Adverts

Open Access Articles- Top Results for Environmental Vulnerability Index

Environmental Vulnerability Index

The Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI) is a measurement devised by the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC), the United Nations Environment Program and others[1] to characterize the relative severity of various types of environmental issues suffered by 243 enumerated individual nations and other geographies (such as Antarctica). The results of the EVI are used to focus on planned solutions to negative pressures on the environment, whilst promoting sustainability.

The Development of the Environmental Vulnerability Index

The beginning stages of The Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI) were developed to be appropriate for Small Island Developing States (SIDs), this theoretical idea at the time was presented by the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC) on February 4, 1999. The ideas and plans for The Environmental Vulnerability Index were worked on further with the creation of a (EVI) Think Tank that took place from September 7- September 10, 1999 in Pacific Harbour, Fiji. Expanding the (EVI) to other SIDS was aided by a meeting of experts convened in Malta on November 29- December 3, 1999 by (SOPAC)and the Foundation for International Studies (of the University of Malta’s Islands and Small States Institute) with the support of the United Nations Environment Programme(UNEP). During the second phase of the development, the Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI) was tested in five different countries. A workshop was made to expand the application of the Environmental Vulnerability Index to a demonstrative set of countries from around the world. The workshop was hosted by UNEP in Geneva, Switzerland on August 27-August 29, 2001. Continuation of work and development on The Environmental Vulnerability Index, lead to a presentation of the first functional results with the Demonstration EVI.

Calculating The Environmental Vulnerability Index

To be able to calculate an Environmental Vulnerability Index it requires the compilation of relevant environmental vulnerability data for the 50 indicators. Once compiled then this data must be used to calculate each indicator. As the indicators are heterogeneous, include variables for which responses are numerical, qualitative and on different scales (linear, non-linear, or with different ranges) they are mapped onto a 1 - 7 vulnerability scale. Where data is not available, no value is given for the indicator and the denominator of the average adjusted down by one value. Where an indicator is considered 'non- applicable' in a country (such as volcanic eruptions in Tuvalu which has no volcanoes), the lowest vulnerability score of 1 is attributed to that indicator. The vulnerability scores for each indicator are then accumulated either into categories or sub-indices and the average calculated. An overall average of all indicators is calculated to generate the country EVI. The EVI is accumulated into three sub-indices: Hazards, Resistance, Damage

The 50 EVI indicators are also divided up in the issue categories for use as required: Climate change, Biodiversity, Water, Agriculture and fisheries,Human health aspects, Desertification, and Exposure to Natural Disasters.

Indicators

  1. High Winds - Average annual excess winds over the last five years (summing speeds on days during which the maximum recorded wind speed is greater than 20% higher than the 30 year average maximum wind speed for that month) averaged over all reference climate stations.
  2. Dry Periods - Average annual rainfall deficit (mm) over the past 5 years for all months with more than 20% lower rainfall than the 30 year monthly average, averaged over all reference climate stations.
  3. Wet Periods - Average annual excess rainfall (mm) over the past 5 years for all months with more than 20% higher rainfall than the 30 year monthly average, averaged over all reference climate stations
  4. Hot Periods - Average annual excess heat (degrees) over the past 5 years for all days more than 5°C (9°F) hotter than the 30 year mean monthly maximum, averaged over all reference climate stations.
  5. Cold Periods - Average annual heat deficit (degrees) over the past 5 years for all days more than 5°C (9°F) cooler than the 30 year mean monthly minimum, averaged overall reference climate stations.
  6. Sea Temperatures -Average annual deviation in Sea Surface Temperatures(SST) in the last 5 years in relation to the 30 year monthly means
  7. Volcanoes - Cumulative volcano risk as the weighted number of volcanoes with the potential for eruption greater than or equal to a Volcanic Explosively Index of 2(VEI 2) within 100km of the country land boundary(divided by the area of land).
  8. Earthquakes- Cumulative earthquake energy within 100km of country land boundaries measured as Local Magnitude (ML) ≥ 6.0 and occurring at a depth of less than or equal to fifteen kilometers (≤15km depth)over 5 years (divided by land area).
  9. Tsunamis - Number of tsunamis or storms surges with run-up greater than 2 meters above Mean High Water Spring tide (MHWS) per 1000 km coastline since 1900.
  10. Slides-Number of slides recorded in the last 5 years (EMDAT definitions),divided by land area
  11. Land Area - Total land area (km2)
  12. Country Dispersion -Ratio of length of borders (land and maritime) to total land area.
  13. Isolation - Distance to nearest continent (km)
  14. Relief - Altitude range (highest point subtracted from the lowest point in country)
  15. Lowlands - Percentage of land area less than or equal to 50m above sea level
  16. Borders - Number of land and sea borders (including EEZ shared with other countries.)
  17. Ecosystem Imbalance - Weighted average change in trophic level since fisheries began (for trophic level slice ≤3.35).
  18. Environmental Openness - Average annual USD freight imports over the past 5 years by any means per km2 land area
  19. Migrations - Number of known species that migrate outside the territorial area at any time during their life spans(including land and all aquatic species) / area of land
  20. Endemics - Number of known endemic species per million square kilometer land area
  21. Introductions - Number of introduced species per 1000 square kilometer of land area
  22. Endangered Species - Number of endangered and vulnerable species per 1000 km2 land area (IUCN definitions)
  23. Extinctions -Number of species known to have become extinct since 1900 per 1000 km2 land area (IUCN definitions)
  24. Vegetation Cover-Percentage of natural and regrowth vegetation cover remaining (include forests, wetlands, prairies, tundra, desert and alpine associations).
  25. Loss Of Cover - Net percentage change in natural vegetation cover over the last five years
  26. Habitat Fragmentation - Total length of all roads in a country divided by land area.
  27. Degradation - Percent of land area that is either severely or very severely degraded (FAO/AGL Terrastat definitions)
  28. Terrestrial Reserves - Percent of terrestrial land area legally set aside as no take reserves
  29. Marine Reserves - Percentage of continental shelf legally designated as marine protected areas (MPAs).
  30. Intensive Farming - Annual tonnage of intensively farmed animal products(includes aquaculture, pigs, poultry) produced over the last five years per square kilometer land area.
  31. Fertilizers - Average annual intensity of fertilizer use over the total land area over the last 5 years.
  32. Pesticides - Average annual pesticides used as kg/km2/year over total land area over last 5 years.
  33. Biotechnology - Cumulative number of deliberate field trials of genetically modified organisms conducted in the country since 1986.
  34. Productivity Over-fishing -Average ratio of productivity : fisheries catch over the last 5 years
  35. Fishing Effort - Average annual number of fishers per kilometer of coastline over the last 5 years
  36. Renewable Water - Average annual water usage as percentage of renewable water resources over the last 5 years
  37. SO2 Emissions - Average annual SO2 emissions over the last 5 years
  38. Waste Production - Average annual net amount of generated and imported toxic, hazardous and municipal wastes per square kilometer land area over the last 5 years
  39. Waste Treatment - Mean annual percent of hazardous, toxic and municipal waste effectively managed and treated over the past 5 years.
  40. Industry - Average annual use of electricity for industry over the last 5 years per square kilometer of land
  41. Spills - Total number of spills of oil and hazardous substances greater than 1000 liters on land, in rivers or within territorial waters per million km maritime coast during the last five years
  42. Mining - Average annual mining production (include all surface and subsurface mining and quarrying) per km2 of land area over the past 5 years.
  43. Sanitation- Density of population without access to safe sanitation(WHO definitions)
  44. Vehicles - Number of vehicles per square kilometer of land area (most recent data)
  45. Population - Total human population density (number per km2 land area)
  46. Population Growth - Annual human population growth rate over the last 5 years
  47. Tourists Average annual number of international tourists per km2 land over the past 5 years.
  48. Coastal Settlements - Density of people living in coastal settlements (i.e. with a city center within 100km of any maritime or lake* coast).
  49. Environmental Agreements - Number of environmental treaties in force in a country.
  50. Conflicts - Average number of conflict years per decade within the country over the past 50 years.

List

Rank Country Index
1 23x15px French Guiana 174 Resilient
2 23x15px Western Sahara 175 Resilient
3 23x15px Botswana 181 Resilient
4 23x15px Central African Republic 193 Resilient
5 23x15px Namibia 200 Resilient
6 23x15px Zimbabwe 200 Resilient
7 23x15px Guyana 207 Resilient
8 23x15px Mongolia 208 Resilient
9 23x15px Niger 208 Resilient
10 23x15px Djibouti 210 Resilient
11 23x15px Zambia 210 Resilient
12 23x15px Gabon 211 Resilient
13 23x15px Suriname 211 Resilient
14 Template:Country data Kazakhstan 215 At risk
15 23x15px Mali 215 At risk
16 23x15px Svalbard 215 At risk
17 23x15px Chad 217 At risk
18 23x15px Congo 219 At risk
19 23x15px Falkland Islands 223 At risk
20 23x15px Angola 225 At risk
21 23x15px Mozambique 227 At risk
22 23x15px Burkina Faso 229 At risk
23 23x15px Cameroon 229 At risk
24 23x15px Qatar 229 At risk
25 23x15px Mauritania 233 At risk
26 Template:Country data Kyrgyzstan 234 At risk
27 23x15px Antarctica 235 At risk
28 23x15px Australia 238 At risk
29 23x15px Belarus 239 At risk
30 23x15px Equatorial Guinea 243 At risk
31 23x15px Greenland 243 At risk
32 23x15px Laos 243 At risk
33 23x15px Swaziland 243 At risk
34 Sth Georgia & Sth Sandwich Is. 245 At risk
35 23x15px Panama 247 At risk
36 23x15px Armenia 247 At risk
37 23x15px Bahamas 248 At risk
38 23x15px Cote d'Ivoire 248 At risk
39 23x15px Malawi 249 At risk
40 23x15px Turkmenistan 249 At risk
41 23x15px Bolivia 250 At risk
42 23x15px Oman 250 At risk
43 23x15px Canada 251 At risk
44 23x15px Papua New Guinea 251 At risk
45 23x15px Bhutan 253 At risk
46 23x15px Eritrea 254 At risk
47 23x15px Guinea 254 At risk
48 23x15px Libya 256 At risk
49 23x15px Andorra 257 At risk
50 23x15px Tanzania 257 At risk
51 23x15px Belize 258 At risk
52 23x15px Uruguay 259 At risk
53 23x15px Ethiopia 260 At risk
54 23x15px Paraguay 260 At risk
55 23x15px Georgia 261 At risk
56 Template:Country data Kenya 262 At risk
57 23x15px Finland 265 Vulnerable
58 Sao Tome and Principe 265 Vulnerable
59 23x15px Somalia 265 Vulnerable
60 23x15px Peru 268 Vulnerable
61 23x15px Cambodia 270 Vulnerable
62 23x15px Latvia 270 Vulnerable
63 23x15px Myanmar 270 Vulnerable
64 23x15px Bouvet Island 271 Vulnerable
65 23x15px Guinea-Bissau 271 Vulnerable
66 23x15px Liberia 271 Vulnerable
67 23x15px Tajikistan 271 Vulnerable
68 23x15px Nicaragua 272 Vulnerable
69 Template:Country data Honduras 273 Vulnerable
70 23x15px Norway 273 Vulnerable
71 23x15px Russia 273 Vulnerable
72 23x15px Saudi Arabia 274 Vulnerable
73 23x15px Sudan 274 Vulnerable
74 23x15px Algeria 275 Vulnerable
75 23x15px Comoros 277 Vulnerable
76 23x15px Gambia 277 Vulnerable
77 23x15px Senegal 277 Vulnerable
78 23x15px Benin 278 Vulnerable
79 23x15px Ghana 279 Vulnerable
80 23x15px Madagascar 279 Vulnerable
81 St. Helena 279 Vulnerable
82 23x15px Estonia 280 Vulnerable
83 23x15px Lesotho 280 Vulnerable
84 23x15px Brazil 281 Vulnerable
85 23x15px Solomon Islands 281 Vulnerable
86 23x15px Cape Verde 282 Vulnerable
87 23x15px Sierra Leone 283 Vulnerable
88 23x15px Uganda 283 Vulnerable
89 Cocos (Keeling) Islands 285 Vulnerable
90 23x15px Vanuatu 285 Vulnerable
91 23x15px Uzbekistan 286 Vulnerable
92 23x15px Argentina 287 Vulnerable
93 23x15px Chile 287 Vulnerable
94 23x15px Burundi 288 Vulnerable
95 DR Congo 288 Vulnerable
96 23x15px Afghanistan 289 Vulnerable
97 23x15px Yemen 289 Vulnerable
98 23x15px New Caledonia 290 Vulnerable
99 23x15px Aruba 291 Vulnerable
100 23x15px Venezuela 291 Vulnerable
101 23x15px New Zealand 292 Vulnerable
102 Turks & Caicos Islands 292 Vulnerable
103 23x15px Togo 293 Vulnerable
104 23x15px United Arab Emirates 293 Vulnerable
105 23x16px  Vatican City 293 Vulnerable
106 Heard & McDonald Is. 294 Vulnerable
107 British Indian Ocean Territory 295 Vulnerable
108 23x15px Colombia 296 Vulnerable
109 23x15px Faroe Islands 296 Vulnerable
110 St. Pierre & Miquelon 296 Vulnerable
111 23x15px Egypt 298 Vulnerable
112 Template:Country data Iceland 298 Vulnerable
113 23x15px Rwanda 298 Vulnerable
114 23x15px Jan Mayen 300 Vulnerable
115 23x15px United States 300 Vulnerable
116 23x15px Slovakia 303 Vulnerable
117 23x15px Ecuador 304 Vulnerable
118 23x15px Mayotte 304 Vulnerable
119 23x15px Pitcairn 304 Vulnerable
120 Wallis & Futuna Islands 304 Vulnerable
121 File:Flag of Nepal.svg   Nepal 305 Vulnerable
122 23x15px San Marino 305 Vulnerable
123 23x15px Bosnia & Herzegovina 306 Vulnerable
124 23x15px Mexico 306 Vulnerable
125 23x15px Tunisia 306 Vulnerable
126 23x15px Antigua & Barbuda 307 Vulnerable
127 23x15px Thailand 308 Vulnerable
128 Template:Country data Hong Kong 309 Vulnerable
129 23x15px Niue 309 Vulnerable
130 Template:Country data Jordan 310 Vulnerable
131 23x15px Sweden 311 Vulnerable
132 23x15px Anguilla 312 Vulnerable
133 23x15px Malaysia 312 Vulnerable
134 23x15px Brunei 313 Vulnerable
135 Template:Country data Iran 313 Vulnerable
136 23x15px Cyprus 314 Vulnerable
137 23x15px Lithuania 314 Vulnerable
138 23x15px Czech Republic 315 Vulnerable
139 23x15px Morocco 315 Vulnerable
140 23x15px Grenada 316 Highly vulnerable
141 Template:Country data Indonesia 316 Highly vulnerable
142 23x15px Macedonia 316 Highly vulnerable
143 23x15px Ukraine 317 Highly vulnerable
144 23x15px Ireland 318 Highly vulnerable
145 23x15px Moldova 322 Highly vulnerable
146 23x15px Bulgaria 323 Highly vulnerable
147 Template:Country data Kuwait 323 Highly vulnerable
148 23x15px Netherlands Antilles 323 Highly vulnerable
149 23x15px Dominican Republic 324 Highly vulnerable
150 23x15px South Africa 324 Highly vulnerable
151 23x15px Taiwan 324 Highly vulnerable
152 23x15px Bahrain 326 Highly vulnerable
153 23x15px Luxembourg 327 Highly vulnerable
154 23x15px Gibraltar 328 Highly vulnerable
155 23x15px Samoa 328 Highly vulnerable
156 23x15px Tokelau 328 Highly vulnerable
157 23x15px Cuba 329 Highly vulnerable
158 23x15px Albania 330 Highly vulnerable
159 23x15px Sri Lanka 331 Highly vulnerable
160 23x15px Monaco 332 Highly vulnerable
161 23x15px Fiji 333 Highly vulnerable
162 23x15px Puerto Rico 334 Highly vulnerable
163 23x15px Portugal 335 Highly vulnerable
164 23x15px Romania 335 Highly vulnerable
165 23x15px Nigeria 336 Highly vulnerable
166 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 337 Highly vulnerable
167 23x15px Guatemala 338 Highly vulnerable
168 23x15px Palau 338 Highly vulnerable
169 23x15px Bangladesh 340 Highly vulnerable
170 23x15px Réunion 341 Highly vulnerable
171 23x15px Montserrat 342 Highly vulnerable
172 23x15px Cayman Islands 343 Highly vulnerable
173 23x15px Croatia 343 Highly vulnerable
174 Template:Country data Haiti 343 Highly vulnerable
175 Template:Country data Iraq 344 Highly vulnerable
176 23x15px Denmark 345 Highly vulnerable
177 23x15px Liechtenstein 346 Highly vulnerable
178 23x15px El Salvador 348 Highly vulnerable
179 23x15px Marshall Islands 348 Highly vulnerable
180 23x16px  Switzerland 348 Highly vulnerable
181 Christmas Islands 350 Highly vulnerable
182 23x15px Syria 350 Highly vulnerable
183 23x15px Spain 352 Highly vulnerable
184 23x15px Greece 353 Highly vulnerable
185 23x15px Turkey 353 Highly vulnerable
186 23x15px Azerbaijan 354 Highly vulnerable
187 23x15px Costa Rica 354 Highly vulnerable
188 23x15px Poland 354 Highly vulnerable
189 23x15px Seychelles 355 Highly vulnerable
190 23x15px Germany 357 Highly vulnerable
191 23x15px Vietnam 357 Highly vulnerable
192 23x15px Mauritius 358 Highly vulnerable
193 St. Kitts and Nevis 359 Highly vulnerable
194 23x15px China 360 Highly vulnerable
195 23x15px France 361 Highly vulnerable
196 23x15px Slovenia 362 Highly vulnerable
197 23x15px Hungary 363 Highly vulnerable
198 Template:Country data North Korea 363 Highly vulnerable
199 23x15px Martinique 364 Highly vulnerable
200 23x15px Tuvalu 367 Extremely vulnerable
201 23x15px Malta 368 Extremely vulnerable
202 23x15px Norfolk Island 368 Extremely vulnerable
203 23x15px Austria 369 Extremely vulnerable
204 23x15px Bermuda 373 Extremely vulnerable
205 Template:Country data South Korea 373 Extremely vulnerable
206 23x15px Pakistan 373 Extremely vulnerable
207 23x15px United Kingdom 373 Extremely vulnerable
208 UK Virgin Islands 377 Extremely vulnerable
209 23x15px Northern Mariana Islands 378 Extremely vulnerable
210 Template:Country data Israel 380 Extremely vulnerable
211 23x15px French Polynesia 381 Extremely vulnerable
212 Template:Country data Jamaica 381 Extremely vulnerable
213 23x15px Trinidad and Tobago 381 Extremely vulnerable
214 23x15px Cook Islands 383 Extremely vulnerable
215 23x15px Maldives 383 Extremely vulnerable
216 Template:Country data India 385 Extremely vulnerable
217 23x15px Italy 386 Extremely vulnerable
218 23x15px Belgium 387 Extremely vulnerable
219 23x15px Lebanon 387 Extremely vulnerable
220 23x15px Netherlands 388 Extremely vulnerable
221 Template:Country data Japan 389 Extremely vulnerable
222 23x15px Guam 390 Extremely vulnerable
223 23x15px Micronesia 392 Extremely vulnerable
224 23x15px Tonga 392 Extremely vulnerable
225 23x15px Saint Lucia 393 Extremely vulnerable
226 Template:Country data Kiribati 395 Extremely vulnerable
227 US Virgin Islands 396 Extremely vulnerable
228 23x15px Philippines 402 Extremely vulnerable
229 23x15px Barbados 403 Extremely vulnerable
230 23x15px Macau 407 Extremely vulnerable
231 23x15px Guadeloupe 412 Extremely vulnerable
232 23x15px Nauru 421 Extremely vulnerable
233 23x15px Singapore 428 Extremely vulnerable
234 23x15px American Samoa 436 Extremely vulnerable

See also

References

  1. ^ Environmental Vulnerability Index Secretariat of the Pacific Community. Retrieved 4 November 2013.

Further references

External links