Eragrostis tef, teff, Williams lovegrass, annual bunch grass, taf (Amharic: ጤፍ?</span> ṭēff; Tigrinya: ጣፍ?</span> ṭaff), or xaafii (Oromo), is an annual grass, a species of lovegrass native to the northern Ethiopian Highlands and Eritrean Highlands of the Horn of Africa. The word "tef" is connected by folk etymology to the Ethio-Semitic root "ṭff", which means "lost" (because of the small size of the grain).
Eragrostis tef has an attractive nutrition profile, being high in dietary fiber and iron and providing protein and calcium. It is similar to millet and quinoa in cooking, but the seed is much smaller and cooks faster, thus using less fuel.
Eragrostis tef is adapted to environments ranging from drought stress to waterlogged soil conditions. Maximum teff production occurs at altitudes of 1,800 to 2,100 m, growing season rainfall of 450 to 550 mm, and a temperature range of 10 to 27 °C. Teff is daylight sensitive and flowers best with 12 hours of daylight.
Teff is an important food grain in Ethiopia and Eritrea, where it is used to make injera or tayta, and less so in India and Australia. It is now raised in the U.S., in Idaho in particular, with experimental plots in Kansas. In addition to people from traditional teff-consuming countries, customers include those on gluten-restricted diets. Because of its small seeds (less than 1 mm diameter), a handful is enough to sow a large area. This property makes teff particularly suited to a seminomadic lifestyle.
Ethiopia has a long standing ban in effect on the export of teff grain or flour from the country.
Between 8,000 and 5,000 BC, the people of the Ethiopian highlands were among the first to domesticate plants and animals for food and teff was one of the earliest plants domesticated. Teff is believed to have originated in Ethiopia and Eritrea between 4,000 BCE and 1,000 BCE. Genetic evidence points to E. pilosa as the most likely wild ancestor. A 19th century identification of teff seeds from an ancient Egyptian site is now considered doubtful; the seeds in question (no longer available for study) are more likely of E. aegyptiaca, a common wild grass in Egypt.
Cultivation and uses
Teff has been widely cultivated and used in the countries of Eritrea and Ethiopia. Teff accounts for about a quarter of total cereal production in Ethiopia. Teff is gluten-free (and therefore can be consumed by celiacs) and has a high concentration of different nutrients, a very high calcium content, and significant levels of the minerals phosphorus, magnesium, aluminum, iron, copper, zinc, boron and barium, and also of thiamin. Teff is high in protein. It is considered to have an excellent amino acid composition, including all 8 essential amino acids for humans, and is higher in lysine than wheat or barley. Teff is high in carbohydrates and fiber. In one 2003–2004 study in Ethiopia, farmers indicated a preference among consumers for white teff over darker colored varieties. Teff is gaining popularity in the western United States as an alternative forage crop, in rotation with a légume such as alfalfa, because it uses C4 photosynthesis, similar to that of corn. It is noted for its high quality and high yield, when compared to other forage rotations. It is also known as an "emergency crop" because it is planted late in the spring when the growing season is warmer, and most other crops have already been planted. It does not tolerate any type of frost. Teff is also valued for its fine straw, which is traditionally mixed with mud for building purposes. The first draft of the Eragrostis tef genome was published in 2014.
Teff has been used to produce gluten free beer.
- Lewis Aptekar (2013) In the Lion's Mouth, XLibris LLC, ISBN 978-1-4836-9519-8
- National Research Council (1996-02-14). "Tef". Lost Crops of Africa: Volume I: Grains. Lost Crops of Africa 1. National Academies Press. p. 222. ISBN 978-0-309-04990-0. Retrieved 2008-07-18.
- "Idaho farmers may try teff Gluten-free grain touted as cure for celiac disease" (Mar 13, 2003) Montana Department of Commerce
- Jeffrey, James (2 April 2015). "Will Ethiopia's teff be the next 'super grain'?". BBC. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
- Murphy, Denis J. People, Plants, and Genes: The Story of Crops and Humanity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
- Ingram AL, Doyle JJ (2003). "The origin and evolution of Eragrostis tef (Poaceae) and related polyploids: Evidence from nuclear waxy and plastid rps16". American Journal of Botany 90 (1): 116–122. doi:10.3732/ajb.90.1.116.
- Germer, Renate (1985). Flora des pharaonischen Ägypten. Mainz: von Zabern. ISBN 3-8053-0620-2.
- Gabre-Madhin, Eleni Zaude. Market Institutions, Transaction Costs, and Social Capital in the Ethiopian Grain Market. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2001
- "Teff and Gluten Intolerance". Food Lorists. Retrieved 2008-09-18.
- El-Alfy, T. S.; Ezzat, S. M.; Sleem, A. A. (2012). "Chemical and biological study of the seeds of Eragrostis tef(Zucc.) Trotter". Natural Product Research 26 (7): 619. doi:10.1080/14786419.2010.538924.
- Belay G, Tefera H, Tadesse B, Metaferia G, Jarra D, Tadesse T (2006). "Participatory Variety Selection in the Ethiopian Cereal Tef (Eragrostis Tef)". Experimental Agriculture 42: 91–101. doi:10.1017/S0014479705003108.
- "Teff As An Irrigated Alternative Forage" (Mar 11, 2012) Hay & Forage Grower
- Don Miller (2009) "Teff Grass: A New Alternative", UC Davis, California
- Cannarozzi et al. (2014). "Genome and transcriptome sequencing identifies breeding targets in the orphan crop tef (Eragrostis tef)". BMC Genomics 15: 581. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-581.
- "Producing gluten–free beer" (Press release). Campden BRI. 3 November 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
|40x40px||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eragrostis tef.|
- Purdue University Center for New Crops & Plant Products - Eragrostis tef
- University of Bern Tef Improvement Project
- Dressler, S.; Schmidt, M. & Zizka, G. (2014). "Eragrostis tef". African plants – a Photo Guide. Frankfurt/Main: Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg.