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Open Access Articles- Top Results for Epidemiology of childhood obesity

Epidemiology of childhood obesity

Prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically worldwide. A Lancet article published in 2010 that the prevalence of childhood obesity during the past two to three decades, much like the United States, has increased in most other industrialized nations, excluding Russia and Poland.[1] Between the early 1970s and late 1990s, prevalence of childhood obesity doubled or tripled in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Japan, the UK, and the USA.[2]

A 2010 article from the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition analyzed global prevalence from 144 countries in preschool children (less than 5 years old).[3] Cross-sectional surveys from 144 countries were used and overweight and obesity were defined as preschool children with values >3SDs from the mean.[4] They found an estimated 42 million obese children under the age of five in the world of which close to 35 million lived in developing countries.11 Additional findings included worldwide prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increasing from 4.2% (95% CI: 3.2%, 5.2%) in 1990 to 6.7% (95% CI: 5.6%, 7.7%) in 2010 and expecting to rise to 9.1% (95% CI: 7.3%, 10.9%), an estimated 60 million overweight and obese children in 2020.[5]

United States

The National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) has facilitated estimation of childhood obesity rates at state levels and comparison of geographic differences in social and behavioral factors. In the United States, 17% of children and teenagers in the United States are considered obese (BMI ≥95th percentile of the sex specific 2000 CDC growth charts).[6] Prevalence has remained high over the past three decades across most age, sex, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic groups, and represents a three-fold increase from one generation ago and is expected to continue rising.[7][8]

Prevalence of pediatric obesity also varies with state. The highest rates of childhood obesity are found in the southeastern states of which Mississippi was found to have the highest rate of overweight/obese children, 44.5%/21.9% respectively.[9] The western states were found to have the lowest prevalence, such as Utah (23.1%) and Oregon (9.6%).[10]

From 2003-2007, there was a twofold increase in states reporting prevalence of pediatric obesity greater than or equal to 18%.7 Oregon was the only state showing decline from 2003 to 2007 (decline by 32%), and using children in Oregon as a reference group, obesity in children in Illinois, Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia, Georgia, and Kansas has doubled.[11]

The likelihood of obesity in children was found to increase significantly with decreasing levels of household income, lower neighborhood access to parks or sidewalks, increased television viewing time, and increased recreational computer time.[12] Black and Hispanic children are more likely to be obese compared to white (Blacks OR=1.71 and Hispanics=1.76).[13]

2010 study

A 2010 NCHS Data Brief published by the CDC found interesting trends in prevalence of childhood obesity.[14] The prevalence of obesity among boys from households with an income at or above 350% the poverty level was found to be 11.9%, while boys with a household income level at or above 130% of the poverty level was 21.1%.[15] The same trend followed in girls. Girls with a household income at or above 350% of the poverty level has an obesity prevalence of 12.0%, while girls with a household income 130% below the poverty level had a 19.3% prevalence.[16]

These trends were not consistent when stratified according to race. “The relationship between income and obesity prevalence is significant among non-Hispanic white boys; 10.2% of those living in households with income at or above 350% of the poverty level are obese compared with 20.7% of those in households below 130% of the poverty level.”[17] The same trend follows in non-Hispanic white girls (10.6% of those living at or above 350% of the poverty level are obese, and 18.3% of those living below 130% of the poverty level are obese)[18]

There is no significant trend in prevalence by income level for either boys or girls among non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American children and adolescents.[19] “In fact, the relationship does not appear to be consistent; among Mexican-American girls, although the difference is not significant, 21.0% of those living at or above 350% of the poverty level are obese compared with 16.2% of those living below 130% of the poverty level.” [20]

Additional findings also include that the majority of children and adolescents are not low income children.[21] The majority of non-Hispanic white children and adolescents also live in households with income levels at or above 130% of the poverty level.[22] Approximately 7.5 million children live in households with income levels above 130% of the poverty level compared to 4.5 million children in households with income at or above 130% of the poverty level.[23]

See also

References

  1. ^ Han, J. C., D. A. Lawlor, and S. Y. Kimm. 2010. Childhood obesity Lancet 375 (9727) (May 15): 1737-48.
  2. ^ Han, J. C., D. A. Lawlor, and S. Y. Kimm. 2010. Childhood obesity Lancet 375 (9727) (May 15): 1737-48.
  3. ^ de Onis, M., M. Blossner, and E. Borghi. 2010. Global prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among preschool children The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 92 (5) (Nov): 1257-64.
  4. ^ de Onis, M., M. Blossner, and E. Borghi. 2010. Global prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among preschool children The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 92 (5) (Nov): 1257-64.
  5. ^ de Onis, M., M. Blossner, and E. Borghi. 2010. Global prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among preschool children The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 92 (5) (Nov): 1257-64.
  6. ^ Obesity and overweight for professionals: Childhood: Basics | DNPAO | CDC [cited 11/26/2011 2011]. Available from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/basics.html (accessed 11/26/2011).
  7. ^ Orsi, C. M., D. E. Hale, and J. L. Lynch. 2010. Pediatric obesity epidemiology Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity (Dec 13), www.refworks.com.
  8. ^ Arch pediatr adolesc med-- changes in state-specific childhood obesity and overweight prevalence in the united states from 2003 to 2007, july 2010, singh et al. 164 (7): 598 [cited 11/30/2011 2011]. Available from http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/164/7/598 (accessed 11/30/2011).
  9. ^ Borghi, E., M. de Onis, C. Garza, J. Van den Broeck, E. A. Frongillo, L. Grummer-Strawn, S. Van Buuren, et al. 2006; 2005. Construction of the world health organization child growth standards: Selection of methods for attained growth curves Statistics in Medicine 25 (2): 247 <last_page> 265.
  10. ^ Arch pediatr adolesc med -- changes in state-specific childhood obesity and overweight prevalence in the united states from 2003 to 2007, july 2010, singh et al. 164 (7): 598 [cited 11/30/2011 2011]. Available from http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/164/7/598 (accessed 11/30/2011).
  11. ^ Arch pediatr adolesc med -- changes in state-specific childhood obesity and overweight prevalence in the united states from 2003 to 2007, july 2010, singh et al. 164 (7): 598 [cited 11/30/2011 2011]. Available from http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/164/7/598 (accessed 11/30/2011).
  12. ^ Obesity and overweight for professionals: Childhood: Basics | DNPAO | CDC [cited 11/26/2011 2011]. Available fromhttp://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/basics.html (accessed 11/26/2011).
  13. ^ Obesity and overweight for professionals: Childhood: Basics | DNPAO | CDC [cited 11/26/2011 2011]. Available from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/basics.html (accessed 11/26/2011).
  14. ^ Ogden, C. L. 2010. Obesity and socioeconomic status in children and adolescents: United states, 2005-2008.
  15. ^ Ogden, C. L. 2010. Obesity and socioeconomic status in children and adolescents: United states, 2005-2008.
  16. ^ Ogden, C. L. 2010. Obesity and socioeconomic status in children and adolescents: United states, 2005-2008.
  17. ^ Ogden, C. L. 2010. Obesity and socioeconomic status in children and adolescents: United states, 2005-2008.
  18. ^ Ogden, C. L. 2010. Obesity and socioeconomic status in children and adolescents: United states, 2005-2008.
  19. ^ Ogden, C. L. 2010. Obesity and socioeconomic status in children and adolescents: United states, 2005-2008.
  20. ^ Ogden, C. L. 2010. Obesity and socioeconomic status in children and adolescents: United states, 2005-2008.
  21. ^ Ogden, C. L. 2010. Obesity and socioeconomic status in children and adolescents: United states, 2005-2008.
  22. ^ Ogden, C. L. 2010. Obesity and socioeconomic status in children and adolescents: United states, 2005-2008.
  23. ^ Ogden, C. L. 2010. Obesity and socioeconomic status in children and adolescents: United states, 2005-2008.