Open Access Articles- Top Results for Episiotomy


Medio-lateral episiotomy as baby crowns.
ICD-9-CM 73.6
MeSH D004841
MedlinePlus 002920

An episiotomy (/əˌpzˈɒtəm/ or /ɛˌpəsˈɒtəm/), also known as perineotomy, is a surgical incision of the perineum and the posterior vaginal wall generally done by a midwife or obstetrician during second stage of labor to quickly enlarge the opening for the baby to pass through. The incision, which can be done at a 90 degree angle from the vulva towards the anus or at an angle from the posterior end of the vulva (medio-lateral episiotomy), is performed under local anesthetic (pudendal anesthesia), and is sutured closed after delivery. It is one of the most common medical procedures performed on women, and although its routine use in childbirth has steadily declined in recent decades, it is still widely practiced in many parts of the world including Latin America, Poland, Bulgaria, India and Qatar.[1] Episiotomy can be avoided by 'birth canal widening' performed before the start of labour and achieving a 10 cm opening to the birth canal so the baby's head can pass through easily. This can be achieved safely and painlessly by antenatal perineal massage since 1984 which does not cause a wound which can become infected. Cochrane Collaborate Report[2] a report produced by the collaboration of specialists of 120 countries, have since 2006 advised that women should be informed about the benefits of Antenatal Perineal massage or Birth Canal Widening, as episiotomy can be avoided. The risk of losing greater than 1 liter of blood during childbirth, which is called Post Partum Haemorrhage (PPH), increases with all doctor induced intervention, including episiotomy, forceps and Caesarean section. So, by avoiding the surgeon's knife, the risk of death from PPH decreases.[3]


Episiotomy is done as prophylaxis against soft-tissue tearing which would involve the anal sphincter and rectum. Vaginal tears can occur during childbirth, most often at the vaginal opening as the baby's head passes through, especially if the baby descends quickly. Tears can involve the perineal skin or extend to the muscles and the anal sphincter and anus. The midwife or obstetrician may decide to make a surgical cut to the perineum with scissors or a scalpel to make the baby's birth easier and prevent severe tears that can be difficult to repair. The cut is repaired with stitches (sutures). Some childbirth facilities have a policy of routine episiotomy.[4]

Though indications on the need for episiotomy vary, and may even be controversial (see discussion below), where the technique is applied, there are two main variations. Both are depicted in the above image. In one variation, the midline episiotomy, the line of incision is central over the anus. This technique bifurcates the perineal body, which is essential for the integrity of the pelvic floor. Precipitous birth can also sever—and more severely sever—the perineal body, leading to long-term complications such as incontinence. Therefore, the oblique technique is often applied (also pictured above). In the oblique technique, the perineal body is avoided, cutting only the vagina epithelium, skin, and muscles (transversalius and bulbospongiosus). This technique aids in avoiding trauma to the perineal body by either surgical or traumatic means.

In 2009, a Cochrane meta-analysis based on studies with over 5,000 women concluded that: "Restrictive episiotomy policies appear to have a number of benefits compared to policies based on routine episiotomy. There is less posterior perineal trauma, less suturing and fewer complications, no difference for most pain measures and severe vaginal or perineal trauma, but there was an increased risk of anterior perineal trauma with restrictive episiotomy".[4] The authors were unable to find quality studies that compared mediolateral versus midline episiotomy.[4]


  • There is a serious risk to the mother of second- or third-degree tearing
  • In cases where a natural delivery is adversely affected, but a Caesarean section is not indicated
  • "Natural" tearing will cause an increased risk of maternal disease being vertically transmitted
  • The baby is very large
  • When perineal muscles are excessively rigid
  • When instrumental delivery is indicated
  • When a woman has undergone FGM (female genital mutilation), indicating the need for an anterior and or mediolateral episiotomy
  • Prolonged late decelerations or fetal bradycardia during active pushing
  • The baby's shoulders are stuck (shoulder dystocia), or a bony association (Note that the episiotomy does not directly resolve this problem, but it is indicated to allow the operator more room to perform maneuvers to free shoulders from the pelvis)


File:Blausen 0355 Episiotomy.png
Illustration of midline and medio-lateral incision sites for possible episiotomy.
File:Blausen 0294 Delivery Crowning.png
Illustration of infant crowning and midline and medio-lateral incision sites for possible episiotomy during delivery.

There are four main types of episiotomy:[5]

  • Medio-lateral: The incision is made downward and outward from the midpoint of the fourchette either to the right or left. It is directed diagonally in a straight line which runs about Script error: No such module "convert". away from the anus (midpoint between the anus and the ischial tuberosity).
  • Median: The incision commences from the centre of the fourchette and extends on the posterior side along the midline for Script error: No such module "convert"..
  • Lateral: The incision starts from about Script error: No such module "convert". away from the centre of the fourchette and extends laterally. Drawbacks include the chance of injury to the Bartholin's duct, therefore some practitioners have strongly discouraged lateral incisions.
  • J-shaped: The incision begins in the centre of the fourchette and is directed posteriorly along the midline for about Script error: No such module "convert". and then directed downwards and outwards along the 5 or 7 o'clock position to avoid the internal and external anal sphincter. This procedure is also not widely practised.

Controversy about common usage and history of the technique

Traditionally, physicians have used episiotomies in an effort to deflecting the cut in the perineal skin away from the anal sphincter muscle, as control over stool (faeces) is an important function of the anal sphincter, i.e. lessen perineal trauma, minimize postpartum pelvic floor dysfunction, and as muscles have a good blood supply, by avoiding damaging the anal sphincter muscle, reduce the loss of blood during delivery, and protect against neonatal trauma. While episiotomy is employed to obviate issues such as post-partum pain, incontinence, and sexual dysfunction, some studies suggest that episiotomy surgery itself can actually cause all of these problems.[6] Research has shown that natural tears typically are less severe (although this is perhaps not surprising since an episiotomy is designed for when natural tearing will cause significant risks or trauma). Slow delivery of the head in between contractions will result in the least perineal damage.[7] Studies in 2010 based on interviews with postpartum women have concluded that limiting perineal trauma during birth is conducive to continued sexual function after birth. At least one study has recommended that routine episiotomy be abandoned for this reason.[8]

In various countries, routine episiotomy has been accepted medical practice for many years. Since about the 1960s, routine episiotomies have been rapidly losing popularity among obstetricians and midwives in almost all countries in Europe (except for Poland and Bulgaria), Australia, Canada, and the United States. A nationwide U.S. population study suggested that 31% of women having babies in U.S. hospitals received episiotomies in 1997, compared with 56% in 1979.[9] In Latin America it remains popular, and is performed in 90% of hospital births.[10]


Having an episiotomy may increase perineal pain during postpartum recovery, resulting in trouble defecating, particularly in midline episiotomies.[11] In addition it may complicate sexual intercourse by making it painful and replacing erectile tissues in the vulva with scar tissue.[12]

In cases where an episiotomy is indicated, a mediolateral incision may be preferable to a median (midline) incision, as the latter is associated with a higher risk of injury to the anal sphincter and the rectum.[13] Damage to the anal sphincter caused by episiotomy can result in faecal incontinence (loss of control over defecation). Conversely, one of the reasons episiotomy is performed is to prevent tearing of the anal sphincter, which is also associated with faecal incontinence. Damage to the anal sphincters is more common, especially during prolonged or difficult childbirth, or where forceps are used, than has been traditionally acknowledged. Whether episiotomy reduces, or indeed increases, the chances of faecal incontinence is difficult to say.

Impacts on sexual intercourse

Some midwives compare routine episiotomy to female circumcision.[14] One study found that women who underwent episiotomy reported more painful intercourse and insufficient lubrication 12–18 months after birth, but did not find any problems with orgasm or arousal.[15]

Lessening the need for episiotomy

Controlled delivery of the head that allows slow gradual stretching of the perineal tissue can help to minimize damage to the perineum.

Perineal massage beginning around the 34th week has been shown to reduce perineal damage by 6%.[16]

A perineal dilator can be used to stretch the perineal tissue gradually and train it in preparation for first births. The "Epi-no Birth Trainer" consists of a small inflatable silicone balloon pumped with the same pump as a sphygmomanometer. The Epi-no device has been shown to reduce perineal damage by 50% at first births.[17] Where episiotomy is never practised, the sutured tear rates for first birth were documented to be about 30%.[18] Among 104 consecutive primiparous women who practiced with an Epi-No birth trainer before birth and had normal vaginal births, 10% had sutured perineums. Neither group suffered any third- or fourth-degree tears. The average birthweight was 3,400 g. This 10% rate of sutured perineums among first births who used Epi-No birth trainer is the lowest reported for healthy primiparous women to date.[19]


  1. ^ Chang SR, et el. "Comparison of the effects of episiotomy and no episiotomy on pain, urinary incontinence, and sexual function 3 months postpartum: A prospective follow-up study".
  2. ^ Micheal M Beckmann, Owen M Stock "Antenatal perineal massage for reducing perineal trauma" 30 April 2013 Paragraph Plain language summary.
  3. ^ Oyelese, Yinka MD;Ananth,Cande V, PHD,MPH, "PostPartum Hemorrhage:Epidemiology, Risk Factors,and Causes, Clinical obstetrics and Gynecology March 2010, Volume 53, Issue 1, pages 147-156. doi.:10.1097/GRF.0b013e3181cc406d.,_Risk_Factors,.16.aspx
  4. ^ a b c Carroli, G, Mignini, L. "Episiotomy for vaginal birth". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Jan 21; (1): CD000081.
  5. ^ D. C. Dutta, Textbook of Obstetrics, 7th edition, 2011.
  6. ^ Thacker, S. B., Banta, H. D. (1983). "Benefits and risks of episiotomy: An interpretative review of the English language literature, 1860-1980". Obstet Gynecol Surv 38 (6): 322–38. PMID 6346168. doi:10.1097/00006254-198306000-00003. 
  7. ^ Albers L. L. et al. (2006). "Factors Related to Genital Tract Trauma in Normal Spontaneous Vaginal Births". Birth 33 (2): 94–100. PMID 16732773. doi:10.1111/j.0730-7659.2006.00085.x. 
  8. ^ Rathfisch, G. et al. "Effects of perineal trauma on postpartum sexual function." Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2010 Aug 23.
  9. ^ Weber, A. M., Meyn, L. (2002). "Episiotomy use in the United States, 1979-1997". Obstetrics & Gynecology 100 (6): 1177–82. PMID 12468160. doi:10.1016/S0029-7844(02)02449-3. Retrieved 2012-01-16. 
  10. ^ Althabe, F., Belizán, J. M., Bergel, E. (2002). "Episiotomy rates in primiparous women in Latin America: hospital-based descriptive study". BMJ 324 (7343): 945–6. PMC 102327. PMID 11964339. doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7343.945. 
  11. ^ Signorello, L. B., Harlow, B. L., Chekos, A. K., Repke, J. T. (2000). "Midline episiotomy and anal incontinence: retrospective cohort study". BMJ 320 (7227): 86–90. PMC 27253. PMID 10625261. doi:10.1136/bmj.320.7227.86. 
  12. ^ "Total Health For Women Painful Intercourse". 
  13. ^ American College of Obstetricians-Gynecologists (2006). "ACOG Practice Bulletin. Episiotomy. Clinical Management Guidelines for Obstetrician-Gynecologists. Number 71, April 2006" (PDF). Obstetrics & Gynecology 107 (4): 956–62. doi:10.1097/00006250-200604000-00049. Retrieved 2012-01-16.  Abstract.
  14. ^ Joan Cameron, Karen Rawlings-Anderson (1 March 2001). "Female circumcision and episiotomy: both mutilation?". British Journal of Midwifery 9 (3): 137–142. Retrieved 2012-01-16. 
  15. ^ Hanna Ejegård, Elsa Lena Ryding, Berit Sjögren (17 January 2008). "Sexuality after Delivery with Episiotomy: A Long-Term Follow-Up". Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 66 (1): 1–7. PMID 18204265. doi:10.1159/000113464. Retrieved 2012-01-16. 
  16. ^ Shipman MK, Boniface DR, Tefft ME, McCloghry F (July 1997). "Antenatal perineal massage and subsequent perineal outcomes: a randomised controlled trial". British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 104 (7): 787–91. PMID 9236642. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.1997.tb12021.x. Retrieved 2012-01-16. 
  17. ^ Cohain, J. S. (2004). "Perineal Outcomes after practising with a Perineal Dilator." (PDF). MIDIRS Midwifery Digest (14): 37–41. 
  18. ^ Albers, L. L.; Sedler, K. D.; Bedrick, E. J.; Peralta, P. et al. (2005). "Midwifery care measures in the second stage of labour and reduction of genital tract trauma at birth: a randomized trial". Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health 50 (5): 365–372. PMC 1350988. PMID 16154062. doi:10.1016/j.jmwh.2005.05.012.  .
  19. ^ "10% Primipara Sutured Tear rate in the absence of episiotomy". Birth, 2008; 35(2): 167.