union member state would serve to inform legislative proposals for the new process for novel foods. According to NPR, the European Union is investing more than 4 million dollars to research entomophagy as a human protein source.
In practice, it is not possible to eliminate pest insects from the human food chain. Insects are present in many foods, especially grains. Food laws in many countries do not prohibit insect parts in food, but rather, they limit the quantity. People in rice-eating regions, for example, typically ingest significant numbers of rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) larvae, and this has been suggested as an important source of vitamins.
3.1.2 Wheat flour shall be free from abnormal flavours, odours, and living insects. 3.1.3 Wheat flour shall be free from filth (impurities of animal origin, including dead insects) in amounts which may represent a hazard to human health.
According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's The Food Defect Action Levels booklet. Contamination on the average of less than 150 insect fragments per 100 grams of wheat flour poses no health hazard.
Other example of the maximum permissible levels of insect contamination in food products for humans, contamination below which level, poses no health hazard, are:
|Product||Type of insect contamination||Impermissible Level|
|Canned sweet corn||Insect larvae (corn ear worms or corn borers)||2 or more 3 mm or longer larvae, cast skins, larval or cast skin fragments, the aggregate length of insects or insect parts exceeds 12 mm in 24 pounds|
|Canned citrus fruit juices||Insects and insect eggs||5 or more Drosophila and other fly eggs per 250 ml or 1 or more maggots per 250 ml|
|Wheat flour||Insect filth||Average of 150 or more insect fragments per 100 grams|
|Frozen broccoli||Insects and mites||Average of 60 or more aphids and/or thrips and/or mites per 100 grams|
|Hops||Insects||Average of more than 2,500 aphids per 10 grams|
|Ground thyme||Insect filth||Average of 925 or more insect fragments per 10 grams|
|Ground nutmeg||Insect filth||Average of 100 or more insect fragments per 10 grams|
|Chocolate||Insect filth||Average of 60 or more insect fragments per 100 grams|
|Noodles||Insect filth||Average of 225 or more insect fragments per 225 gram|
|Peanut butter||Insect filth||Average of 30 or more insect fragments per 100 grams|
See source for information on other food products.
- Feed conversion ratio
- Taboo food and drink
- The Food Defect Action Levels
- Man Eating Bugs: The Art and Science of Eating Insects (book)
- The Eat-A-Bug Cookbook (book)
- "Entomophagy (Eating insects)". Center for Invasive Species Research, University of California (Research). Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- Damian Carrington. "Insects could be the key to meeting food needs of growing global population", The Guardian 1 August 2010. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Menzel, Peter (1998). Creepy crawly cuisine: the gourmet guide to edible insects. Inner Traditions / Bear & Company. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-89281-747-4. Retrieved 2014-04-23.
- Weiss, M.L., & Mann, A.E. (1985). Human Biology and Behaviour: An Anthropological Perspective. Boston: Little Brown & Co. ISBN 0-673-39013-6.[page needed]
- McElroy, A., & Townsend, P.K. (1989). Medical Anthropology in Ecological Perspective. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-0742-2.
- Saggers, S., & Gray, D. (1991). Aboriginal Health & Society: The Traditional and Contemporary Aboriginal Struggle for Better Health. Sydney: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86373-057-5.[page needed]
- Gordon, David George (1998). The Eat-A-Bug Cookbook. Berkely, California: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 0-89815-977-6.[page needed]
- Thompson, Addie (7 July 2013). "Want To Help Solve The Global Food Crisis? Eat More Crickets". Forbes.
- "Insects Are Food". Insects Are Food. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- Global Steak - Demain nos enfants mangeront des criquets (2010 French documentary)
- Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations http://www.fao.org/forestry/edibleinsects/84627/en/
- Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; Van Itterbeeck, Joost; Heetkamp, Marcel J. W.; Van Den Brand, Henry; Van Loon, Joop J. A.; Van Huis, Arnold (2010). Hansen, Immo A, ed. "An Exploration on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Production by Insect Species Suitable for Animal or Human Consumption". PLoS ONE 5 (12): e14445. PMC 3012052. PMID 21206900. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014445.
- Premalatha, M.; Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, Tabassum; Abbasi, S.A. (2011). "Energy-efficient food production to reduce global warming and ecodegradation: The use of edible insects". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (9): 4357. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.115.
- Gahukar, R.T. (August 2011). "Entomophagy and human food security". International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 31 (3): 129–144. doi:10.1017/S1742758411000257.
- Yen, Alan (2009). "Edible Insects: Traditional Knowledge or Western Phobia?". Entomological Research 39 (5): 289–298. doi:10.1111/j.1748-5967.2009.00239.x.
- Clausen, Curtis Paul (1940). Entomophagous insects. OCLC 807191.[page needed]
- Poinar, G.O. (1986). "Entomophagous Nematodes". Fortschritte der Zoologie 32: 95–121.
- Domnas, Aristotle J.; Warner, Steven A. (1991). "Biochemical Activities of Entomophagous Fungi". Critical Reviews in Microbiology 18 (1): 1–13. PMID 1854431. doi:10.3109/10408419109113507.
- Capinera, John L. (2004). Encyclopedia of Entomology. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 0-7923-8670-1.
- Jones, Steve; Martin, Robert; Pilbeam, David, eds. (1994). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-32370-3.[page needed]
- Tutin, CE; Fernandez, M; Rogers, ME; Williamson, EA; McGrew, WC; Altmann, S. A.; Southgate, D. A. T.; Crowe, I.; Tutin, C. E. G.; Whiten, A.; Conklin, N. L.; Barrett, L. (1991). "Foraging profiles of sympatric lowland gorillas and chimpanzees in the Lopé Reserve, Gabon". Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences 334 (1270): 179–85; discussion 185–6. PMID 1685576. doi:10.1098/rstb.1991.0107.
- McGrew, W.C. (1992). Chimpanzee Material Culture: Implications for Human Evolution. Cambridge University Press. pp. 153–154. ISBN 0-521-42371-6.
- Goodall, Jane (1986). The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior. The Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press. p. 248. ISBN 0-674-11649-6.
- "Cooking with Insects: Are Bugs the Latest Culinary Trend?". Foodie Gossip. July 22, 2011. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Menzel, Peter (1998). Creepy crawly cuisine: the gourmet guide to edible insects. Inner Traditions / Bear & Company. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-89281-747-4. Retrieved 2010-04-02.
- Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta (2006). "Threatened edible insects in Hidalgo, Mexico and some measures to preserve them". Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2: 51. PMC 1716161. PMID 17144918. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-2-51.
- "Chapul - Home".
- "Chapul - The World's First Cricket Bar".
- All Things Bugs LLC. http://www.allthingsbugs.com/ All Things Bugs LLC.
- "Exo: Protein Bars Made from Cricket Flour". Kickstarter.
- "Products". Exo Inc. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
- "Buy Cricket Flour". Cricket Flours LLC. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- Verbeke, Wim (2015). "Profiling consumers who are ready to adopt insects as a meat substitute in a Western society". Food Quality and Preference 39: 147-155. doi:10.1016/j.foodqual.2014.07.008. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- "Crickets, bugs, worms: It’s what’s for dinner!", Today (NBC program), July 24, 2009.
- "Vij's restaurant staff members Amarjeet Gill, Akiko Masutoni and Sarbjit Randhawa try the cricket paratha", Ottawa Citizen, June 17, 2008.
- "Kitchen nightmares: Rachel Herz unravels mystery of repulsion", Times Colonist, April 5, 2012.
- "Eating bugs fine in many cultures", Vancouver Sun, June 28, 2008.
- "Meeru's crickets", Vancouver Sun, October 24, 2011.
- "Researcher unravels our delight in the disgusting", Vancouver Sun, April 7, 2012.
- "Cuisine to chirp about", Globe and Mail, November 18, 2011.
- Mott, Maryann. Bugs as Food: Humans Bite Back. National Geographic News. 16 April 2004.
- Newman, Judith. What is fried and has six legs? Welcome to Insect Cuisine. The New York Times. May 20, 1992. Accessed April 2, 2010.
- "A short history of the society". New York Entomological Society. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- "Eating Maggots: The Explorers Club Dinner". Epicurious.com. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- Schiffrin, Anya (2009-02-09). "Cockroach Eating Contest at Six Flag Draws PETA Protest". Today.reuters.com. Retrieved 2012-09-26.[dead link]
- "Cockroach Eating Contest Bugs Animal Rights Activists:". Military-quotes.com. 2006-10-12. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- Edible insects - Future prospects for food and feed security. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2013. ISBN 978-92-5-107595-1.[page needed]
- Paoletti, M.G. (2005). Ecological implications of minilivestock: potential of insects, rodents, frogs, and snails. Science Publishers. p. 648. ISBN 978-1-57808-339-8. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
- Oudhia, P. "Traditional medicinal knowledge about green leafhopper, Nephotettix spp., in Chhattisgarh (India)." International Rice Research Notes 25.3 (2000).
- Oudhia, P. "Traditional medicinal knowledge about pod borer Helicoverpa armigera in Chhattisgarh, India." International Chickpea and Pigeonpea Newsletter 8 (2001): 14-15.
- Oudhia, P. "Traditional medicinal knowledge about common insects and mites in India." ECOLOGY ENVIRONMENT AND CONSERVATION 8 (2002): 339-340.
- Oudhia, P. "Traditional medicinal knowledge about red ant Oecophylla smaragdina (Fab.)[Hymenoptera; Formicidae] in Chhattisgarh, India." Insect Environment 8.3 (2002): 114-115.
- Oudhia P.(2002). Traditional medicinal knowledge about Fireflies, Photuris sp.(Coleoptera : Lampyridae)in Chhattisgarh (India).Insect Environment,Vol.8(1):25.
- Oudhia P.(2000). Common housefly Musca nebulo Wiedemann (Diptera: Muscidae) as medicinal insect in Chhattisgarh. Insect Environment.6(1):36-37.
- Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta (2009). "Anthropo-Entomophagy: Cultures, Evolution And Sustainability". Entomological Research 39 (5): 271–288. doi:10.1111/j.1748-5967.2009.00238.x.
- Gordon, David George (1998). The Eat-A-Bug Cookbook. Berkely, California: Ten Speed Press. p. xiv. ISBN 0-89815-977-6.
- Six-legged Livestock: Edible insect farming, collection and marketing in Thailand (PDF). Bangkok: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2013. ISBN 978-92-5-107578-4.
- "Jiminy Cricket! Bugs could be next food craze".
- "Company Gets Grant To Develop Food Based On Insects to Fight Malnutrition". Eurasia Review. 12 May 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- Parry, Wayne (22 February 2012). "Study: Eating bugs could reduce global warming". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- Yen, Alan (2009). "Entomophagy And Insect Conservation: Some Thoughts For Digestion". Journal of Insect Conservation 13 (6): 667–670. doi:10.1007/s10841-008-9208-8.
- "Beastly bugs or edible delicacies". FAO Newsroom. 19 February 2008. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- Walsh, Bryan (May 29, 2008). "Eating Bugs". Time. Archived from the original on September 26, 2012.
- Gordon, D.G. (1998) p.xv
- "U.S. could feed 800 million people with grain that livestock eat, Cornell ecologist advises animal scientists Future water and energy shortages predicted to change face of American agriculture". Cornell Science News. August 7, 1997.
- Henning Steinfeld; Pierre Gerber; Tom Wassenaar; Vincent Castel; Mauricio Rosales; Cees de Haan (2006). "Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental issues and options". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved 2012-10-25.
- Klunder, H.C.; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.; Korpela, J.M.; Nout, M.J.R. (2012). "Microbiological aspects of processing and storage of edible insects". Food Control 26 (2): 628. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.02.013.
- Zagrobelny, Mika; Dreon, Angelo Leandro; Gomiero, Tiziano; Marcazzan, Gian Luigi; Glaring, Mikkel Andreas; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Paoletti, Maurizio G (2009). "Toxic Moths: Source of a Truly Safe Delicacy". Journal of Ethnobiology 29: 64. doi:10.2993/0278-0771-29.1.64.
- "State Health Department issues health warning on lead-contaminated chaplines (grasshoppers)". California Department of Health Services. 2003-11-13. Retrieved 2006-12-16.[dead link]
- Phillips, Joel; Burkholder, Wendell (1995). "Allergies Related to Food Insect Production and Consumption". Food Insect Allergies 8 (2).
- Gullan, P. J.; Cranston, P.S. (1994). The Insects: an Outline of Entomology. Chapman and Hall. ISBN 1-4051-1113-5.[page needed]
- "Laws of Islam Concerning Food". Yomatari’s Laws of Religion. 2011-05-10. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- "The Fiqh of Halal and Haram Animals". Shariahprogram.ca. Retrieved 2014-08-01.
- Tan, Hui Shan Grace; Fischer, Arnout R.H.; Tinchan, Patcharaporn; Stieger, Markus; Steenbekkers, L. P. A.; van Trijp, Hans C. M. (2015). "Insects as food: Exploring cultural exposure and individual experience as determinants of acceptance". Food Quality and Preference 42: 78-89. doi:10.1016/j.foodqual.2015.01.013. Retrieved 2015-02-16.
- Byrne, Jane (16 November 2011). "FSA flags up potential of purified insect protein". Food Navigator. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- Schultz, Teri (4/11/2012). "Time For A 'Bug Mac'? The Dugtch Aim To Make Insects More Palatable". National Public Radio. Retrieved 30 November 2012. Check date values in:
- Taylor, Ronald L. (1975). Butterflies in My Stomach (or: Insects in Human Nutrition). Santa Barbara, California: Woodbridge Press Publishing Company.[page needed]
- list of Official Standards of the Codex Alimentarius Accessed 02 April 2010.
- "The Food Defect Action Levels". U. S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2013-03-04.
- Dossey, Aaron (2013). "Why Insects Should Be in Your Diet". The Scientist 27: 22–23.
- Shockley and Dossey (2014). "Insects for Human Consumption". Mass Production of Beneficial Organisms. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-391453-8.00018-2.
- Calder, Daniel. The Dietitian's Guide to Eating Bugs 2013 ebook 
- DeFoliart, Gene (1992). "Insects as Human Food". Crop Protection 11 (5): 395–399. doi:10.1016/0261-2194(92)90020-6.
- Holt, Vincent. Why Not Eat Insects? 1885 Pamphlet Full text of the 1885 pamphlet Why Not Eat Insects by Vincent Holt, with French cuisine recipes
- Ichinose, Katsuya (February 9, 1989). "More insect eating". Nature 337 (6207): 513–514. PMID 2915701. doi:10.1038/337513b0.
- Kantha, Sachi Sri. (November 24, 1988). "Insect eating in Japan". Nature 336 (6197): 316–317. Bibcode:1988Natur.336R.316K. doi:10.1038/336316b0.
- Taylor, Ronald L. (1975). Butterflies in My Stomach, or, Insects in human nutrition. John Gregory Tweed (illus.). Santa Barbara, Calif.: Woodbridge Press Pub. Co. ISBN 978-0-912800-08-0., OCLC 1551292
|40x40px||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Entomophagy.|
- "All Things Bugs LLC: World's Largest Insect-Based Food Ingredient Manufacturer - Cricket Flour, Cricket Powder, Mealworm Powder, etc.".
- "Cricket Flours LLC: Cricket Flour and Cricket Protein Powder Information and Resources".
- "Edible insects". New Scientist 2595: 56. 2007. doi:10.1016/s0262-4079(07)60691-5.
- DeFoliart, Gene R. (2002-09-29). "The Human Use of Insects as a Food Resource: A Bibliographic Account in Progress". University of Wisconsin–Madison.
- Stewart, Jeff. "Understanding the Role of Insects in Foods and Foodways". Creepy Crawly Cooking.
- Frazier, Ian (1997). "It's Hard to Eat Just One". Outside.
- Unger, Lana (1999-01-20). "Insect Snacks from Around the World". University of Kentucky.
- Toms, Rob; Thagwana, Mashudu (2003). "Eat your bugs - harvesting edible stink-bugs". Science in Africa.
- Menzel, Peter; D'Aluisio, Faith (1998). Man Eating Bugs: The Art and Science of Eating Insects. Ten Speed Press. ISBN 1-58008-022-7.
- Nejame, Sam. "Man Bites Insect" New York Times Sunday Magazine. February 10, 2008.]
- Dicke, Marcel. "Why not eat insects?", TEDxAmsterdam. Retrieved 12 March 2011.
Lua error in Module:Authority_control at line 346: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).